49. Catur±rakkhaniddesavaººan±

461-2. Asubhanti asubhabh±van±. Ime catt±ro catur±rakkh± n±m±ti adhipp±yo. Id±ni te dassetu½ “±rakatt±din±”ti-±dim±ha. ¾rakatt±din±ti ettha ±rakatt±, ar²na½ ar±nañca hatatt±, paccay±d²na½ arahatt±, p±pakaraºe rah±bh±v±ti imehi t±va cat³hi k±raºehi so bhagav± arahanti anussaritabboti attho. Vuttañheta½–
“¾rakatt± hatatt± ca, kiles±r²na so muni;
hatasa½s±racakk±ro, paccay±d²na c±raho;
na raho karoti p±p±ni, araha½ tena vuccat²”ti. (P±r±. aµµha. 1.1; visuddhi. 1.130).
Bhagav± pana sabbakilesehi suvid³ravid³re µhito maggena sav±sanakiles±na½ hatatt±, tasm± “±rakatt± arahan”ti vutto. Vuttañheta½–
“So tato ±rak± n±ma;
yassa yen±samaªgit±;
asamaªg² ca dosehi,
n±tho ten±raha½ mato”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.125).
Bhagavat± pana sabbakiles±rayo hat±, tasm± “ar²na½ hatatt±pi arahan”ti vutto. Vuttañheta½–
“Yasm± r±g±disaªkh±t±, sabbepi arayo hat±;
paññ±satthena n±thena, tasm±pi araha½ mato”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.126).
Ya½ paneta½ avijj±bhavataºh±mayan±bhipuññ±bhisaªkh±ra-apuññ±bhisaªkh±ra-±neñj±bhisaªkh±r±ra½ jar±maraºanemi “±savasamuday± avijj±samudayo”ti (ma. ni. 1.103) vacanato ±savasamudayamayena akkhena vijjhitv± tibhavarathe yojita½ an±dik±lappavatta½ sa½s±racakka½, tassa bhagavato bodhirukkham³le sammappadh±nav²riyap±dehi catup±risuddhis²lapathaviya½ patiµµh±ya saddh±hatthena kammakkhayakarañ±ºapharasu½ gahetv± sabbe ar± hat±. Tasm± “ar±na½ hatatt± arahan”ti vutto. Vuttañheta½–
“Ar± sa½s±racakkassa, hat± ñ±º±sin± yato;
lokan±thena tenesa, arahanti pavuccat²”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.128).
Aggadakkhiºeyyatt± c²var±d²na½ paccay±na½ uttamap³j±ya ca yutto bhagav±, tasm± “paccay±d²na½ arahatt± ca arahan”ti vuccati. Vuttañheta½–
“P³j±visesa½ saha paccayehi,
yasm± aya½ arahati lokan±tho;
atth±nur³pa½ arahanti loke,
tasm± jino arahati n±mametan”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.129).
Yath± loke keci paº¹itam±nino asilokabhayena raho p±p±ni karonti, tath± bhagav± kad±cipi na karoti, tasm± “p±pakaraºe rah±bh±v± ca arahan”ti vuccati. Vuttañheta½–
“Yasm± natthi raho n±ma, p±pakammesu t±dino;
rah±bh±vena tenesa, araha½ iti vissuto”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.130)–

Eva½ ±rakatt±din± arahanti bh±vetabba½.

Samm± s±mañca sabbadhamm±na½ buddhatt± pana samm±sambuddho. Samm±ti ñ±yeneva, abhiññeyye dhamme abhiññeyyato pariññeyye dhamme pariññeyyato pah±tabbe dhamme pah±tabbato sacchik±tabbe dhamme sacchik±tabbato bh±vetabbe dhamme bh±vetabbato ev±ti attho. S±mañc±ti attan±va. Vuttañheta½–
“Abhiññeyya½ abhiññ±ta½, bh±vetabbañca bh±vita½;
pah±tabba½ pah²na½ me, tasm± buddhosmi br±hmaº±”ti. (Ma. ni. 2.399; su. ni. 563).
“Itipi so bhagav± araha½ samm±sambuddho vijj±caraºasampanno sugato lokavid³ anuttaro purisadammas±rathi satth±devamanuss±na½ buddho bhagav±”ti eva½ vutte navabhede bhagavato guºe y± punappuna½ uppajjanato satiyeva anussati, pavattitabbaµµh±namhiyeva v± pavattatt± saddh±pabbajitassa kulaputtassa anur³p± sat²ti anussati, buddha½ ±rabbha uppann± anussati buddh±nussati, y± eva½ navavidhena pavatt± sati s± buddh±nussati n±m±ti attho. Sabb±k±rena pana ±cariyena buddhaghosena buddh±nussati visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.123 ±dayo) vutt±, atthikena pana tato pacc±s²sitabb±.
463-4. Catur±rakkh±ya s±ya½p±ta½ bh±vetabbatt± mett±bh±vana½ dassentena therena sabbatthakakammaµµh±nabh±van±vasena dassit±ti veditabb±. Itarath± “att±na½ upama½ katv±, na haneyya na gh±taye”ti (dha. pa. 129-130) vacanato sabbapaµhama½ “aha½ sukhito homi, avero”ti-±din± nayena bh±vetv±va attani citta½ niparibandham±na½ katv± pacch± ±cariyupajjh±y±d²su kamena bh±vetabb±. Attani pana appan± na hoti. Gocarag±mamhi issare janeti sambandho. Tatth±ti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.165) gocarag±me. S²maµµhasaªghato paµµh±ya paricchijja paricchijj±ti attho. Eva½ metta½ bh±vento bhikkhusaªghe mett±ya sahav±s²na½ muducitta½ janeti, athassa sukhasa½v±sat± hoti. S²maµµhakadevat±su mett±ya mudukatacitt±hi devat±hi dhammik±ya rakkh±ya susa½vihitarakkho hoti. Gocarag±mamhi issarajane mett±ya mudukatacittasant±nehi issarehi dhammik±ya rakkh±ya surakkhitaparikkh±ro hoti. Tattha manusse mett±ya pas±ditacittehi tehi aparibh³to hutv± vicarati. Sabbasattesu mett±ya sabbattha appaµihatac±ro hoti.
465-6. Vaººato ca saºµh±nato ca ok±sato ca disato ca paricchedato ca kes±dikoµµh±se vavatthapetv±ti sambandho. Ettha vaººatoti (visuddhi. 1.110) kes±d²na½ vaººato. Saºµh±natoti tesa½yeva saºµh±nato. Ok±satoti “aya½ koµµh±so imasmi½ n±ma ok±se patiµµhito”ti eva½ tassa tassa ok±sato. Disatoti imasmi½ sar²re n±bhito uddha½ uparim± dis±, adho heµµhim± dis±, tasm± “aya½ koµµh±so imiss± n±ma dis±y±”ti dis± vavatthapetabb±. Paricchedatoti sabh±gaparicchedato visabh±gaparicchedatoti dve paricched±. Tattha “aya½ koµµh±so heµµh± ca upari ca tiriyañca imin± n±ma paricchedo”ti eva½ sabh±gaparicchedo veditabbo. “Kes± na lom±, lom± na kes±”ti eva½ amissakavasena visabh±gaparicchedo.
Eva½ pañcahi ±k±rehi vavatth±n±k±ra½ dassetv± id±ni manasi karontena eva½ manasi k±tabbanti ta½ dassetu½ “anupubbato”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha anupubbatoti sajjh±yakaraºak±lato paµµh±ya “kes± nakh±”ti eva½ ekantarik±ya v± “lom± kes±”ti eva½ uppaµip±µiy± v± na manasi k±tabba½, atha kho “kes± lom±”ti-±din± nayena anupaµip±µiy± manasi k±tabba½, anupaµip±µiy± manasi karonten±pi n±tis²gha½ n±tisaºika½ manasi k±tabba½, bahiddh± puthutt±rammaºe cetaso vikkhepo paµib±hitabbo. “Paººatti½ samatikkamma, muñcantass±nupubbato”ti p±µho gahetabbo. Evañhi sati bh±van±kkamena attho suviññeyyo hoti. “Kes± lom±”ti-±dipaññatti½ amanasikatv± paµikk³labh±vena eva½ citta½ µhapetabba½. Muñcantass±nupubbatoti yo yo koµµh±so ±p±tha½ n±gacchati, ta½ ta½ anupubbato muñcantass±ti attho.
467. Id±ni yath± paµikk³lamanasik±ro k±tabbo, ta½ dassetu½ “vaººa-±sayasaºµh±n±”ti-±dim±ha. Etehi vaºº±d²hi koµµh±sehi paµikk³l±ti bh±van±ti sambandho. Ettha (vibha. aµµha. 356; visuddhi. 1.178) kes± t±va vaººatopi paµikk³l±. Tath± hi y±gubhatt±d²su kesavaººa½ kiñci disv± jigucchanti. Saºµh±natopi paµikk³l±. Tath± hi ratti½ bhuñjant± kesasaºµh±na½ makaciv±k±dika½ chupitv± jigucchanti. Telamakkhan±divirahit±nañca aggimhi pakkhitt±nañca gandho ativiya paµikk³loti gandhatopi paµikk³l±. Asuciµµh±ne j±tas³peyyapaººa½ viya pubbalohitamuttakar²sapittasemh±dinissandena j±tatt± ±sayatopi paµikk³l±. G³thar±simhi uµµhitakaººika½ viya ekati½sakoµµh±sar±simhi j±tatt± ok±satopi paµikk³l±. Uddhum±taka½ vin²laka½ vipubbaka½ vicchiddaka½ vikkh±yitaka½ vikkhittaka½ hatavikkhittaka½ lohitaka½ pu¼avaka½ aµµhikanti imesu uddhum±tak±d²su vatth³su asubh±k±ra½ gahetv± pavatt± bh±van± v± asubha½ n±m±ti attho.
468. Ya½ paneta½ arahant±na½ vaµµadukkhasamucchedasaªkh±ta½ samucchedamaraºa½ (visuddhi. 1.167), saªkh±r±na½ khaºabhaªgasaªkh±ta½ khaºikamaraºa½, “rukkho mato, loha½ matan”ti-±di sammutimaraºañca, na ta½ idha adhippeta½. Idha pana maraºanti ekabhavapariy±pannassa j²vitindriyassa upacchedo adhippeto. Tampi k±lamaraºa½ ak±lamaraºanti duvidha½ hoti. Tattha k±lamaraºa½ puññakkhayena v± ±yukkhayena v± ubhayakkhayena v± hoti, ak±lamaraºa½ upap²¼aka-upacchedakakammavasena “Maraºa½ me bhavissat²”ti v± “j²vita½ ucchijjissat²”ti v± “maraºa½ maraºan”ti v± yoniso bh±vayitv±n±ti sambandho.
469-70. Yassa pana ett±vat± upac±rajjh±na½ na uppajjati, tena vadhakapaccupaµµh±nato sampattivipattito upasa½haraºato k±yabahus±dh±raºato ±yudubbalato animittato addh±naparicchedato khaºaparittatoti imehi aµµhahi ±k±rehi maraºa½ anussaritabba½, id±ni te dassetu½ “vadhakassevupaµµh±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Asi½ ukkhipitv± s²sa½ chinditu½ µhitavadhako viya maraºa½ paccupaµµhitamev±ti bh±van± maraºassati n±m±ti sambandho. Eva½ sabbattha. Sabba½ ±rogya½ by±dhipariyos±na½, sabba½ yobbana½ jar±pariyos±na½, sabba½ j²vita½ maraºapariyos±na½, tasm± “aya½ yobban±dik±yasampatti t±vadeva sobhati, y±va maraºasaªkh±t± vipatti na bhavissat²”ti evam±din± sampattivipattito ca, sattah±k±rehi upasa½haraºato maraºa½ anussaritabba½ yasamahattato puññamahattato th±mamahattato iddhimahattato paññ±mahattato paccekabuddhato samm±sambuddhatoti. Tattha “ida½ maraºa½ n±ma mah±yas±na½ mah±pariv±r±na½ mah±sammatamandh±t±d²nampi upari patati, kimaªga½ pana mayha½ upari na patissat²”ti eva½ yasamahattato,
“Jotiko jaµilo uggo,
meº¹ako atha puººako;
ete caññe ca ye loke,
mah±puññ±ti vissut±;
sabbe maraºam±pann±,
m±disesu kath±va k±”ti.–

Eva½ puññamahattato,

“V±sudevo baladevo, bh²masen±dayo mah±;
bal± maccuvasa½ patt±, m±disesu kath±va k±”ti.–

Eva½ th±mamahattato,

“Mah±moggall±n±d²na½ mahiddhik±nampi upari patati, m±disesu kath±va k±”ti eva½ iddhimahattato, “s±riputt±d²na½ mah±paññ±nampi upari patati, m±disesu kath±va k±”ti eva½ paññ±mahattato. Eva½ itaresampi paccekabuddhasamm±sambuddh±nampi mahantabh±va½ cintetv± “tesampi upari maraºa½ patati, kimaªga½ pana mayha½ upari na patissat²”ti eva½ upasa½haraºato ca, “aya½ k±yo bahus±dh±raºo ajjhattik±na½yeva anekasat±na½ rog±na½ b±hir±na½ ahivicchik±d²nañc±”ti k±yabahus±dh±raºato ca, “ass±sapass±sapaµibaddha½ j²vitan”ti-±din± nayena ±yudubbalato ca,
“J²vita½ by±dhi k±lo ca,
dehanikkhepana½ gati;
pañcete j²valokasmi½;
animitt± na n±yare”ti. (Sa½. ni. aµµha. 1.1.20; j±. aµµha. 2.2.34)–

Eva½ k±lavavatth±nassa abh±vato ca, “yo, bhikkhave, cira½ j²vati, so vassasata½ j²vati appa½ v± bhiyyo”ti (sa½. ni. 1.145) vuttatt± evam±din± nayena addh±nassa paricched±ca bh±van± maraºassati n±m±ti attho. Khaºaparittato ca maraºassati bh±vetabb±.

“J²vita½ attabh±vo ca,
sukhadukkh± ca keval±;
ekacittasam±yutt±,
lahu so vattate khaºo”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.176)–

Hi vutta½. Catur±rakkhavinicchayo.

Catur±rakkhaniddesavaººan± niµµhit±.