Etth±ti etasmi½ g±th±pade, etesa½ v± g±th±ya saªgahit±na½ “suº±tu me”ti-±d²na½ pad±namantare. Savane ±ºattivacana½ savan±ºattivacana½. Kiñc±pi savan±ºattivacana½, tath±pi p±timokkhuddesakena eva½ vattabbanti bhagavat± vuttatt± bhagavato ±ºatti, na uddesakass±ti navakataren±pi ida½ vattu½ vaµµati saªghag±ravena, saªghabahum±nena ca sahitatt± sag±ravasappatissavacana½. Saªgho hi suppaµipannat±diguºavisesayuttatt± uttama½ g±ravappatissavaµµh±na½. Idañca sabba½ kena kattha kad± vuttanti ±ha “sabbameva cetan”ti-±di. P±timokkhuddesa½ anuj±nanten±ti–
“Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, p±timokkha½ uddisitu½, evañca pana, bhikkhave, uddisitabba½, byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena saªgho ñ±petabbo ‘suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho”’ti (mah±va. 133-134)–

Evam±din± anuj±nantena. R±jagaheti eva½n±make nagare. Tañhi mandh±tumah±govind±d²hi pariggahitatt± “r±jagahan”ti vuccati. Ta½ paneta½ buddhak±le, cakkavattik±le ca nagara½ hoti, sesak±le suñña½ hoti yakkhapariggahita½, tesa½ vasanaµµh±na½ hutv± tiµµhati. Tasm±ti yasm± ida½ p±timokkhuddesakena vattabbavacana½, tasm±. Ki½ te ubhopi p±timokkha½ uddisanti, yeneva½ vattabbanti ±ha “saªghatthero v± h²”ti-±di. Ther±dhikanti ther±dh²na½, ther±yatta½ bhavitunti attho. “Ther±dheyyan”ti v± p±µho, soyevattho. Tatth±ti tissa½ paris±ya½. Byattoti paññ±veyyattiyena samann±gato, paguºam±tikoti attho. Paµibaloti vattu½ samattho, abh²toti vutta½ hoti. Ettha ca kiñc±pi daharass±pi byattassa p±timokkho anuññ±to, atha kho etth±ya½ adhipp±yo– sace therassa pañca v± catt±ro v± tayo v± p±timokkhuddes± n±gacchanti, dve pana akkhaº¹± suvisad± v±cuggat± honti, ther±yattova p±timokkho. Sace pana ettakampi visada½ k±tu½ na sakkoti, byattassa bhikkhuno ±yattoti.

Id±ni “saªgho”ti avisesena vuttatt± idh±dhippetasaªgha½ visesetv± dassetu½ “saªghoti imin± pana paden±”ti-±dim±ha kiñc±p²ti anuggahatthe nip±to, tassa yadi n±m±ti attho veditabbo. Dakkhanti et±ya satt± yath±dhippet±hi sampatt²hi va¹¹hant²ti dakkhiº±, paraloka½ saddahitv± d±tabba½ d±na½, ta½ dakkhiºa½ arahati, dakkhiº±ya v± hito, yasm± na½ mahapphalak±rit±ya visodhet²ti dakkhiºeyyo, diµµhis²lasaªgh±tena sa½hatoti saªgho, dakkhiºeyyo ca so saªgho c±ti dakkhiºeyyasaªgho. Sammutiy± catuvagg±divinayapaññattiy± siddho saªgho sammutisaªgho. Avisesen±ti “ariy±”ti v± “puthujjan±”ti v± avisesetv± s±maññena. Soti sammutisaªgho. Idh±ti imissa½ uposathañattiya½. Adhippeto uposathañattiy± avisesatt±. Nanu ca sopi pañcavidho hoti, tattha katamo idh±dhippetoti anuyoga½ sandh±y±ha “so panes±”ti-±di. Kammavasen±ti vinayakammavasena. Pañca vidh± pak±r± assa sammutisaªghass±ti pañcavidho. Tath± hi vidhayuttagatappak±rasadde sam±natthe vaººayanti. Catunna½ vaggo sam³hoti catuvaggo, catuparim±ºayutto v± vaggo catuvaggo. Eva½ pañcavagg±di.
Id±ni yesa½ kamm±na½ vasen±ya½ pañcavidho hoti, ta½ visesetv± dassetu½ “tatth±”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tatth±ti pañcavidhe saªghe. Majjhimesu janapadesu upasampadakammassa dasavaggakaraº²yatt± vutta½ “µhapetv±…pe… upasampadañc±”ti. “Tath±”ti imin± “na kiñci saªghakamma½ k±tu½ na vaµµat²”ti imamattha½ atidisati. Yadi eva½ kimattha½ atirekav²sativaggo vuttoti ±ha “so pan±”ti-±di. Atirekataren±ti catuvagg±dikaraº²ya½ pañcavagg±din± atirekatarena, dasavaggakaraº²yañca ek±dasavagg±din± atirekatarena. Dassanatthanti ñ±panattha½. Idameva c±nena kattabba½ kammanti “kammavasena pañcavidho”ti vutta½. Kammass±niyame kathameta½ yujjeyy±ti ²dis² codan± anavak±s±ti daµµhabba½. Imasmi½ panattheti uposathe.
Uposathasaddo pan±ya½ p±timokkhuddesas²la-upav±sapaññattidivasesu vattati. Tath± hesa “±y±m±vuso kappina, uposatha½ gamiss±m±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. aµµha. 1.150; ma. ni. aµµha. 3.85) timokkhuddese ±gato, “eva½ aµµhaªgasamann±gato kho, vis±khe, uposatho upavuttho”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 8.43) s²le, “suddhassa ve sad± phaggu, suddhassuposatho sad±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.79) upav±se, “uposatho n±ma n±gar±j±”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.246) paññattiya½, “na, bhikkhave, tadahuposathe sabhikkhuk± ±v±s±”ti-±d²su (mah±va. 181) divase, idh±pi divaseyeva vattam±no adhippetoti ±ha “ajja uposathadivaso”ti-±di. Upavasanti etth±ti uposatho. Upavasant²ti s²lena v± sabbaso ±h±rassa abhuñjanasaªkh±tena anasanena v± kh²rap±namadhup±n±dimattena v± upet± hutv± vasant²ti attho.
Sabbesampi v±ky±na½ eva-k±ratthasahitatt± “uposatho”ti etassa “uposatho ev±”ti ayamattho labbhat²ti ±ha “etena anuposathadivasa½ paµikkhipat²”ti. Imin± avadh±raºena nir±kata½ dasseti, atha v± saddantaratth±pohanavasena saddo attha½ vadat²ti “uposatho”ti etassa “anuposatho na hot²”ti ayamatthoti vutta½ “etena anuposathadivasa½ paµikkhipat²”ti. “Esa nayo pannaraso”ti imin± añña½ uposathadivasa½ paµikkhipat²ti etth±pi. Eten±ti “uposatho”ti etena saddena. Pañcadasanna½ tith²na½ p³raºavasena pannaraso. Pannarasoti imin± añña½ uposathadivasa½ paµikkhipat²”ti sa½khittena vuttamattha½ vitth±rato dassetu½ “divasavasena h²”ti-±dim±ha. Catuddasiya½ niyutto c±tuddasiko. Eva½ pannarasiko. S±maggi-uposatho n±ma saªghas±maggikatadivase k±tabba-uposatho. Hemantagimhavass±n±na½ tiººa½ ut³nanti ettha hemanta-utu n±ma aparakattikassa k±¼apakkhap±µipadato paµµh±ya phaggunapuººamapariyos±n± catt±ro m±s±, gimha-utu n±ma phaggunassa k±lapakkhap±µipadato paµµh±ya ±s±¼hapuººamapariyos±n± catt±ro m±s±, vass±na-utu n±ma ±s±¼hassa k±¼apakkhap±µipadato paµµh±ya aparakattikapuººamapariyos±n± catt±ro m±s±. Tatiyasattamapakkhesu dve dve katv± cha c±tuddasik±ti hemantassa utuno tatiye ca sattame ca pakkhe dve c±tuddasik±, evamitaresa½ ut³nanti cha c±tuddasik±. Ses± pannarasik±ti ses± aµµh±rasa pannarasik±. Honti cettha–
“Kattikassa ca k±¼amh±, y±va phaggunapuººam±;
‘hemantak±lo’ti viññeyyo, aµµha honti uposath±.
“Phaggunassa ca k±¼amh±, y±va ±s±¼hapuººam±;
‘gimhak±lo’ti viññeyyo, aµµha honti uposath±.
“¾s±¼hassa ca k±¼amh±, y±va kattikapuººam±;
‘vassak±lo’ti viññeyyo, aµµha honti uposath±.
“Ut³na½ pana tiººanna½, pakkhe tatiyasattame;
‘c±tuddaso’ti p±timokkha½, uddisanti nayaññuno”ti.
Pakatiy± nabahutar±v±sik±dipaccayena k±tabba½ pakatic±ritta½. Bahutar±v±sik±dipaccaye pana sati aññasmi½ c±tuddasepi k±tu½ vaµµati. Ten±ha “sakin”ti-±di. Sakinti ekasmi½ v±re ¾v±sik±na½ anuvattitabbanti ±v±sikehi “ajjuposatho c±tuddaso”ti pubbakicce kariyam±ne anuvattitabba½, na paµikkositabba½. ¾disaddena “±v±sikehi ±gantuk±na½ anuvattitabban”ti (mah±va. 178) vacana½, “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, tehi bhikkh³hi dve tayo uposathe c±tuddasike k±tu½, katha½ maya½ tehi bhikkh³hi paµhamatara½ pav±reyy±m±”ti (mah±va. 240) vacanañca saªgaºh±ti. Ettha ca paµhamasuttassa ekekassa utuno tatiyasattamapakkhassa c±tuddase v± avasesassa pannarase v± saki½ p±timokkha½ uddisitabbanti pakatic±rittavasenapi atthasambhavato “±gantukeh²”ti-±d²ni sutt±ni dassit±n²ti veditabba½. Tath±r³papaccaye sat²ti aññasmimpi c±tuddasike uposatha½ k±tu½ anur³pe “±v±sik± bahutar± hont²”ti evam±dike paccaye sati. Aññasmimpi c±tuddaseti tiººa½ ut³na½ tatiyasattamapakkhac±tuddasato aññasmi½ c±tuddase.
Na kevala½ uposathadivas±va hont²ti ±ha “purimavassa½vuµµh±na½ pan±”ti-±di. iti cando vuccati tassa gatiy± divasassa minitabbato, so ettha sabbakal±p±rip³riy± puººoti puººam±, pubbakattik±ya puººam± pubbakattikapuººam±, assayujapuººam±. S± hi pacchimakattika½ nivattetu½ eva½ vutt±. Tesa½yev±ti purimavassa½vuµµh±na½yeva. Bhaº¹anak±rakeh²ti kalahak±rakehi. Paccukka¹¹hant²ti ukka¹¹hanti. Bhaº¹anak±rakehi anuv±davasena assayujapuººam±di½ pariccajant± pav±raºa½ k±¼apakkha½, juºhapakkhanti uddha½ ka¹¹hant²ti attho. “Suºantu me ±yasmanto ±v±sik±, yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, id±ni uposatha½ kareyy±ma, p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±ma, ±game k±¼e pav±reyy±m±”ti (mah±va. 240) “suºantu me ±yasmanto ±v±sik±, yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, id±ni uposatha½ kareyy±ma, p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±ma, ±game juºhe pav±reyy±m±”ti ca eva½ ñattiy± pav±raºa½ ukka¹¹hant²ti vutta½ hoti.
Ath±ti anantaratthe nip±to. Catuddasanna½ p³raºo c±tuddaso, divaso. Ya½ sandh±ya “±game juºhe pav±reyy±m±”ti ñatti½ µhapayi½su, tasmi½ pana ±game juºhe komudiy± c±tum±siniy± avassa½ pav±retabba½. Na hi ta½ atikkamitv± pav±retu½ labbhati. Vuttañheta½–
“Te ce, bhikkhave, bhikkh³ bhaº¹anak±rak± kalahak±rak± viv±dak±rak± bhassak±rak± saªghe adhikaraºak±rak± tampi juºha½ anuvaseyyu½, tehi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³hi sabbeheva ±game juºhe komudiy± c±tum±siniy± ak±m± pav±retabban”ti (mah±va. 240).

Tenev±ha “pacchimavassa½vuµµh±nañca pacchimakattikapuººam± ev±”ti. Yadi hi ta½ atikkamitv± pav±reyya, dukkaµ±patti½ ±pajjeyya. Vuttañheta½ “na ca, bhikkhave, apav±raº±ya pav±retabba½ aññatra saªghas±maggiy±”ti (mah±va. 233). Visuddhipav±raº±yogato pav±raº±divas±. Pisaddena na kevala½ pav±raº±divas±yeva, atha kho uposathadivas±pi hont²ti dasseti. Id±ni yo so s±maggi-uposathadivaso vutto, tañca tappasaªgena s±maggipav±raº±divasañca dassento “yad± pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Os±rite tasmi½ bhikkhusminti ukkhittake bhikkhusmi½ os±rite, ta½ gahetv± s²ma½ gantv± ±patti½ des±petv± kammav±c±ya kammappaµippassaddhivasena pavesiteti vutta½ hoti. Tassa vatthuss±ti tassa adhikaraºassa. Tad± µhapetv±…pe… uposathadivaso n±ma hot²ti sambandho. Ki½ k±raºanti ±ha “t±vadev±”ti-±di. Tattha t±vadev±ti ta½ divasameva. Vacanatoti kosambakakkhandhake (mah±va. 475) vuttatt±. Yattha pana pattac²var±d²na½ atth±ya appamattakena k±raºena vivadant± uposatha½ v± pav±raºa½ v± µhapenti, tattha tasmi½ adhikaraºe vinicchite “samagg± j±tamh±”ti antar± s±maggi-uposatha½ k±tu½ na labhanti. Karontehi anuposathe uposatho kato n±ma hoti. Kattikam±sabbhantareti ettha kattikam±so n±ma pubbakattikam±sassa k±¼apakkhap±µipadato paµµh±ya y±va aparakattikapuººam±, t±va ek³nati½sarattidivo, tassabbhantare, tato pacch± v± pana pure v± na vaµµati. Ayameva yo koci divasoyeva. Idh±pi kosambakakkhandhake s±maggiy± sadis±va s±magg² veditabb±. Ye pana kismiñcideva appamattake pav±raºa½ µhapetv± samagg± honti, tehi pav±raº±yameva pav±raº± k±tabb±, t±vadeva na k±tabb±. Karontehi appav±raº±ya pav±raº± kat± hoti. Na k±tabboyev±ti niyamena yadi karoti, dukkaµanti dasseti. Tattha hi uposathakaraºe dukkaµa½. Vuttañheta½ “na, bhikkhave, anuposathe uposatho k±tabbo aññatra saªghas±maggiy±”ti (mah±va. 183).