44. Uposathaniddesavaŗŗan±

410. Duve uposath±ti sulabhappavattivasena vutta½. Tayo pana divasavaseneva uposath± c±tuddasiko pannarasiko s±maggikoti. Tattha hemantagimhavass±n±na½ tiŗŗa½ ut³na½ tatiyasattamapakkhesu dve dve katv± cha c±tuddasik±, ses± pannarasik±ti eva½ ekasa½vacchare catuv²sati-uposath±. Ida½ t±va lokassa pakatic±ritta½. “¾gantukehi ±v±sik±na½ anuvattitabban”ti-±divacanato (mah±va. 178) pana tath±r³papaccaye sati ańńasmimpi c±tuddase uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµati.
411. Suttuddeso saŖghassev±ti yojan±. Adhiµµh±nańca ta½ uposatho c±ti kammadh±rayo. Ses±nanti dvinna½ tiŗŗa½ v±. “Duve”ti-±din± ca c±tuddaso pannaraso s±magg²ti divasavasena, suttuddeso adhiµµh±na½ p±risuddh²ti karaŗappak±rena, saŖghuposatho gaŗuposatho puggaluposathoti puggalavasena c±ti nava uposath± d²pit± honti.
412. Pubbakicceti–
“Chandap±risuddhi-utukkh±na½, bhikkhugaŗan± ca ov±do;
uposathassa et±ni, pubbakiccanti vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 168)–

Eva½ aµµhakath±cariyehi vutte pubbakaraŗ±nantara½ kattabbe pubbakicce.

Pubbakaraŗeti–
“Sammajjan² pad²po ca, udaka½ ±sanena ca;
uposathassa et±ni, pubbakaraŗanti vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 168)–

Eva½ aµµhakath±cariyeheva vutte sabbapaµhama½ kattabbe pubbakaraŗe. Pattakalleti uposath±d²na½ catunna½ aŖg±na½ sambhavena patto k±lo imass±ti pattak±la½, pattak±lameva pattakalla½. Ki½ ta½? Uposath±dikamma½. Ta½ pana cat³hi aŖgehi saŖgahita½. Yath±hu aµµhakath±cariy±–

“Uposatho y±vatik± ca bhikkh³ kammappatt±,
sabh±g±pattiyo ca na vijjanti;
vajjan²y± ca puggal± tasmi½ na honti,
pattakallanti vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 168).
Sam±niteti samm± ±n²te pavattiteti attho. Soti suttuddeso. Pańcadh±ti nid±nuddeso p±r±jikuddeso saŖgh±disesuddeso aniyatuddeso vitth±ruddesoti eva½ pańcadh±.
413. Vin±ntar±yanti r±jantar±yo corantar±yo agyantar±yo udakantar±yo manussantar±yo amanussantar±yo v±¼antar±yo sar²sapantar±yo j²vitantar±yo brahmacariyantar±yoti (mah±va. 150) vuttesu dasasu ya½ kińci antar±ya½ vin±. SaŖkhepen±ti vin± vitth±ra½. “Ettha dv²su t²su v± uddesesu visadesu therova issaro”ti vuttatt± avattantepi vaµµat²ti yojan±. Etth±ti pańcasu uddesesu. Avattanteti therassa vitth±rena avattam±ne appaguŗe. Vaµµat²ti sa½khittena uddisitumpi vaµµati. Imin±va yassa kassaci uddesakassa avattantepi vaµµat²ti vińń±yati. Dv²su vattam±nesu issaratte adhike vattabbameva natth²ti dassanattha½ “t²s³”ti vutta½. “Therova issaro”ti-±din± ida½ parid²peti– dve akhaŗ¹± suvisad± v±cuggat±, ther±dheyya½ p±timokkha½, sace pana ettakampi visada½ k±tu½ na sakkoti, byattassa bhikkhuno ±yatta½ hoti, tasm± saya½ uddisitabba½, ańń± v± ajjhesitabboti.
414. Uddisante sam± v± atha thokik± v± yadi ±gaccheyyunti sambandhan²ya½. Uddisante ±v±sikehi p±timokkhe uddissam±ne. Sam± v± thokik± v±ti ±v±sikehi sam± v± thokik± v± ±gantuk± bhikkh³. Avasesaka½ sotabbanti imin± ett±vat±pi uposatho katoyeva n±m±ti d²peti.
415. Uddiµµhamatteti uddiµµha½yeva uddiµµhamatta½. Matta-saddo avadh±raŗe. Sakal±ya ekacc±ya v± uµµhit±ya sam± v± thokik± v± yadi ±gaccheyyunti yojan±. Sakal±y±ti sabb±ya paris±ya. Esa½ santike p±risuddhi½ kareyyunti esa½ ±v±sik±na½ sam²pe te ±gantuk± bhikkh³ p±risuddhi-uposatha½ kareyyunti attho. Atha bahuk± ce, sabbavikappesu pubbakicca½ katv±ti yojan²ya½. Vikapp²yanti parikapp²yant²ti vikapp±, avasesasavanap±risuddhi-uposathavidh±n± sabbe ca te vikapp± ceti sabbavikapp±. Tesu. Punuddiseti puna p±timokkha½ uddiseyya.
416. Itar±nanti ±gantuk±na½. Itaroti c±tuddaso. Ettha pana yesa½ pannaraso, te at²ta½ uposatha½ c±tuddasika½ aka½s³ti veditabb±. Ayametth±dhipp±yo– t±dise paccaye sati c±tuddasikassa katatt± tesa½ yath±vuttatatiyasattamapakkhasaŖkh±tac±tuddasike sampatte teras²c±tuddas²kattabbatt± anuposathatt± pana tattha uposatho na katoti c±tuddasoyeva pannaraso j±to. Sam±netareti sam± ³n± itareti padacchedo. Itareti ±gantuk±. Purim±na½ anuvattant³ti ±v±sikehi “ajjuposatho pannaraso”ti pubbakicce kayiram±ne purim±na½ ±v±sik±na½ anuvattant³ti attho. Sacedhik±ti yadi ±gantuk± bahuk± honti. Purim±ti ±v±sik±. Tesa½ anuvattant³ti tesa½ ±gantuk±na½ “ajjuposatho c±tuddaso”ti pubbakicce kayiram±ne anuvattantu. Sesep²ti ±gantuk±na½ pannarasav±repi. Aya½ nayoti “±gantuk±na½ pannaraso itar±na½ sacetaro”ti-±diko ayameva nayo. Ettha pana yesa½ pannaraso, te tiroraµµhato v± ±gat± at²ta½ v± uposatha½ c±tuddasika½ aka½s³ti veditabbo.
417. At²tuposathassa c±tuddasiya½ katatt± c±tuddasiya½ pannarasuposatho katoti pannaras² ±v±sik±na½ p±µipado j±toti ±ha “±v±sik±na½ p±µipado”ti. Itar±nanti ±gantuk±na½. Uposathoti pannaraso uposatho. Samathok±nanti attan± sam±na½ v± thok±na½ v± ±gantuk±na½. M³laµµh±ti ±v±sik±. K±mato dent³ti attano icch±ya dentu.
418. No ce dent²ti yadi ±v±sik± k±yas±maggi½ na denti, tesa½ pana ±v±sik±na½ hiyyo uposathassa katatt± ajja uposathakaraŗa½ natthi. Bah³su anicch±ya k±yas±maggi½ dadeyy±ti yojan±. Bah³s³ti ±gantukesu bahukesu. Bahi v± vajeti ±v±sikabhikkhuparis± niss²ma½ v± vajeyy±ti attho.
419. S±veyya suttanti p±timokkhasaŖkh±ta½ sutta½ v±yamitv± s±veyya.
420. Sammajjitu½ …pe… udak±sana½ pańńapetuńca mah±therena pesito kallo na kareyya tath±ti sambandho. Kalloti agil±no. Tath±ti dukkaµa½ atidisati. ¾sanesu asati antamaso s±kh±bhaŖgampi kappiya½ k±r±petv± pańńapetabba½. Tele asati kapalle aggipi j±letabbo.
421-3. Paµµhapetv± dak±sananti paribhojan²yap±n²yodakańca ±sanańca sannihita½ katv±. Gaŗańattinti id±ni vakkham±na½ gaŗena µhapetabba½ ńatti½. Teti ańńe duve bhikkh³. Samattapubb±rambhen±ti samatto niµµhito pubbesu uttar±saŖga-eka½sakaraŗ±d²su ±rambho yass±ti tipadabahubb²hi. Navena te evam²riy±ti sambandho. Teti itare dve.
424. Kattabba½ katv± pubbakicc±dika½ samp±detv± navo eva½ ²riyoti yojan±.
427. Yatth±ti yasmi½ vih±re ekekassa p±risuddhi½ haritv±n±ti sambandho. Ekekass±ti ettha vicch±ya½ dvitta½. Kiriy±ya guŗena dabbena v± bhinne atthe by±pitu½ icch± vicch±. Ettha pana chandap±risuddhiharaŗasaŖkh±t±ya kiriy±ya cat³su ca t²su ca dv²su ca bhinnamekeka½ by±pitu½ sambandhitu½ icch±ti vicch±. Itar²tareti etth±pi karaŗakiriy±vasena veditabba½. Tayo dve eko v± ta½ ta½ saŖghuposatha½ gaŗuposatha½ puggaluposatha½ v±ti vutta½ hoti. Ayametth±dhipp±yo– cat³su ekassa ±haritv± tayo p±risuddhi-uposatha½ karonti, t²su v± ekassa ±haritv± dve saŖghuposatha½ karonti, adhammena vagga½ uposathakamma½. Atha pana ekassa ±haritv± tayo saŖghuposatha½ karonti, ekassa ±haritv± dve p±risuddhi-uposatha½ karonti, adhammena vagga½ n±ma hoti. Yadi pana catt±ropi sannipatitv± p±risuddhi-uposatha½ karonti, tayo v± dve v± saŖghuposatha½ karonti, adhammena samagga½ n±ma hot²ti. Tabbipariy±yena dhammena samagga½ veditabba½.
428. Vagge samagge v± “vaggo”ti sańńino vimatissa v± karoto dukkaµanti sambandho. Vaggeti vaggasaŖghe. Vimatiss±ti “vaggo nu kho, samaggo”ti eva½ vematikassa. Imin±va kukkuccapakatav±ropi upalakkhito. Karototi uposatha½ karontassa. Bhed±dhipp±yena karototi yojan±. Ettha pana p±passa balavat±ya thullaccaya½ vutta½. Sańńinoti sańń±s²sena citta½ vutta½, cittavatoti attho.
429-30. “Ukkhittass±”ti-±din± vajjan²yapuggale dasseti. Ukkhittass±ti kattu-atthe s±mivacana½. Nisinnasaddassa kammas±dhanatt± ukkhitt±d²hi katt³hi bhavitabbanti. “Ses±nan”ti visesanassa bhikkh³na½ byabhic±rena s±tthakat±. Abhabbassa paŗ¹ak±di-ek±dasavidhassa abhabbassa. Nisinnaparis±yańca p±timokkha½ na uddiseti sambandho. Sabh±g±pattiko tath± na uddiseti yojetabba½. Vik±labhojan±divatthuto sam±no bh±go koµµh±so etiss±ti sabh±g±, s± ±patti ass±ti bahubb²hi.
Chandena parivutthen±ti ettha catubbidha½ p±riv±siya½ parisap±riv±siya½ rattip±riv±siya½ chandap±riv±siya½ ajjh±sayap±riv±siyanti. Tattha bhikkh³ kenacideva karaŗ²yena sannipatit± honti, atha meghuµµh±n±din± kenacideva karaŗ²yena anok±so, atha “ańńattha gacch±m±”ti chanda½ avissajjitv±va uµµhahanti, ida½ parisap±riv±siya½ n±ma kińc±pi parisap±riv±siya½, chandassa pana avissaµµhatt± kamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati.
“Y±va pana sabbe sannipatanti, t±va dhamma½ suŗiss±m±”ti eka½ ajjhesanti, tasmi½ dhammakatha½ kathenteyeva aruŗo uggacchati, sace c±tuddasika½ k±tu½ nisinn±, pannarasoti k±tu½ vaµµati, sace pannarasika½ k±tu½ nisinn±, p±µipade anuposathe uposatha½ k±tu½ na vaµµati, ańńa½ pana saŖghakicca½ k±tu½ vaµµati, ida½ rattip±riv±siya½ n±ma.
Eva½ pana nisinne koci nakkhattap±µhako bhikkhu “ajja nakkhatta½ d±ruŗa½, ima½ kamma½ m± karoth±”ti vadati, te tassa vacanena chanda½ vissajjetv± tattheva nisinn± honti, athańńo ±gantv± “nakkhatta½ paµim±nenta½, attho b±la½ upaccag±”ti (j±. 1.1.49) vatv± “ki½ nakkhattena, karoth±”ti vadati, ida½ chandap±riv±siyańceva ajjh±sayap±riv±siyańca. Ekasmi½ p±riv±siye puna chandap±risuddhi½ ±netv± kamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati.
431. ¾pannańca vematikańca adesayitv± v± n±vikatv± v± uposatha½ k±tu½ na ca kappat²ti sambandho. N±vikatv±ti garuk±patti½ an±vikatv±. Na c±ti neva.
432. Aµµhitoposath±ti aµµhito avissaµµho uposatho yasminti bahubb²hi. Tadah³ti tasmi½ uposathadivase. Antar±ya½ v± saŖgha½ v± vin± adhiµµh±tu½ s²mameva v± na vajeti yojan±. Adhiµµh±tunti imin± gaŗuposathampi upalakkheti. S²manti imin± nadimpi.

Uposathaniddesavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.