P±r±jikakaº¹a½

Id±ni nid±nuddes±nantara½ vuttassa p±r±jikuddesassa attha½ sa½vaººetu½ “id±n²”ti-±di ±raddha½. Nid±n±nantaranti bh±vanapu½sakaniddeso, nid±na½ anantara½ katv±ti vutta½ hoti. Tatth±ti p±r±jikakaº¹e. P±timokkheti bhikkhup±timokkhe. Catt±roti gaºanaparicchedo ³n±tirekabh±vanivattanato. P±r±jik±ti saj±tin±ma½. ¾pattiyoti sabbas±dh±raºan±ma½. Uddis²yat²ti uddeso. Bh±vappadh±noya½ niddeso. Ten±ha “uddisitabbatan”ti.

1. Paµhamap±r±jikavaººan±

Yo pan±ti (p±r±. aµµha. 1.45 bhikkhupadabh±jan²yavaººan±) ettha yasm± pan±ti nip±tamatta½, yoti atthapada½, tañca aniyamena puggala½ d²peti. Tasm± tassa attha½ dassento “yo koc²”ti ±ha. Yasm± pana yo yokoci n±ma, so avassa½ liªgayuttaj±tin±magottas²lavih±ragocaravayesu eken±k±rena paññ±yati, tasm± ta½ tath± ñ±petu½ “rassad²gh±din±”ti-±dim±ha. ¾disaddena navakamm±d²na½ gahaºa½. Liªg±dibheden±ti liªg²yatiñ±yati eten±ti liªga½, ta½ ±di yesa½ teti liªg±dayo, tesa½ bhedo liªg±dibhedo, tena liªg±dibhedena. Etth±disaddena pana yutt±d²na½ gahaºa½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– liªgavasena y±diso v± t±diso v± hotu, d²gho v± rasso v± k±¼o v± od±to v± maªguracchavi v± kiso v± th³lo v±. Yogavasena yena v± tena v± yutto hotu, navakammayutto v± uddesayutto v± v±sadhurayutto v±. J±tivasena ya½jacco v± ta½jacco v± hotu, khattiyo v± br±hmaºo v± vesso v± suddho v±. N±mavasena yath±n±mo v± tath±n±mo v± hotu, buddharakkhito v± dhammarakkhito v± saªgharakkhito v±. Gottavasena yath±gotto v± tath±gotto v± hotu, kacc±yano v± v±siµµho v± kosiyo v±. S²lesu yath±s²lo v± tath±s²lo v± hotu, navakammas²lo v± uddesas²lo v± v±sadhuras²lo v±. Vih±resupi yath±vih±r² v± tath±vih±r² v± hotu, navakammavih±r² v± uddesavih±r² v± v±sadhuravih±r² v± Gocaresupi yath±gocaro v± tath±gocaro v± hotu, navakammagocaro v± uddesagocaro v± v±sadhuragocaro v±. Vayesupi yo v± so v± hotu thero v± navo v± majjhimo v±, atha kho sabbova imasmi½ atthe “yo”ti vuccat²ti.
Id±ni “bhikkh³”ti pada½ sa½vaººetu½ “ehibhikkh³pasampad±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha “ehi bhikkh³”ti bhagavato vacanamattena bhikkhubh±vo ehibhikkh³pasampad±. “Buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±m²”ti-±din± (mah±va. 105) nayena tikkhattu½ v±ca½ bhinditv± vuttehi t²hi saraºagamanehi upasampad± saraºagaman³pasampad±. Ov±dappaµiggahaº³pasampad± (p±r±. aµµha. 1.45) n±ma–
“Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘tibba½ me hirottappa½ paccupaµµhita½ bhavissati theresu navesu majjhimes³’ti, evañhi te kassapa sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘ya½ kiñci dhamma½ suºiss±mi kusal³pasa½hita½, sabba½ ta½ aµµhi½ katv± manasi karitv± sabbacetas± samann±haritv± ohitasoto dhamma½ suºiss±m²’ti, evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘s±tasahagat± ca me k±yagat±sati na vijahissat²’ti, evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabban”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154)–

Imin± ov±dappaµiggahaºena mah±kassapattherassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±.

Pañh±by±karaº³pasampad± n±ma sop±kassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±. Bhagav± kira pubb±r±me anucaªkamanta½ sop±kas±maºera½ “‘uddhum±takasaññ±’ti v± sop±ka ‘r³pasaññ±’ti v± ime dhamm± n±natth± n±n±byañjan±, ud±hu ekatth± byañjanameva n±nan”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 1.45) dasa asubhanissite pañhe pucchi. So te by±k±si. Bhagav± tassa s±dhuk±ra½ datv± “kativasso tva½, sop±k±”ti pucchi. Sattavassoha½ bhagav±ti. “Sop±ka, tva½ mama sabbaññutaññ±ºena saddhi½ sa½sanditv± pañhe by±k±s²”ti ±raddhacitto upasampada½ anuj±ni, aya½ pañh±by±karaº³pasampad±.
Aµµhagarudhammapaµiggahaº³pasampad± n±ma mah±paj±patiy± aµµhagarudhammappaµiggahaºena anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
D³ten³pasampad± n±ma a¹¹hak±siy± gaºik±ya anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
Aµµhav±cik³pasampad± n±ma bhikkhuniy± bhikkhunisaªghato ñatticatutthena, bhikkhusaªghato ñatticatutthen±ti imehi dv²hi kammehi upasampad±.
Ñatticatutthakamm³pasampad± n±ma bhikkh³na½ etarahi upasampad±. Ñatticatutthen±ti t²hi anuss±van±hi, ek±ya ca ñattiy±ti eva½ ñatticatutthena. Kiñc±pi hi ñatti sabbapaµhama½ vuccati, tissanna½ pana anuss±van±na½ atthabyañjanabhed±bh±vato atthabyañjanabhinna½ ñatti½ t±sa½ catutthanti katv± “ñatticatutthan”ti vuccati. Akuppen±ti akopetabbata½, appaµikkositabbatañca upagatena. Ýh±n±rahen±ti k±raº±rahena satthu s±san±rahena. Upasampanno n±ma uparibh±va½ sam±panno, pattoti attho. Bhikkhubh±vo hi uparibh±vo, tañcesa yath±vuttena kammena sam±pannatt± “upasampanno”ti vuccati. Kasm± panettha imin±va upasampanno idha gahito, n±ññeh²ti? Vuccate– ehibhikkh³pasampad± antimabhavik±nameva, saraºagaman³pasampad± parisuddh±na½, ov±dappaµiggahaºapañh±by±karaº³pasampad± mah±kassapasop±k±na½, na ca te bhabb± p±r±jik±dilokavajja½ ±pajjitu½, aµµhagarudhammappaµiggahaº±dayo ca bhikkhun²na½yeva anuññ±t±. Ayañca bhikkhu, tasm± ñatticatuttheneva upasampad±kammena upasampanno idha gahito, n±ññeh²ti veditabbo. Paººattivajjesu pana sikkh±padesu aññepi ehibhikkh³pasampad±ya upasampann±dayo saªgayhanti (s±rattha. µ². 2.45 bhikkhupadabh±jan²yavaººan±). Vakkhati hi “paººattivajjesu pana aññepi saªgaha½ gacchant²”ti. Id±ni “akuppena µh±n±rahena upasampanno”ti sa½khittena vuttamattha½ vitth±retv± dassetu½ “tassa pan±”ti-±dim±ha.
Tatth±ti tesu pañcasu. Vasati etth±ti vatthu, ±dh±ro patiµµh±. Ten±ha “upasampad±pekkho puggalo”ti. Ðn±ni aparipuºº±ni v²sati vass±ni ass±ti ³nav²sativasso. Ettha ya½ vattabba½, ta½ upari sapp±ºakavagge ³nav²satisikkh±pade (kaªkh±. aµµha. ³nav²sativassasikkh±padavaººan±) vaººayiss±ma. Tes³ti paº¹ak±d²su ek±dasasu abhabbapuggalesu. Paº¹ako (mah±va. aµµha. 109) panettha pañcavidho hoti ±sittapaº¹ako, us³yapaº¹ako opakkamikapaº¹ako, napu½sakapaº¹ako, pakkhapaº¹akoti. Tesu ±sittapaº¹akassa ca us³yapaº¹akassa ca pabbajj± na v±rit±, itaresa½ tiººa½ v±rit±. Tesupi pakkhapaº¹akassa yasmi½ pakkhe paº¹ako hoti, tasmi½yevassa pakkhe pabbajj± v±rit±ti. Tayo cettha pabbajj³pasampad±na½ abhabbat±ya avatth³. Ten±ha “±sittapaº¹akañc±”ti-±di. Tattha yassa paresa½ aªgaj±ta½ mukhena gahetv± asucin± ±sittassa pari¼±ho v³pasammati, aya½ ±sittapaº¹ako. Yassa paresa½ ajjh±c±ra½ passato us³y±ya uppann±ya pari¼±ho v³pasammati, aya½ us³yapaº¹ako. Yassa upakkamena b²j±ni apan²t±ni, aya½ opakkamikapaº¹ako (vi. saªga. aµµha. 135; vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.109). Yo pana paµisandhiya½yeva abh±vako uppanno, aya½ napu½sakapaº¹ako. Ekacco pana akusalavip±k±nubh±vena k±¼apakkhe paº¹ako hoti, juºhapakkhe panassa pari¼±ho v³pasammati, aya½ pakkhapaº¹akoti veditabbo.
Theyyena sa½v±so etass±ti theyyasa½v±sako. So ca na sa½v±samattasseva thenako idh±dhippeto, atha kho liªgassa, tadubhayassa ca thenakop²ti ±ha “theyyasa½v±sako pana tividho”ti-±di. Na bhikkhuvass±ni gaºet²ti (mah±va. aµµha. 110) “aha½ dasavasso v± v²sativasso v±”ti mus± vatv± bhikkhuvass±ni na gaºeti. Na yath±vu¹¹ha½ bhikkh³na½ v± s±maºer±na½ v± vandana½ s±diyat²ti attan± mus±v±da½ katv± dassitavass±nur³pena yath±vu¹¹ha½ vandana½ n±dhiv±seti. Na ±sanena paµib±hat²ti “apehi, me eta½ p±puº±t²”ti ±sanena nappaµib±hati. Na uposath±d²su sandissat²ti uposathappav±raº±d²su na sandissati. Liªgamattassev±ti evasaddena sa½v±sa½ nivatteti. Sam±noti santo. Liªg±nur³passa sa½v±sass±ti s±maºeraliªg±nur³passa s±maºerasa½v±sassa. Sace pana k±s±ye dhura½ nikkhipitv± naggo v± od±tavatthanivattho v± methunasevan±d²hi assamaºo hutv± k±s±y±ni niv±seti, liªgatthenako hoti. Sace gihibh±va½ patthayam±no k±s±ya½ ovaµµika½ katv±, aññena v± ±k±rena gihiniv±sanena niv±seti “sobhati nu kho me gihiliªga½, na sobhat²”ti v²ma½sanattha½, rakkhati t±va, “sobhat²”ti sampaµicchitv± puna liªga½ s±diyati, liªgatthenako hoti. Od±ta½ niv±setv± v²ma½sanasampaµicchanesupi eseva nayo Sacepi nivatthak±s±vassa upari od±ta½ niv±setv± v²ma½sati v± sampaµicchati v±, rakkhati eva.
Antimavatthu-ajjh±pannakepi eseva nayoti p±r±jika½ ±pannake bhikkhumhipi eseva nayoti attho. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– sace koci bhikkhu k±s±ye sa-uss±hova od±ta½ niv±setv± methuna½ paµisevitv± puna k±s±y±ni niv±setv± vassagaºan±dibheda½ sabba½ vidhi½ ±pajjati, aya½ bhikkh³hi dinnaliªgassa apariccattatt± na liªgatthenako, liªg±nur³passa sa½v±sassa s±ditatt± n±pi sa½v±satthenakoti. Videsanti paradesa½. Idañca vañcetu½ sakkuºeyyaµµh±na½ dassetu½ vutta½. Yo pana sadesepi eva½ karoti, sopi sa½v±satthenakova. “Sa½v±samattassev±”ti imin± liªga½ paµikkhipati. Sace koci vu¹¹hapabbajito (mah±va. aµµha. 110) bhikkhuvass±ni gaºetv± mah±pe¼±d²su diyyam±nabhatta½ gaºh±ti, sopi theyyasa½v±sako hoti. Saya½ s±maºerova s±maºerappaµip±µiy± k³µavass±ni gaºetv± gaºhanto theyyasa½v±sako na hoti. Bhikkhu pana bhikkhupaµip±µiy± k³µavass±ni gaºetv± gaºhanto bhaº¹agghena k±retabbo.
Nanu sa½v±so n±ma ekakamma½ ekuddeso samasikkhat±ti ±ha “bhikkhuvassagaºan±diko h²”ti-±di. Imin± na kevala½ ekakamm±dikova kiriyabhedo sa½v±soti idh±dhippeto, atha kho tadañño bhikkhuvassagaºan±dikop²ti dasseti. Imasmi½ attheti theyyasa½v±sak±dhik±re. Sikkha½ paccakkh±y±ti sikkha½ pariccajitv±. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– sace koci bhikkhu sikkha½ paccakkh±ya liªga½ anapanetv± duss²lakamma½ katv± v± akatv± v± “na ma½ koci j±n±t²”ti puna sabba½ pubbe vutta½ vassagaºan±dibheda½ vidhi½ paµipajjati, so theyyasa½v±sako hot²ti.
Sace pana kassaci r±j± kuddho hoti, so “eva½ me sotthi bhavissat²”ti sayameva liªga½ gahetv± pal±yati. Ta½ disv± rañño ±rocenti. R±j± “sace pabbajito, na ta½ labbh± kiñci k±tun”ti tasmi½ kodha½ paµivineti. So “v³pasanta½ me r±jabhayan”ti saªghamajjha½ anosaritv±va gihiliªga½ gahetv± ±gato pabb±jetabbo. Ath±pi “s±sana½ niss±ya may± j²vita½ laddha½, handa d±ni aha½ pabbaj±m²”ti uppannasa½vego teneva liªgena ±gantv± ±gantukavatta½ na s±diyati, bhikkh³hi puµµho v± apuµµho v± yath±bh³tamatt±na½ ±vikatv±va pabbajja½ y±cati, liªga½ apanetv± pabb±jetabbo. Sace pana vatta½ s±diyati, pabbajit±laya½ dasseti, sabba½ pubbe vutta½ vassagaºan±dibheda½ paµipajjati, aya½ pana na pabb±jetabbo.