Nid±navaººan±

Eva½ ratanattayapaº±m±disahita½ saññ±dika½ dassetv± id±ni “p±timokkhassa vaººana½ vaººayiss±m²”ti vuttatt± p±timokkha½ t±va vacanatthato, sar³pabhedato, ganthabhedato, uddesavibh±gato, uddesaparicchedato ca vavatthapetv± taduddesakkamen±ya½ vaººan± bhavissat²ti dassetu½ “tattha p±timokkhan”ti-±di ±raddha½.
Tattha tatth±ti tasmi½ g±th±pade. Pa-atimokkhanti pak±rato ativiya s²lesu mukhabh³ta½. Atipamokkhanti tameva pada½ upasaggabyattayena vadati. Atha v± pa ati mokkhanti padacchedo, tassa upasaggabyattayenattham±ha “atipamokkhan”ti. Eva½ pabhedato padavaººana½ katv± saddatthato vadati “atiseµµha½ ati-uttamanti attho”ti. Ettha ca s²lap±timokkha½ sabbaguº±na½ m³labh±vato seµµha½, ganthap±timokkha½ pana seµµhaguºasahacaraºato seµµhanti veditabba½. Uttamanti etth±pi eseva nayo. It²ti eva½. Imin± yath±vuttavacanattha½ nidasseti. Nidassanattho hi aya½ iti-saddo “sabbamatth²ti kho, kacc±na, ayameko anto, sabba½ natth²ti kho, kacc±na, aya½ dutiyo anto”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 2.15; 3.90) viya. Imin±ti ±sannapaccakkhavacana½ iti-saddena anantaranidassitassa, paµigg±hakehi ca sotaviññ±º±div²thiy± paµipannassa vacanatthassa vacanato. Atha v± imin±ti ±sannapaccakkhabh±vakaraºavacana½ yath±vuttassa vacanatthassa abhimukh²karaºato. Vacanatthen±ti “atiseµµhan”ti saddatthena. Ekavidhamp²ti ekakoµµh±sampi. S²laganthabhedato duvidha½ hot²ti puna s²laganthasaªkh±tena pabhedena duvidha½ hoti, s²lap±timokkha½, ganthap±timokkhañc±ti duvidha½ hot²ti attho.
Id±ni tadubhayass±pi sutte ±gatabh±va½ dassetu½ “tath± h²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha p±ti rakkhat²ti p±ti, ta½ mokkheti moceti ±p±yik±d²hi dukkheh²ti p±timokkha½, sa½varaºa½ sa½varo, k±yav±c±hi av²tikkamo, p±timokkhameva sa½varo p±timokkhasa½varo, p±timokkhasa½varena sa½vuto samann±gato p±timokkhasa½varasa½vuto. Viharat²ti vattati.
¾dimetanti eta½ sikkh±padas²la½ pubbuppatti-atthena ±di. Vuttampi ceta½–
“Tasm±tiha tva½, uttiya, ±dimeva visodhehi kusalesu dhammesu. Ko c±di kusal±na½ dhamm±na½? S²lañca suvisuddha½, diµµhi ca ujuk±”ti (sa½. ni. 5.382).
Yath± hi nagarava¹¹hak² nagara½ m±petuk±mo paµhama½ nagaraµµh±na½ sodheti, tato aparabh±ge v²thicatukkasiªgh±µak±diparicchedena vibhajitv± nagara½ m±peti, yath± v± pana rajako paµhama½ t²hi kh±rehi vattha½ dhovitv± parisuddhe vatthe yadicchaka½ raªgaj±ta½ upaneti, yath± v± pana cheko cittak±ro r³pa½ likhituk±mo ±ditova bhittiparikamma½ karoti, tato aparabh±ge r³pa½ samuµµh±peti, evameva yog±vacaro ±ditova s²la½ visodhetv± aparabh±ge samathavipassan±dayo dhamme sacchikaroti. Tasm± s²la½ “±d²”ti vutta½. “Mukhametan”ti-±d²ni vuttatth±neva. ¾disaddena “p±timokkhe ca sa½varo”ti-±dip±¼i½ (d². ni. 2.90; dha. pa. 185) saªgaºh±ti.
S²lanti c±rittav±rittavasena duvidha½ vinayapiµakapariy±panna½ sikkh±padas²la½, dhammato pana s²la½ n±ma p±º±tip±t±d²hi v± viramantassa, vattapaµipatti½ v± p³rentassa cetan±dayo dhamm± veditabb±. Vuttañheta½ paµisambhid±ya½ “ki½ s²lanti cetan± s²la½ cetasika½ s²la½ sa½varo s²la½ av²tikkamo s²lan”ti (paµi. ma. 1.39) “ubhay±ni kho panassa p±timokkh±n²”ti bhikkhubhikkhun²p±timokkhavasena ubhay±ni p±timokkh±ni, dve m±tik±ti attho. Ass±ti bhikkhunov±dakassa Vitth±ren±ti ubhatovibhaªgena saddhi½. Sv±gat±n²ti suµµhu ±gat±ni. ¾disaddena “p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±”ti-±dip±¼i½ (mah±va. 134) saªgaºh±ti. Tatth±ti tesu s²laganthap±timokkhesu. Yoti aniyamaniddeso, yo koci puggalo. Nanti vinayapariy±pannas²la½. Rakkhat²ti sam±diyitv± avikopento p±leti. Ta½ “p±t²”ti laddhan±ma½ p±timokkhas²le µhita½. Mocet²ti sahak±rik±raºabh±vato mokkheti. Ap±ye j±ta½ ±p±yika½, dukkha½, ta½ ±di yesa½ t±ni ±p±yik±d²ni. ¾disaddena tadañña½ sabba½ sa½s±radukkha½ saªgaºh±ti. Att±nuv±d±d²h²ti att±na½ anuv±do att±nuv±do, so ±di yesa½ t±ni att±nuv±d±d²ni, tehi att±nuv±d±d²hi. ¾disaddena par±nuv±dadaº¹aduggatibhay±ni saªgaºh±ti. Tassa p±timokkhassa jotakatt±ti tassa s²lap±timokkhassa d²panatt±. ¾dimhi pana vutto vacanatthoti “atiseµµhan”ti-±din± ±dimhi vutto vacanattho. Ubhinnampi s±dh±raºo hoti s²lap±timokkha½ sabbaguº±na½ m³labh±vato seµµha½, ganthap±timokkha½ seµµhaguºasahacaraºato seµµhanti.
Tatth±ti tesu s²lap±timokkhaganthap±timokkhesu. “Aya½ vaººan±”ti vakkham±navaººanam±ha. Ganthap±timokkhassa t±va yujjatu, katha½ s²lap±timokkhassa yujjat²ti ±ha “ganthe h²”ti-±di. ti k±raºatthe nip±to. Tass±ti ganthassa. Atthoti s²la½. Vaººitova hot²ti ganthavaººan±mukhena atthasseva vaººanato. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yasm± ganthe vaººite tadavin±bh±vato tassattho vaººito hoti, tasm± s²lap±timokkhassapi yujjat²ti.
Eva½ sar³pabhedato vavatthapetv± id±ni ganthabhedato vavatthapetu½ “ta½ panetan”ti-±dim±ha. Tatth±ti tesu bhikkhup±timokkhabhikkhun²p±timokkhesu dv²su. Uddes± paricchijjanti yehi vakkham±navacanappabandhehi, te uddesaparicched±, tehi. Vavatthitanti asaªkarato µhita½.
Eva½ ganthabhedato vavatthapetv± id±ni uddesavibh±gato vavatthapetu½ “tatth±”ti-±dim±ha. Uddis²yati sar³pena kath²yati ettha, eten±ti v± uddeso, nid±nassa uddesoti nid±nuddeso. Eva½ sesesupi. Vitth±rova uddeso vitth±ruddeso.
Id±ni nid±nuddes±d²na½ paricchedadassanattha½ “tattha nid±nuddeso”ti-±di ±raddha½. Tattha tatth±ti tesu pañcasu uddesesu. Nid±nuddeso uddiµµho hot²ti sambandho. Ya½ panettha nid±nuddesapariccheda½ dassentena “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho…pe… ±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti idh±gatanid±nap±¼i½ dassetv± tadanantara½ uddesak±le vattabbass±pi “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±nan”ti imassa p±µhassa yojana½ akatv± “tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti-±din± anus±van±dikameva yojetv± dassita½, ta½ pana aparipuººanid±nap±¼idassanapubbakanid±nuddesaparicchedadassanattha½, khuddakapeyy±lavasena v± p±kaµatt± tassa ayojana½ katanti veditabba½, uddesak±le pana yojetv±va vattabba½. Vakkhati hi “ta½ paneta½ p±r±jik±d²na½ avas±ne dissati, na nid±n±vas±ne. Kiñc±pi na dissati, atha kho uddesak±le ‘±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²’ti vatv± ‘uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±na½, tatth±yasmante pucch±m²’ti-±din± nayena vattabbamev±”ti-±di. Avasese sutena s±viteti avasiµµha½ p±r±jikuddes±dicatukka½ “sut± kho pan±yasmantehi catt±ro p±r±jik± dhamm±…pe… avivadam±nehi sikkhitabban”ti eva½ sutavasena s±vite.
Eteneva nayena ses± tayo p±timokkhuddesaparicched± veditabb±ti dassetu½ “p±r±jikuddes±d²nan”ti-±dim±ha. P±r±jikuddes±d²na½ paricched± yojetabb±ti sambandho. Nid±nassa ±dito paµµh±ya p±r±jik±d²ni os±petv±ti nid±na½, p±r±jikañca, tadubhaya½ saªgh±disesañca, ta½tika½ aniyatañc±ti eva½ yath±kkama½ uddisitv± p±r±jik±d²ni pariyos±petv±. Yojetabb±ti “avasese sutena s±vite uddiµµho hoti p±r±jikuddeso”ti-±din± yojetabb±. Avasesa½ sutena s±vetabbanti vacanatoti uposathakkhandhake–
“Pañcime, bhikkhave, p±timokkhuddes± nid±na½ uddisitv± avasesa½ sutena s±vetabba½, aya½ paµhamo p±timokkhuddeso. Nid±na½ uddisitv± catt±ri p±r±jik±ni uddisitv± avasesa½ sutena s±vetabba½, aya½ dutiyo p±timokkhuddeso”ti-±d²su (mah±va. 150)–

Eva½ vuttatt±. Yasmi½ vippakateti yasmi½ uddese apariyosite. Antar±yo uppajjat²ti dasasu antar±yesu yo koci antar±yo uppajjati Dasa antar±y± n±ma– r±jantar±yo, corantar±yo, agyantar±yo, udakantar±yo, manussantar±yo, amanussantar±yo, v±¼antar±yo, sar²sapantar±yo, j²vitantar±yo, brahmacariyantar±yoti. Tattha sace bhikkh³su “uposatha½ kariss±m±”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 150) nisinnesu r±j± ±gacchati, aya½ r±jantar±yo. Cor± ±gacchanti, aya½ corantar±yo. Davad±ho v± ±gacchati, ±v±se v± aggi uµµhahati, aya½ agyantar±yo. Megho v± uµµhahati, ogho v± ±gacchati, aya½ udakantar±yo. Bah³ manuss± ±gacchanti, aya½ manussantar±yo. Bhikkhu½ yakkho gaºh±ti, aya½ amanussantar±yo. Byaggh±dayo caº¹amig± ±gacchanti, aya½ v±¼antar±yo. Bhikkhu½ sapp±dayo ¹a½santi, aya½ sar²sapantar±yo. Bhikkhu gil±no v± hoti, k±la½ v± karoti, verino v± ta½ m±retuk±m± gaºhanti, aya½ j²vitantar±yo. Manuss± eka½ v± bah³ v± bhikkh³ brahmacariy± c±vetuk±m± gaºhanti, aya½ brahmacariyantar±yo. Iti ya½ vutta½ “antar±yo uppajjat²ti dasasu antar±yesu yo koci antar±yo uppajjat²”ti, tassattho pak±sito hot²ti.

Tena saddhinti vippakatuddesena saddhi½. Avasesa½ sutena s±vetabba½ uddiµµha-uddes±pekkhatt± avasesavacanassa. Yath±ha “nid±na½ uddisitv±”ti-±di (mah±va. 150). Ten±ha “nid±nuddese pan±”ti-±di. Sutena s±vetabba½ n±ma natthi uposathassa antar±yova hot²ti adhipp±yo. Aniyatuddeso parih±yat²ti bhikkhun²na½ aniyatasikkh±padapaññattiy± abh±vato. Tadabh±vo ca “idameva lakkhaºa½ tatth±pi anugatan”ti katv±ti veditabba½. Sesanti avasesuddesaparicchedadassana½. Etesa½ dvinna½ p±timokkh±nanti sambandho. T±v±ti paµhama½. Idanti id±ni vattabba½ buddhiya½ viparivattam±na½ s±maññena dasseti, ida½ akkharapadaniyamitaganthita½ vacana½ vuccati kath²yat²ti attho. Ki½ tanti ±ha, “suº±tu meti-±d²nan”ti-±di.
Tattha suº±tu meti-±d²nanti “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho ajjuposatho”ti-±d²na½ bhikkhup±timokkhe ±gat±na½ suttapad±na½. Atthanicchayanti abhidheyyatthassa ceva adhipp±yatthassa ca nicchayana½, vavatth±pananti attho. Im±ya hi aµµhakath±ya tesa½ abhidheyyattho ceva adhipp±yattho ca anekadh± vavatth±p²yati. Atha v± nicchinnoti nicchayo. Gaºµhiµµh±nesu kh²lamaddan±k±rena pavatt± vimaticchedakath±, attho ca nicchayo ca atthanicchayo, ta½ atthanicchaya½, may± vuccam±na½ atthañca vinicchayañc±ti vutta½ hoti. S²lasampann±ti samantato panna½ patta½ puººanti sampanna½, s²la½ sampannametesanti s²lasampann±, paripuººas²l±ti attho. Atha v± sammadeva pann± gat± up±gat±ti sampann±, s²lena sampann± s²lasampann±, p±timokkhasa½varena upet±ti attho. Adhis²la-adhicitta-adhipaññ±saªkh±t± tissopi sikkhitabbaµµhena sikkh±, ta½ k±ment²ti sikkh±k±m±. Suºantu meti te sabbepi bhikkhavo mama santik± nis±mentu. Imin± attano sa½vaººan±ya sakkacca½ savane niyojeti. Sakkaccasavanapaµibaddh± hi sabb±pi s±sanasampatt²ti. Ettha ca s²lasampann±na½ sikkh±k±m±na½yeva bhikkh³na½ gahaºa½ tadaññesa½ imiss± sa½vaººan±ya abh±janabh±vato. Na hi te vinaya½ sotabba½, paµipajjitabbañca maññissanti.