C²varakkhandhakakath±vaººan±

2726-7. C²vara½ uppajjati et±s³ti “upp±d±”ti janik±va vuccanti, c²varavatthaparil±bhakkhettantiattho. Yath±ha– “yath±vutt±na½ c²var±na½ paµil±bh±ya khetta½ dassetu½ aµµhim± bhikkhavem±tik±ti-±dim±h±”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 379). C²varam±tik±ti c²varupp±dahetubh³tam±taro.Ten±ha kathinakkhandhakavaººan±ya½ “m±tik±ti m±taro, janettiyoti attho”ti(mah±va. aµµha. 310). M±tik±ti cettha c²varad±namadhippeta½. Yath±ha “s²m±ya d±na½ek± m±tik±, katik±ya d±na½ dutiy±”ti-±di. S²m±ya deti, katik±ya deti,bhikkh±paññattiy± deti, saªghassa deti, ubhatosaªghe deti, vassa½vutthasaªghassa deti, ±dissadeti, puggalassa deti. “Im± pana aµµha m±tik±”ti vuttameva nigamanavasena vutta½.
2728. Tatth±ti t±su aµµham±tik±su. S²m±ya det²ti “s²m±yadamm²”ti eva½ s²ma½ par±masitv± dento s²m±ya deti, eva½ dinna½ antos²magatehibhikkh³hi bh±jetabbanti vaººitanti yojan±. Tattha antos²magateh²ti d±yakoya½ s²ma½ apekkhitv± evam±ha, tass± s²m±ya antogatehi sabbehi. Bh±jetabbantita½ c²vara½ bh±jetabba½. Varavaººin±ti “itipi so bhagav± arahan”ti-±din±sakalalokaby±piguº±tisayayuttena by±mappabh±ya, chabbaºº±na½ ra½s²nañca vasena uttamappabh±tisayayuttenavaravaººin± vaººita½ kathita½. Ayamettha padavaººan±, aya½ pana vinicchayo– s²m±yadet²ti ettha t±va khaº¹as²m± upac±ras²m± sam±nasa½v±sas²m± avippav±sas²m± l±bhas²m±g±mas²m± nigamas²m± nagaras²m± abbhantaras²m± udakukkhepas²m± janapadas²m± raµµhas²m±rajjas²m± d²pas²m± cakkav±¼as²m± iti pannarasa s²m± veditabb±.
Tattha khaº¹as²m± s²m±kath±ya½ vutt±. Upac±ras²m± parikkhittassa vih±rassaparikkhepena, aparikkhittassa vih±rassa parikkhep±rahaµµh±nena paricchinn± hoti. Apicabhikkh³na½ dhuvasannip±taµµh±nato v± pariyante µhitabhojanas±lato v± nibaddhavasanaka-±v±sato v±th±mamajjhimassa purisassa dvinna½ le¹¹up±t±na½ anto upac±ras²m± veditabb±. S±pana ±v±sesu va¹¹hantesu va¹¹hati, parih±yantesu parih±yati. Mah±paccariya½ pana“bhikkh³supi va¹¹hantesu va¹¹hat²”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 379) vutta½. Tasm± sace vih±resannipatitabhikkh³hi saddhi½ ek±baddh± hutv± yojanasatampi p³retv± nis²danti, yojanasatampiupac±ras²m±va hoti, sabbesa½ l±bho p±puº±ti. Sam±nasa½v±sa-avippav±sas²m±dvayampivuttameva.
L±bhas²m± n±ma neva samm±sambuddhena anuññ±t±, na dhammasaªg±hakattherehiµhapit±, apica kho r±jar±jamah±matt± vih±ra½ k±retv± g±vuta½ v± a¹¹hayojana½ v±yojana½ v± samantato paricchinditv± “aya½ amh±ka½ vih±rassa l±bhas²m±”ti n±malikhitakethambhe nikhaºitv± “ya½ etthantare uppajjati, sabba½ ta½ amh±ka½ vih±rassa dem±”tis²ma½ µhapenti, aya½ l±bhas²m± n±ma. G±manigamanagara-abbhantara-udakukkhepas²m±pi vutt±eva.
Janapadas²m± n±ma k±sikosalaraµµh±d²na½ anto bah³ janapad± honti, ettha ekekojanapadaparicchedo janapadas²m±. Raµµhas²m± n±ma k±sikosal±diraµµhaparicchedo. Rajjas²m±n±ma mah±co¼abhogo kera¼abhogoti eva½ ekekassa rañño ±º±pavattiµµh±na½. D²pas²m±n±ma samuddantena samucchinnamah±d²p± ca antarad²p± ca. Cakkav±¼as²m± n±ma cakkav±¼apabbatenevaparicchinn±.
Evamet±su s²m±su khaº¹as²m±ya kenaci kammena sannipatita½ saªgha½ disv± “ettheva s²m±yasaªghassa dem²”ti vutte y±vatik± bhikkh³ antokhaº¹as²magat±, tehi bh±jetabba½. Tesa½yevahi ta½ p±puº±ti, aññesa½ s²mantarik±ya v± upac±ras²m±ya v± µhit±nampi na p±puº±ti.Khaº¹as²m±ya µhite pana rukkhe v± pabbate v± µhitassa heµµh± v± pathaviy± vemajjha½ gatassap±puº±tiyeva.
“Imiss± upac±ras²m±ya saªghassa damm²”ti dinna½ pana khaº¹as²m±s²mantarik±su µhit±nampip±puº±ti. “Sam±nasa½v±sas²m±ya damm²”ti dinna½ pana khaº¹as²m±s²mantarik±suµhit±na½ na p±puº±ti. Avippav±sas²m±l±bhas²m±su dinna½ t±su s²m±su antogat±na½yevap±puº±ti. G±mas²m±d²su dinna½ t±sa½ s²m±na½ abbhantare baddhas²m±yaµhit±nampi p±puº±ti. Abbhantaras²m±-udakukkhepas²m±su dinna½ tattha antogat±na½yevap±puº±ti. Janapadaraµµharajjad²pacakkav±¼as²m±supi g±mas²m±d²su vuttasadisoyeva vinicchayo.
Sace pana jambud²pe µhito “tambapaººid²pe saªghassa damm²”ti vadati, tambapaººid²patoekopi gantv± sabbesa½ gaºhitu½ labhati. Sacepi tatreva eko sabh±gabhikkhu sabh±g±na½bh±ga½ gaºh±ti, na v±retabbo. Eva½ t±va yo s²ma½ par±masitv± deti, tassa d±nevinicchayo veditabbo.
Yo pana “asukas²m±y±”ti vattu½ na j±n±ti, kevala½ “s²m±”ti vacanamattamevaj±nanto vih±ra½ ±gantv± “s²m±ya damm²”ti v± “s²maµµhakasaªghassa damm²”ti v±bhaºati, so pucchitabbo “s²m± n±ma bahuvidh±, katara½ s²ma½ sandh±ya bhaºas²”ti, sacevadati “aha½ ‘asukas²m±’ti na j±n±mi, s²maµµhakasaªgho bh±jetv± gaºhat³”ti, kataras²m±yabh±jetabba½? Mah±s²vatthero kir±ha “avippav±sas²m±y±”ti. Tato na½ ±ha½su“avippav±sas²m± n±ma tiyojan±pi hoti, eva½ sante tiyojane µhit± l±bha½ gaºhissanti,tiyojane µhatv± ±gantukavatta½ p³retv± ±r±ma½ pavisitabba½ bhavissati, gamikotiyojana½ gantv± sen±sana½ ±pucchissati, nissayapaµipannassa tiyojan±tikkame nissayopaµippassambhissati, p±riv±sikena tiyojana½ atikkamitv± aruºa½ uµµh±petabba½ bhavissati,bhikkhuniy± tiyojane µhatv± ±r±mappavesana½ ±pucchitabba½ bhavissati, sabbampeta½upac±ras²m±paricchedavaseneva kattu½ vaµµati. Tasm± upac±ras²m±yameva bh±jetabban”ti.
2729. Ye vih±r± saªghena katik±ya ekal±bhak± sam±nal±bhak± etthaetesu vih±resu dinna½ “katik±ya damm²”ti dinna½ sabbehi bhikkh³hisaha bh±jetabba½ c²vara½ katik±ya vuccat²ti yojan±.
Ayamettha vinicchayo– katik± n±ma sam±nal±bhakatik±, tatreva½ katik± k±tabb±–ekasmi½ vih±re sannipatitehi bhikkh³hi ya½ vih±ra½ saªgaºhituk±m± sam±nal±bha½ k±tu½icchanti, assa n±ma½ gahetv± “asuko n±ma vih±ro por±ºako”ti v± “buddh±dhivuttho”tiv± “appal±bho”ti v± ya½ kiñci k±raºa½ vatv± “ta½ vih±ra½ imin± vih±renasaddhi½ ekal±bha½ k±tu½ saªghassa ruccat²”ti tikkhattu½ s±vetabba½. Ett±vat± tasmi½vih±re nisinnopi idha nisinnova hoti. Tasmi½ vih±repi saªghena evameva k±tabba½.Ett±vat± idha nisinnopi tasmi½ vih±re nisinnova hoti. Ekasmi½ l±bhe bh±jiyam±neitarasmi½ µhitassa bh±ga½ gahetu½ vaµµati. Eva½ ekena vih±rena saddhi½ bah³pi ±v±s±ekal±bh± k±tabb±ti.
2730. C²varad±yakena dhuvak±r± p±kavatt±diniccasakk±r± yattha saªghassa kr²yantikar²yanti tattha tasmi½ vih±re teneva d±yakena saªghassa dinna½ vih±ra½ “bhikkh±paññattiy±dinnan”ti mahesin± vuttanti yojan±.
Tatr±ya½ vinicchayo– yasmi½ vih±re imassa c²varad±yakassa santaka½ saªghassa p±kavatta½ v±vattati, yasmi½ v± vih±re bhikkh³ attano bh±ra½ katv± sad± gehe bhojeti, yatthav± tena ±v±so k±rito, sal±kabhatt±d²ni v± nibaddh±ni, yena pana sakalopi vih±ro patiµµh±pito, tattha vattabbameva natthi, ime dhuvak±r± n±ma. Tasm± saceso “yattha mayha½ dhuvak±r± kar²yanti, ettha damm²”ti v± “tattha deth±”ti v±bhaºati, bah³su cepi µh±nesu dhuvak±r± honti, sabbattha dinnameva hoti.
Sace pana ekasmi½ vih±re bhikkh³ bahutar± honti, tehi vattabba½ “tumh±ka½ dhuvak±reekattha bhikkh³ bah³, ekattha appak±”ti, sace “bhikkhugaºan±ya gaºhath±”ti bhaºati,tath± bh±jetv± gaºhitu½ vaµµati. Ettha ca vatthabhesajj±di appakampi sukhena bh±j²yati,yadi pana mañco v± p²µhaka½ v± ekameva hoti, ta½ pucchitv± yassa v± vih±rassaekavih±repi v± yassa sen±sanassa so vic±reti, tattha d±tabba½. Sace “asukabhikkhugaºhat³”ti vadati, vaµµati.
Atha “mayha½ dhuvak±re deth±”ti vatv± avic±retv±va gacchati, saªghassapi vic±retu½vaµµati. Eva½ pana vic±retabba½– “saªghattherassa vasanaµµh±ne deth±”ti vattabba½. Sacetattha sen±sana½ paripuººa½ hoti. Yattha nappahoti, tattha d±tabba½. Sace eko bhikkhu“mayha½ vasanaµµh±ne sen±sanaparibhogabhaº¹a½ natth²”ti vadati, tattha d±tabbanti.
2731. Saªghassa pana ya½ dinnanti vih±ra½ pavisitv± “im±ni c²var±ni saªghassa damm²”tiya½ c²vara½ dinna½. “Sammukh²bh³ten±”ti vattabbe g±th±bandhena rassatta½. Sammukhibh³ten±tica upac±ras²m±ya µhitena. Bh±jetabbanti ghaºµi½ paharitv± k±la½ ghosetv± bh±jetabba½.Idamettha mukhamattadassana½. Vinicchayo aµµhakath±ya (mah±va. aµµha. 379) veditabbo. Seyyathida½–c²varad±yakena vih±ra½ pavisitv± “im±ni c²var±ni saªghassa damm²”tidinnesu bh±jiyam±nesu s²maµµhassa asampattassapi bh±ga½ gaºhanto na v±retabbo. Vih±romah± hoti, ther±sanato paµµh±ya vatthesu diyyam±nesu alasaj±tik± mah±ther± pacch±±gacchanti, “bhante, v²sativass±na½ diyyati, tumh±ka½ µhitik± atikkant±”tina vattabb±, µhitika½ µhapetv± tesa½ datv± pacch± µhitik±ya d±tabba½.
“Asukavih±re kira bahu½ c²vara½ uppannan”ti sutv± yojanantarikavih±ratopibhikkh³ ±gacchanti, sampattasampatt±na½ µhitaµµh±nato paµµh±ya d±tabba½. Asampatt±nampi upac±ras²ma½paviµµh±na½ antev±sik±d²su gaºhantesu d±tabbameva. “Bahi upac±ras²m±ya µhit±na½deth±”ti vadanti, na d±tabba½. Sace pana upac±ras²ma½ okkantehi ek±baddh± hutv±attano vih±radv±re v± antovih±reyeva v± honti, parisavasena va¹¹hit± n±ma s²m± hoti,tasm± d±tabba½. Saªghanavakassa dinnepi pacch± ±gat±na½ d±tabbameva. Dutiyabh±ge pana ther±sana½±ru¼he ±gat±na½ paµhamabh±go na p±puº±ti, dutiyabh±gato vassaggena d±tabba½.
Ekasmi½ vih±re dasa bhikkh³ honti, dasa vatth±ni “saªghassa dem±”ti denti, p±µekka½bh±jetabb±ni. Sace “sabb±neva amh±ka½ p±puºant²”ti gahetv± gacchanti, dupp±pit±niceva duggahit±ni ca, gatagataµµh±ne saªghik±neva honti. Eka½ pana uddharitv± “ida½ tumh±ka½p±puº±t²”ti saªghattherassa datv± ses±ni “im±ni amh±ka½ p±puºant²”ti gahetu½vaµµati.
Ekameva vattha½ “saªghassa dem±”ti ±haranti, abh±jetv±va “amh±ka½ p±puº±t²”tigaºhanti, dupp±pitañceva duggahitañca, satthakena, pana haliddi-±din± v± lekha½ katv±eka½ koµµh±sa½ “ima½ µh±na½ tumh±ka½ p±puº±t²”ti saªghattherassap±petv± sesa½ “amh±ka½ p±puº±t²”ti gahetu½ vaµµati. Ya½ pana vatthasseva puppha½v± vali v±, tena pariccheda½ k±tu½ na vaµµati. Sace eka½ tanta½ uddharitv± “ida½µh±na½ tumh±ka½ p±puº±t²”ti saªghattherassa datv± sesa½ “amh±ka½ p±puº±t²”tigaºhanti, vaµµati. Khaº¹a½ khaº¹a½ chinditv± bh±jiyam±na½ vaµµatiyeva.
Ekabhikkhuke vih±re saªghassa c²varesu uppannesu sace pubbe vuttanayeneva so bhikkhu“sabb±ni mayha½ p±puºant²”ti gaºh±ti, suggahit±ni, µhitik± pana na tiµµhati.Sace ekeka½ uddharitv± “ida½ mayha½ p±puº±t²”ti gaºh±ti, µhitik± tiµµhati.Tattha µhitik±ya aµµhit±ya puna aññasmi½ c²vare uppanne sace eko bhikkhu ±gacchati, majjhechinditv± dv²hipi gahetabba½. Ýhit±ya µhitik±ya puna aññasmi½ c²vare uppanne sacenavakataro ±gacchati, µhitik± heµµh± orohati. Sace vu¹¹hataro ±gacchati, µhitik±uddha½ ±rohati. Atha añño natthi, puna attano p±petv± gahetabba½.