4. Catutthap±r±jikavaººan±

Idheva saªgahanti “iti j±n±mi, iti pass±m²”ti pade kathanti ce, “iti j±n±m²”ti-±dim±ha Kevala½ “p±picchat±y±”ti (kaªkh±. aµµha. catutthap±r±jikavaººan±) vacanato mandatt± mom³hatt± samud±carantassa an±patt²ti d²pita½. “At²tak±le sot±pannomh²”ti vadanto pariy±yena vadati, “yo te vih±re vasati, so bhikkhu arah±”ti-±d²su (pari. 165) viya sikkh±padepi “iti j±n±m²”ti (p±r±. 195, 197) paccuppannameva vutta½.

Catutthap±r±jikavaººan± niµµhit±.

M±tugh±takapitugh±taka-arahantagh±tak± tatiyap±r±jika½ ±pann±, bhikkhunid³sako, lamb²-±dayo ca catt±ro paµhamap±r±jika½ ±pann± ev±ti katv± kuto catuv²sat²ti ce? Na, adhipp±y±j±nanato. M±tugh±tak±dayo hi catt±ro idh±nupasampann± eva adhippet±, lamb²-±dayo catt±ro kiñc±pi paµhamap±r±jikena saªgahit±, yasm± pana ekena pariy±yena methunadhamma½ paµisevino honti, tasm± visu½ vutt±. Na labhati bhikkh³h²ti ettha “uposath±dibheda½ sa½v±san”ti ettaka½ vutta½. Vinayaµµhakath±ya½ “uposathappav±raº±p±timokkhuddesasaªghakammappabhedan”ti vutta½. P±¼iya½ “sa½v±so n±ma ekakamma½ ekuddeso samasikkhat±”ti (p±r±. 55, 92, 172, 198) vutta½. Tividhen±pi saªghakamma½ k±tu½ na vaµµat²ti paµikkhitta½. “Na, bhikkhave, gahaµµhena nisinnaparis±ya p±timokkha½ uddisitabban”ti-±di (mah±va. 154) p±timokkhappav±raº±su eva ±gata½, aññesu ca evar³pesu µh±nesu sesa½ kamma½ k±tu½ natthi paµikkhepo. ¾cariy±pi “sesa½ kamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati, natthi ±patt²”ti vadanti. “Antimavatthu ajjh±panna½ am³lakena p±r±jikena codentassa saªgh±diseso, saªgh±disesena codentassa p±cittiyanti bhikkhuno viya vutta½, na anupasampannassa viya dukkaµa½. Tasm± tena sahaseyy±, tassa paµiggahaºañca bhikkhussa vaµµat²ti ±cariy± vadant²”ti likhita½. “Yath± pure tath± pacch±ti ‘ekakamma½ ekuddeso samasikkhat±’ti eva½ vuttasa½v±sassa abhabbat±matta½ sandh±ya vuttan”ti vadanti, v²ma½sitabba½.
Id±ni catunnampi s±dh±raºa½ pakiººaka½– methunadhamma½ paµisevanto atthi koci p±r±jiko hoti asa½v±so, atthi koci na p±r±jiko hoti asa½v±so, atthi koci na p±r±jiko sa½v±so dukkaµavatthusmi½ v± thullaccayavatthusmi½ v± paµisevanto, atthi koci na p±r±jiko pakkhapaº¹ako apaº¹akapakkhe upasampanno paº¹akapakkhe methunadhamma½ paµisevanto. So ±patti½ n±pajjat²ti na p±r±jiko n±ma. Na hi abhikkhussa ±patti n±ma atthi. So an±pattikatt± apaº¹akapakkhe ±gato ki½ asa½v±so hoti, na hot²ti? Hoti. “Abhabbo tena sar²rabandhanen±”ti (mah±va. 129) hi vutta½. “Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno…pe… asa½v±so”ti (p±r±. 44) vuttatt± yo bhikkhubh±vena methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevati, so eva abhabbo. N±ya½ ap±r±jikatt±ti ce? Na, “byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena saªgho ñ±petabbo”ti (mah±va. 126) vuttaµµh±ne yath± abhikkhun± kammav±c±ya s±vit±yapi kamma½ ruhati kammavipattiy± asambhavato, eva½sampadamida½ daµµhabba½. Tatr±ya½ viseso– upasampannapubbo eva½ ce kammav±ca½ s±veti, saªgho ca tasmi½ upasampannasaññ² eva ce, kamma½ ruhati, n±ññath±ti no khant²ti ±cariyo.
Gahaµµho v± titthiyo v± paº¹ako v± kammav±ca½ s±veti, saªghena kammav±c± na vutt± hoti. “Saªgho upasamp±deyya saªgho upasamp±deti, upasampanno saªghen±”ti (mah±va. 127) hi vacanato saªghena kammav±c±ya vattabbat±ya saªghapariy±pannena, saªghapariy±pannasaññitena v± ekena vutt±ya saªghena vutt± hot²ti veditabbo, na gahaµµhatitthiyapaº¹ak±d²su aññatarena. Ayameva sabbakammesu yutti daµµhabb±.
Tath± atthi methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevanto koci n±setabbo, “yo bhikkhunid³sako, aya½ n±setabbo”ti (mah±va. 114-115 atthato sam±na½) vuttatt± tena eva so anupasampannova sahaseyy±patti½ v± añña½ v± t±disa½ janeti, tassa omasane ca dukkaµa½ hoti. Abhikkhuniy± methunadhamma½ paµisevanto na n±setabbo, “antimavatthu½ ajjh±panno, bhikkhave, anupasampanno na upasamp±detabbo”ti p±¼iy± abh±vato, teneva so upasampannasaªkha½ gacchati, sahaseyy±patti-±di½ na janeti, kevala½ asa½v±soti katv± gaºap³rako na hoti. Ekakamma-ekuddeso hi sa½v±soti vutto, samasikkhat±pi sa½v±soti katv± so tena saddhi½ natth²ti. Padasodhamm±patti½ pana janet²ti k±raºacch±y± dissat²ti. Yath± bhikkhuniy± saddhi½ bhikkhusaªghassa ekakamm±dino sa½v±sassa abh±v± bhikkhun² asa½v±s± bhikkhussa, tath± bhikkhu ca bhikkhuniy±, padasodhamm±patti½ pana na janeti. Tath± antimavatthu½ ajjh±pannopi ekecco “yo n±setabboti vutto”ti imin± nidassanena sak±raºacch±y± ajjhupekkhit± hot²ti na gahaºa½ gacchati. Apica “ubho n±setabb±, d³sako n±setabbo”ti (p±r±. 66) vacanato, “mettiya½ bhikkhuni½ n±seth±”ti (p±r±. 384) vacanato ca yo saªghamajjha½ pavisitv± anuvijjakena anuvijjiyam±no par±jito, sopi anupasampannova, na omasav±dap±cittiya½ janet²ti veditabbo.
Apicettha sikkh±paccakkh±takacatukka½ veditabba½. Atthi hi puggalo sikkh±paccakkh±tako na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, atthi puggalo na sikkh±paccakkh±tako sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, atthi puggalo sikkh±paccakkh±tako ceva sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno ca, atthi puggalo neva sikkh±paccakkh±tako na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno. Tattha tatiyo bhikkhun² sikkh±paccakkh±tak± veditabb±. S± hi y±va na liªga½ pariccajati, k±s±vesu sa-uss±h±va sam±n± s±maññ± cavituk±m± sikkha½ paccakkhant²pi bhikkhun² eva sikkh±s±j²vasam±pann±va. Vuttañhi bhagavat± “natthi, bhikkhave, bhikkhuniy± sikkh±paccakkh±nan”ti. Kad± pana s± abhikkhun² hot²ti? Yad± s± vibbhant±ti saªkha½ gacchati. Vuttañhi bhagavat± “yadeva s± vibbhant±, tadeva s± abhikkhun²”ti (c³¼ava. 434). Kitt±vat± pana vibbhant± hot²ti? S±maññ± cavituk±m± k±s±vesu an±lay± k±s±va½ v± apaneti, nagg± v± gacchati, tiºapaºº±din± v± paµicch±detv± gacchati, k±s±va½yeva v± gihiniv±san±k±rena niv±seti, od±ta½ v± vattha½ niv±seti, liªgeneva v± saddhi½ titthiyesu pavisitv± kesaluñcan±divata½ sam±diyati, titthiyaliªga½ v± sam±diyati, tad± vibbhant± n±ma hoti. Tattha y± saliªge µhit±va titthiyavata½ sam±diyati, s± titthiyapakkantabhikkhu viya pacch± pabbajjampi na labhati. Ses± pabbajjameva labhati, na upasampada½. P±¼iya½ kiñc±pi “y±, bhikkhave, bhikkhun² sak±v±s± titth±yatana½ saªkant±, s± ±gat± na upasamp±detabb±”ti (c³¼ava. 434) vacanato y± paµhama½ vibbhamitv± pacch± titth±yatana½ saªkant±, s± ±gat± upasamp±detabb±ti anuññ±ta½ viya dissati. Saªg²ti-±cariyehi pana “catuv²sati p±r±jik±n²”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.233) vuttatt± na puna s± upasamp±detabb±. Tasm± eva sikkh±paccakkh±na½ n±nuññ±ta½ bhagavat±. Antimavatthu½ ajjh±pann± pana bhikkhun² eva. Pakkhapaº¹ak²pi bhikkhun² eva. Ima½ naya½ cat³supi yojetv± yath±raha½ kathetabba½.

P±r±jikavaººan± niµµhit±.