Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan±

1-5
. Suvipul±malasaddh±paññ±diguºasamuday±vaha½ sakalajanahitekahetujinas±sanaµµhitim³labh³ta½ vinayappakaraºamidam±rabhantoyam±cariyo pakaraº±rambhe ratanattayappaº±mapakaraº±bhidh±n±bhidheyyakaraºappak±rapayojananimittakattuparim±º±d²ni dassetum±ha “vanditv±”ti-±di. Tattha ratanattaya½ n±ma.
“Citt²kata½ mahagghañca, atula½ dullabhadassana½;
anomasattaparibhoga½, ratana½ tena vuccat²”ti. (D². ni. aµµha. 2.33; sa½. ni. aµµha. 3.5.223; khu. p±. aµµha. 6.3; su. ni. aµµha. 1.226; mah±ni. aµµha. 50)–

Niddiµµhasabh±va½

“Buddho sabbaññutaññ±ºa½, dhammo lokuttaro nava;
saªgho maggaphalaµµho ca, icceta½ ratanattayan”ti.–

Vibh±vitappabheda½ sakalabhavadukkhaviniv±raºa½ tibhavenekapaµisaraºa½ vatthuttaya½.

Tassa paº±mo n±ma paº±makiriy±nipph±dik± cetan±. S± tividh± k±yapaº±mo vac²paº±mo manopaº±moti. Tattha k±yapaº±mo n±ma ratanattayaguº±nussaraºapubbik± añjalikamm±dik±yakiriy±vasappavattik± k±yaviññattisamuµµh±pik± cetan±. Vac²paº±mo n±ma tatheva pavatt± n±n±vidhaguºavisesavibh±vanasabh±vathoman±kiriy±vasappavattik± vac²viññattisamuµµh±pik± cetan±. Manopaº±mo n±ma ubhayaviññattiyo asamuµµh±petv± kevala½ guº±nussaraºena cittasant±nassa tanninnatappoºatappabbh±rat±ya g±ravabahum±nanavasappavattis±dhik± cetan±.
Imassa t±va ratanattayapaº±massa dassana½ yath±dhippetatthas±dhanattha½. Guº±tisayayogena hi paº±m±rahe ratanattaye kato paº±mo puññavisesabh±vato icchitatth±bhinipphattivibandhakena upagh±takena, upap²¼akena ca apuññakammena upan²yam±nassa upaddavaj±lassa viniv±raºena yath±laddhasampattinimittakassa puññakammassa anubalappad±nena ca tabbip±kasantatiy± ±yusukhabal±diva¹¹hanena ca cirak±lappavattihetukoti yath±dhippetapakaraºanipphattinibandhanako hoti. Ath±pi sot³nañca vandan²yavandan±pubbaken±rambhena anantar±yena uggahaºadh±raº±dikkamena pakaraº±vabodhappayojanas±dhanattha½. Apica sot³nameva viññ±tasatthuk±na½ bhagavato yath±bh³taguºavises±nussavanena samupaj±tappas±d±na½ pakaraºe g±ravupp±danattha½, aviññ±tasatthuk±na½ pana pakaraºassa sv±khy±tat±ya tappabhave satthari g±ravupp±danatthañca sotujan±nuggahameva padh±na½ katv± ±cariyehi ganth±rambhe thutippaº±maparid²pak±na½ g±th±v±ky±na½ nikkhepo vidh²yati. Itarath± vin±pi tannikkhepa½ k±yamanopaº±men±pi yath±dhippetappayojanasiddhito kimetena ganthag±ravakaren±ti ayamettha saªkhepo. Vitth±rato pana paº±mappayojana½ s±ratthad²paniy±d²su (s±rattha. µ². 1.ganth±rambhakath±vaººan±; vi. vi. µ². 2.ganth±rambhakath±vaººan±) dassitanayeneva ñ±tabba½.
Abhidh±nakathana½ pana voh±rasukhattha½. Abhidheyyassa samuditena pakaraºena paµip±detabbassa kathana½ pakaraºassa ±rabhitabbasabh±vadassanattha½. Vidit±ninditas±tthakasukar±nuµµh±n±bhi dheyyameva hi pakaraºa½ parikkhakajan± ±rabhitabba½ maññant²ti. Karaºappak±rasandassana½ sotujanasamuss±hanattha½. An±kulamasa½kiººat±dippak±rena hi viracita½ pakaraºa½ sot±ro sotumussahant²ti. Payojanakathana½ pana pakaraºajjh±yane sotujanasamuttejanattha½. Asati hi payojanakathane aviññ±tappayojan± ajjh±yane by±vaµ± na hont²ti. Nimittakathana½ sarikkhakajan±na½ pakaraºe g±ravupp±danattha½. Pasatthak±raºuppanneyeva hi pakaraºe sarikkhak± g±rava½ janent²ti.
Kattukathana½ puggalagarukassa pakaraºe g±ravo puggalag±ravenapi hot³ti. Parim±ºakathana½ asajjh±yan±dipasut±na½ sampaha½sanattha½. Pakaraºaparim±ºassavanena hi te sampahaµµh± “kittakamidamappaka½ na cireneva parisam±pess±m±”ti sajjh±yan±d²su vattant²ti. ¾di-saddena sakkaccasavananiyojana½ saªgahita½, ta½ sabbasampattinid±nasutamayañ±ºanipph±danattha½. Asakkacca½ suºam±nassa ca savan±bh±vato ta½hetukassa sutamayañ±ºass±pi abh±voti. Tath± hi vikkhittacitto puggalo sabbasampattiy± vuccam±nopi “na may± suta½, puna bhaºitabban”ti bhaºati.
Tattha paµhamag±th±ya½ t±va “vanditv±”ti imin± tividhopi paº±mo avisesato dassito. Visesato pana “seµµha½, appaµipuggala½, bhav±bh±vakara½, niraªgaºan”ti imehi cat³hi padehi vac²paº±mo, “siras±”ti imin± k±yappaº±mo, “buddha½, dhamma½, gaºañc±”ti imehi pana t²hi padehi paº±makiriy±ya kammabh³ta½ ratanattaya½ dassitanti daµµhabba½.
“Vinayassavinicchayan”ti imin± abhidh±na½ dassita½ aluttasam±sena vinayavinicchayan±massa dassanato. Tassa anvatthabh±vena saddappavattinimittabh³ta½ sakalen±nena pakaraºena paµip±detabbamabhidheyyampi teneva dassita½. “Sam±sen±”ti ca “an±kulamasa½kiººa½, madhuratthapadakkaman”ti ca etehi karaºappak±ro dassito. “Hitatth±y±”ti ca “paµubh±vakara½ vinayakkame”ti ca “ap±ra½ otarant±nan”ti-±din± ca payojana½. “Bhikkh³na½ bhikkhun²nan”ti imin± b±hiranimitta½ dassita½. Abbhantaranimitta½ pana b±hiranimittabh³tabhikkhubhikkhunivisay± karuº±, s± ±cariyassa pakaraº±rambheneva viññ±yat²ti visu½ na vutt±. “Pavakkh±m²”ti imin± sam±n±dhikaraºabh±vena labbham±no “ahan”ti suddhakatt± s±maññena dassito. Visesato pana pakaraº±vas±ne–
“Racito buddhadattena, suddhacittena dh²mat±;
suciraµµhitik±mena, s±sanassa mahesino”ti. (U. vi. 961)–

Im±ya g±th±ya ceva “iti tambapaººiyena paramaveyy±karaºena tipiµakanayavidhikusalena paramakavivarajana hadayapadumavanavikasanakarena kavivar±sabhena paramaratikaravaramadhuravacanugg±rena uragapurena buddhadattena racitoya½ vinayavinicchayo”ti (vi. vi. 3183) imin± v±kyena ca dassito– “m±dis±pi kav² honti, buddhadatte divaªgate”ti-±din± pacchimakehi ca pasatthatarehi kavivarehi abhitthutaguºo bhadantabuddhadatt±cariyo veditabbo. Hetukatt± ca tattheva vakkham±no pakaraºajjhesane kat±dh²no buddhas²hamah±thero, so–

“Vuttassa buddhas²hena;
vinayassa vinicchayo;
buddhas²ha½ samuddissa;
mama saddhivih±rika½;
katoya½ pana bhikkh³na½;
hitatth±ya sam±sato”ti. (Vi. vi. 3177-3178)–

Eva½ dassito.

Uttarappakaraºassa hetukatt± pana saªghap±lamah±thero, sopi–
“Khantisoraccasosilya-buddhisaddh±day±dayo;
patiµµhit± guº± yasmi½, ratan±n²va s±gare.
“Vinay±c±rayuttena, tena sakkacca s±dara½;
y±cito saªghap±lena, therena thiracetas±.
“Suciraµµhitik±mena vinayassa mahesino;
bhikkh³na½ p±µavatth±ya, vinayassavinicchaye;
ak±si½ parama½ eta½, uttara½ n±ma n±mato”ti. (U. vi. 965-968)–

Eva½ dassito. Na kevalamete dveyeva mah±ther± hetukatt±ro, atha kho mah±va½s±d²su–

“Buddhassa viya gambh²ra-
ghosatt± ta½ viy±karu½;
‘buddhaghoso’ti yo so hi;
buddho viya mah²tale”ti.–

¾din± nayena abhitthutaguºo tipiµakapariyattiy± aµµhakath±k±ro bhadantabuddhaghos±cariyo ca anussutivasena “hetukatt±”ti veditabbo.

Katha½? Aya½ kira bhadantabuddhadatt±cariyo laªk±d²pato saj±tibh³mi½ jambud²pam±gacchanto bhadantabuddhaghos±cariya½ jambud²pav±sikehi paµipattipar±yanehi yuttabyattaguºopetehi mah±theravarehi kat±r±dhana½ s²ha¼aµµhakatha½ parivattetv± sakalajanas±dh±raº±ya m³labh±s±ya tipiµakapariyattiy± aµµhakatha½ likhitu½ laªk±d²pa½ gacchanta½ antar±magge disv± s±kacch±ya samupaparikkhitv± sabbalok±t²tena asadisena paº¹iccaguºena ratananidhidassane paramadaliddo viya balavaparitosa½ patv± aµµhakathamassa k±tuk±mata½ ñatv± “tumhe yath±dhippetapariyantalikhitamaµµhakatha½ amh±ka½ pesetha, mayamass± pakaraºa½ likh±m±”ti tassa sammukh± paµij±nitv± tena ca “s±dhu tath± k±tabban”ti ajjhesito abhidhammaµµhakath±ya abhidhamm±vat±ra½, vinayaµµhakath±ya sa-uttara½ vinayavinicchayapakaraºañca ak±s²ti anussuyyateti.
“Sam±sen±”ti imin± ca parim±ºampi s±maññena dassita½ vitth±raparim±ºe tassa parim±ºas±maññassa viññ±yam±natt±. Visesato pana paricchedaparim±ºa½ ganthaparim±ºanti duvidha½. Tattha paricchedaparim±ºa½ imasmi½ pakaraºe kath±voh±rena vuccati.
Seyyathida½?– P±r±jikakath± saªgh±disesakath± aniyatakath± nissaggiyakath± p±cittiyakath± p±µidesan²yakath± sekhiyakath±ti bhikkhuvibhaªgakath± sattavidh±, tato aniyatakatha½ vajjetv± tatheva bhikkhunivibhaªgakath± chabbidh±, mah±khandhakakath±dik± bhikkhunikkhandhakakath±vas±n± v²satividh± khandhakakath±, kammakath±, kammavipattikath±, pakiººakavinicchayo, kammaµµh±nabh±van±vidh±nanti vinayavinicchaye kath±paricchedo sattati½sa.
Uttarappakaraºe ca vuttanayena bhikkhuvibhaªge sattavidh± kath±, bhikkhunivibhaªge chabbidh±, tadanantar± vipattikath±, adhikaraºapaccayakath±, khandhakapañh±kath±, samuµµh±nas²sakath±, ±pattisamuµµh±nakath±, ekuttaranayakath±, sedamocanakath±, vibhaªgadvayanid±n±dikath±, sabbaªgalakkhaºakath±, pariv±rasaªkalanakath±ti chatti½sa kath±paricched±.
Nissandehe pana “aµµhati½sa kath±paricched±”ti vutta½, ta½ ekuttaranaye adassitehipi dv±dasakapannarasakanayehi saha so¼asaparicchede gahetv± appaka½ ³namadhika½ gaºan³paga½ na hot²ti katv± vuttanti daµµhabba½. Ubhayattha kath±paricchedaparim±ºa½ tesattatividha½ hoti. Nissandehe “pañcasattatividh±”ti vacane parih±ro vuttanayova. Ganthaparim±ºa½ pana vinayavinicchaye as²tiganth±dhik±ni catt±ri ganthasahass±ni uttare paññ±saganth±dhik±ni nava ganthasat±ni honti. Tena vutta½ uttar±vas±ne
“G±th± catusahass±ni, satañca ³nav²sati;
parim±ºatoti viññeyyo, vinayassavinicchayo.
Paññ±s±dhikasaªkh±ni, nava g±th±sat±ni hi;
gaºan± uttarass±ya½, chandas±nuµµhubhena t³”ti. (U. vi. 969-970).
Icceva½ vinayavinicchayo uttaro c±ti dve pakaraº±ni ti½s±dhik±ni pañcag±th±sahass±ni. Ettha ca vinayavinicchayo n±ma ubhatovibhaªgakhandhak±gatavinicchayasaªg±hakapakaraºa½. Tato para½ pariv±ratthasaªg±hakapakaraºa½ uttaro n±ma. Teneva vakkhati–
“Yo may± racito s±ro, vinayassavinicchayo;
tassa d±ni kariss±mi, sabb±nuttaramuttaran”ti. (U. vi. 2)
Ta½ kasm± uttaran±mena vohariyat²ti? Pañhuttaravasena µhite pariv±re tatheva saªgahetabbepi tena pak±rena p±r±jikakath±matta½ dassetv±–
“Ito paµµh±ya muñcitv±, pañh±pucchanamattaka½;