Home > Help


This section contains the following:

Recommended Unicode fonts

Cyrillic - Please install the font "Doulos SIL" from

Devanagari - please install the font  "CDAC-Surekh" from

Khmer - Please install the font "Khmer Unicode Pack" from

Myanmar -  Please download and install the Padauk font

Roman - Internet Explorer users: -This site uses Unicode fonts for displaying letters with diacritical marks. We recommened installing the following Unicode fonts:

After you have installed these fonts, in Internet Explorer choose File --> Tools --> Internet Options --> Fonts --> In Web Page fonts, select Times Ext Roman instead of the default Times New Roman.  Click OK and the site should display correctly now.

Sinhala - Please download and install these fonts: UN-Abhaya (normal), UN-Abhaya (bold) and UN-Samantha

Tibetan - Please install the font "Tibetan Machine Uni" from

How to increase font display size

1. For Internet Explorer - go to  View --> text size and select a larger size.
2. For Firefox - press  Ctrl and +(Plus Sign) to increase size and  -(Minus sign) to decrease the font size.

Special instructions for Windows XP, 98 and 95

Windows XP

  • To view these scripts in Windows XP, it is essential to first enable Indic scripts and support for complex languages. Go to Control Panel --> Regional and Language Options --> Languages - > Install files for complex scripts including right to left languages (including Thai). Click the box and apply, at this point you will need to insert your Windows CD ROM.
  • You may also need to install a file called usp10.dll so that the browser displays the text correctly. For this please try to update your system based on the info listed on this Wikipedia page.
  • For best rendering you need to place a copy of usp10.dll in your web browser's system directory. Here are the locations of the system directories for Internet Explorer and Firefox: 
    C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer
    C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox
    Please use the latest version of Firefox for best rendering. It is a free download.
  • You may also need to install Open Source Unicode fonts for each script as listed below.

Windows 95 and 98

Visitors using Windows 95/98 may not be able to view Unicode texts as it is not fully supported by these operating systems. The older VRI Roman site is still available. To use the VRI Roman site you will need to install the VRI Roman Pali fonts. Alternatively you may download an image of the CSCD3 disc (208 MB) and burn your own copy of CSCD3.

How to use the Tipitaka site

Click on the script of your choice - it will open up in a seperate window

Click on the (+) sign in the left frame and the Tree will open up showing links to Books. Click further to navigate into each book, chapter and section.

When you click on the selected Section, that page will open in the right frame.

Text in [ Blue color fonts] indicates a foot note

Text in Bold indicates cross referencing in Atthakathas or Tikas or Anya with the Mul or otherwise

The following abbreviations are used to refer to different versions of the Tipitaka:

  • sī. = Sri Lankan
  • syā. = Thai
  • pī. = Pali Text Society
  • kaṃ. / ka. = Cambodian

References to other Tipitaka versions are most often used where there are "variant readings", that is, where the text differs between versions. In the example below, the Sri Lankan, Thai and PTS editions have "vāssa" instead of "vā assa".

  • ‘Atthi me attā’ti vā assa [vāssa (sī. syā. pī.)]

The following abbreviations are used within variant readings to refer to books of the Tipitaka or commentaries.

  • a. = aṅguttaranikāyapāli
  • aṭṭha. = aṭṭhakathā
  • cūḷani. = cūḷaniddesapāli
  • dī. = dīghanikāyapāli
  • itivu. = itivuttakapāli
  • jā. = jātakapāli
  • khu. = khuddakanikāyapāli
  • ma. = majjhimanikāyapāli
  • mahāni. = mahāniddesapāli
  • mahāva. = mahāvaṃsa
  • moga. = moggallānabyākaraṇaṃ
  • mu. = mūla
  • pa. = paṭisambhidāmaggapāli / paṭṭhānapāli
  • pe. = petavatthupāli/ peṭakopadesapāli / peyyāla
  • pu. = puggalapaññattipāli
  • pāci. = pācittiyapāli
  • pārā. = pārājikakaṇḍapāli
  • rū. = rūpāvacara
  • saṃ. = saṃyuttanikāyapāli
  • su. = suttapiṭaka/ suttaṃ
  • theragā. = theragāthāpāli
  • udā. = udānapāli
  • vi. = vimānavatthupāli
  • visuddhi. = visuddhimagga
  • ṭī. = ṭīkā