Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan±

Sabbakusaladhammappamukhassa vipulo¼±raguºavises±vahassa paramagambh²rassa p±timokkhassa atthasa½vaººana½ kattuk±moyam±cariyo paµhama½ t±va “buddha½ dhamman”ti-±din± ratanattayappaº±makaraºena attano cittasant±na½ pun±ti. Visuddhacittasant±nanissay± hi paññ± tikkhavisadabh±vappattiy± yath±dhippetasa½vaººan±ya pariyos±nagamanasamatth± hot²ti Apica ratanattayappaº±mena vidhutasabbakibbise cittasant±ne bhavantar³pacit±nipi antar±yikakamm±ni paccayavekallato yath±dhippet±ya atthasa½vaººan±ya n±lamantar±yakaraº±y±tipi ±cariyassa ratanattayavandan±.
Tattha buddhasaddassa t±va “bujjhit± sacc±n²ti buddho, bodhet± paj±y±ti buddho”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddesa 97; paµi. ma. 1.162) niddesanayena attho veditabbo. Atha v± sav±san±ya aññ±ºanidd±ya accantavigamato, buddhiy± v± vikasitabh±vato buddhav±ti buddho j±garaºavikasanatthavasena. Atha v± kassacipi ñeyyadhammassa anavabuddhassa abh±vena, ñeyyavisesassa ca kammabh±vena aggahaºato kammavacanicch±ya abh±vena avagamanatthavaseneva kattuniddeso labbhat²ti buddhav±ti buddho yath± “dikkhito na dad±t²”ti. Atthato pana p±ramit±paribh±vitena sayambhuñ±ºena sahav±san±ya vigataviddhastaniravasesupakkileso mah±karuº±sabbaññutaññ±º±di-aparimeyyaguºagaº±dh±rova khandhasant±no buddho. Yath±ha–
“Buddhoti yo so bhagav± sayambh³ an±cariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu s±ma½ sacc±ni abhisambujjhi, tattha ca sabbaññuta½ patto, balesu ca vas²bh±van”ti (mah±ni. 192; c³¼ani. p±r±yanatthutig±th±niddesa 97; paµi. ma. 1.161),

Ta½ buddha½.

Dh±ret²ti dhammo. Ayañhi yath±nusiµµha½ paµipajjam±ne ap±yadukkhe, sa½s±radukkhe ca apatam±ne dh±ret²ti, tannibbattakakilesaviddha½sanañcettha dh±raºa½. Evañca katv± ariyamaggo, tassa tadatthasiddhihetut±ya nibb±nañc±ti ubhayameva nippariy±yato dh±reti. Ariyaphalañca pana ta½samucchinnakilesapaµippassambhanena tadanuk³lat±ya, pariyattidhammo ca tadadhigamahetut±y±ti ubhayampi pariy±yato dh±ret²ti veditabba½, ta½ dhamma½. Ca-saddo samuccayattho. Tena yath±vutta½ buddha½, imañca dhamma½ vanditv±ti buddharatanena saha vandanakiriy±ya dhammaratana½ samuccinoti.
Na kevala½ ida½ dvayamev±ti ±ha “saªghañc±”ti. Ariyena diµµhis²las±maññena sa½hato ghaµitoti saªgho, aµµha-ariyapuggalasam³ho. Tehi tehi v± maggaphalehi kilesadarath±na½ samucchedapaµippassambhanavasena sammadeva gh±titatt± saªgho, pothujjanikasaªghass±pi pubbabh±gappaµipad±ya µhitatt± purimacetan±ya viya d±ne ettheva saªgaho daµµhabbo. Sopi hi kiñc±pi ariyena diµµhis²las±maññena asa½hato, niyy±nikapakkhiyena pana pothujjanikena sa½hatatt± dakkhiºeyyapaºip±t±raho saªghoyev±ti, ta½ saªgha½. Ca-saddassattho etth±pi vuttanayeneva veditabbo.
Ki½visiµµha½ buddha½, dhamma½, saªghañc±ti ±ha “vandan±m±nap³j±sakk±rabh±janan”ti. Idañca visesana½ pacceka½ yojetabba½ “vandan±m±nap³j±sakk±rabh±jana½. Buddha½…pe… vandan±m±nap³j±sakk±rabh±jana½ saªghañc±”ti. Tattha sadevakena lokena arahat±d²hi guºehi seµµhabh±vena kariyam±no paº±mo vandan±, samm±no m±no, gandhapupph±d²hi upah±ro p³j±, abhisaªkhatapaccayad±na½ sakk±ro, vandan± ca m±no ca p³j± ca sakk±ro ca vandan±m±nap³j±sakk±r±, tesa½ mahapphalabh±vakaraºena bh±janatt± ±dh±ratt± vandan±m±nap³j±sakk±rabh±jana½. Imin± ratanattayassa arahat±d²hi guºehi asamabh±va½ dasseti. Tandassanampi takkatassa nipaccak±rassa sasant±napavan±divasena yath±dhippet±ya atthasa½vaººan±ya nipph±danasamatthabh±vad²panatthanti veditabba½.
Vippasannena cetas± vanditv±ti arahat±di-anekappak±raguºavises±nussaraºavasena vividhena, visesena v± pasannena manas± saddhi½ k±yav±c±hi karaºabh³t±hi abhivandiy±ti attho, t²hi dv±rehi namassitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Tividh± c±ya½ vandan± k±yavac²manovandan±na½ vasena. Tattha buddh±diguº±rammaº± k±m±vacarakusalakiriy±na½ aññataracetan± k±yavac²viññattiyo samuµµh±petv± k±yavac²dv±ravasena uppann± k±yavac²vandan±ti vuccati, ubhayaviññattiyo pana asamuµµh±petv± manodv±ravasena uppann± manovandan±ti. Imassa padassa “vaººana½ vaººayiss±m²”ti imin± sambandho.
Eva½ ratanattayassa paº±ma½ dassetv± id±ni attano nissayabh³t±na½ aµµhakath±cariy±nañca paº±ma½ dassento “therava½sappad²p±nan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha katañjal² pubb±cariyas²h±na½ namo katv±ti sambandho. Kato añjali karapuµo eten±ti katañjal². Chand±nurakkhaºatthañhettha d²gho katañjal² hutv±ti vutta½ hoti. Pubb±cariy± por±ºaµµhakath±k±r± tambapaººiy± mah±ther±, te eva parissayasahanato, paµipakkhabh³takilesahananato, parav±dimigehi apadha½san²yato ca s²hasadisatt± s²h±ti pubb±cariyas²h±, tesa½ pubb±cariyas²h±na½. K²dis± te pubb±cariyas²h±, yesa½ tay± namo kar²yat²ti ±ha “therava½sappad²p±nan”ti-±di. Tattha therava½sappad²p±nanti thirehi s²lakkhandh±d²hi samann±gat±ti ther±, mah±kassap±dayo, tesa½ va½so anvayoti therava½so. Etena bhinnaladdhik±na½ sattarasabhed±na½ mah±saªghik±d²na½ va½sa½ paµikkhipati, therava½sapariy±pann± hutv± pana ±gam±dhigamasampannatt± paññ±pajjotena tassa therava½sassa d²panato therava½sappad²p±, pubb±cariyas²h±, tesa½ therava½sappad²p±na½. Asa½h²ratt± thir±na½. Vinayakkameti ±rambh±nur³pavacanameta½, te pana sutt±bhidhammesupi thir± eva.
Eva½ aµµhakath±cariy±nampi paº±ma½ dassetv± id±ni sa½vaººetabbadhammavisesassa abhidh±n±nisa½sa½, desakasampattiyo ca dassento “p±mokkhan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha mahesin± ya½ p±timokkha½ pak±sitanti sambandho. Tattha mahesin±ti mahante s²l±dike pañca dhammakkhandhe es² gaves²ti mahesi. Mahantehi esitoti v± puthujjanasekh±sekha-is²hi visiµµhatt± mahanto is²ti v± mahesi, samm±sambuddho, tena mahesin±. P±timokkhanti satt±pattikkhandhasa½varabh³ta½ sikkh±padas²la½, tadd²panato ubhatovibhaªgasuttasaªkh±ta½ ganthap±timokkhameva v±. Kimbh³tanti ±ha “p±mokkhan”ti-±di. Pamukhe s±dh³ti pamokkha½, pamokkhameva p±mokkha½, vajjapaµipakkhatt± anavajj±na½ sam±dhipaññ±saªkh±t±na½ parittamahaggatalokuttar±na½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ ±di patiµµh±bh³tanti attho. “S²le patiµµh±ya naro sapañño, citta½ paññañca bh±vayan”ti (sa½. ni. 1.23, 192; peµako. 22; mi. pa. 2.1.9) hi vutta½. Mukhamiv±ti mukha½, dv±ra½. Yath± hi satt±na½ khajjabhojjaleyyapeyyavasena catubbidhopi ±h±ro mukhena pavisitv± aªgapaccaªg±ni pharati, eva½ yoginopi c±tubh³makakusala½ s²lamukhena pavisitv± atthasiddhi½ samp±deti. Tena vutta½ “mukhamiv±ti mukhan”ti. Atha v± mukha½ dv±ra½ mokkhappaves±ya nibb±nasacchikiriy±y±ti attho. Vuttañhi–
“Avippaµis±ratth±ni kho, ±nanda, kusal±ni s²l±n²”ti (a. ni. 11.1).
Tath±–
“Avippaµis±ro p±mojjatth±ya, p±mojja½ p²tatth±ya, p²ti passaddhatth±ya, passaddhi sukhatth±ya, sukha½ sam±dhatth±ya, sam±dhi yath±bh³tañ±ºadassanatth±ya, yath±bh³tañ±ºadassana½ nibbidatth±ya, nibbid± vir±gatth±ya, vir±go vimuttatth±ya, vimutti vimuttiñ±ºadassanatth±ya, vimuttiñ±ºadassana½ anup±d±parinibb±natth±y±”ti (pari. 366) ca.
Eva½ sa½vaººetabbadhammassa abhidh±n±di½ dassetv± id±ni sa½vaººan±ya nimitta½ dassetu½ “s³raten±”ti-±din± catutthag±tham±ha. Tattha s³raten±ti sobhane ratoti s³rato u-k±rassa d²gha½ katv±, tena s³ratena, sobhane k±yikav±casikakamme raten±ti attho, vin²ten±ti vutta½ hoti. Niv±ten±ti n²cavuttin±. Sucisallekhavuttin±ti sucibh³t± kilesasallikhanasamatth± vutti paµipatti etass±ti sucisallekhavutti, tena sucisallekhavuttin±, parisuddh±ya appicchavuttiy± samann±gaten±ti attho. Vinay±c±rayutten±ti v±rittac±rittas²lasampannena. Atha v± vinayoti cettha p±timokkhasa½var±dibhedo sa½varavinayo. ¾c±roti ±c±ragocaraniddese ±gatasamaºas±rupp±c±ro Soºattheren±ti ettha soºoti tassa n±ma½. Thirehi s²lakkhandh±d²hi samann±gatatt± thero. Y±citoti abhiy±cito. Thero hi p±timokkhassa gambh²rat±ya duravag±hata½, ±cariyassa ca ta½sa½vaººan±ya s±matthiya½ ñatv± “p±timokkhassa tay± atthasa½vaººan± k±tabb±. Evañhi s±sanassa suciraµµhitikat± hot²”ti s±nisa½sag±ravena y±cana½ ak±si. Tadassa y±cana½ attano sa½vaººan±ya nid±nabh³ta½ dassento “y±cito”ti ±ha.
Ettha ca “s³raten±”ti imin±ssa soracca½ vuccati. “Niv±ten±”ti imin± n²camanat± niv±tavuttit±, y±ya niv±tavuttit±ya samann±gato puggalo nihatam±no, nihatadappo, p±dapuñchanaco¼akasamo, bhinnavis±º³sabhasamo, uddhaµad±µhasappasamo ca hutv± saºho sakhilo sukhasambh±so hoti. “Sucisallekhavuttin±”ti imin± indriyasa½varapaccayasannissita-±j²vap±risuddhis²la½. “Vinay±c±rayutten±”ti imin± p±timokkhasa½varas²la½ vuttanti veditabba½. Evamanekaguºehi tassa abhitthavana½ yath±vuttaguºasamann±gatassa sabrahmac±rino ajjhesana½ na sakk± paµib±hitunti paramagambh²rass±pi p±timokkhassa atthasa½vaººan±ya½ pavatt±ti dassanattha½. Kiñca– t±disassa ajjhesana½ niss±ya kariyam±n± atthasa½vaººan± tassa ajjhesan±dhipaccena, mamañca uss±hasampattiy± na cirena pariyos±na½ gacchat²ti katanti veditabba½.
Eva½ sa½vaººan±ya nimitta½ dassetv± id±ni tassavane sotujanass±dara½ janetu½ tappayojanakaraºappak±ranissay±bhidh±n±di½ dassento “tatth±”ti-±dig±th±dvayam±ha. Tattha tatth±ti “ya½ mahesin± p±timokkha½ pak±sitan”ti vutta½, tasmi½ p±timokkhe. Sañj±takaªkh±nanti padapadatthavinicchayavasena sañj±takaªkh±na½, samuppannasa½say±nanti attho. Kaªkh±vitaraºatth±y±ti yath±vuttasa½sayassa atikkamanatth±ya. Tass±ti p±timokkhassa. Vaºº²yati attho kath²yati et±y±ti vaººan±, aµµhakath±, ta½ vaººana½. Imassa ca “vaººayiss±m²”ti imin± sambandho. Ki½bh³tanti ±ha “paripuººavinicchayan”ti-±di. Paripuººavinicchayanti khandhakapariv±rapadabh±jan±divasena as±dh±raºavinicchayassa ca nid±n±divasena sattarasappabhedassa ca sabbasikkh±padas±dh±raºavinicchayassa pak±sanato sampuººavinicchaya½.
Mah±vih±rav±s²nanti mah±meghavanuyy±nabh³mibh±ge patiµµhito vih±ro mah±vih±ro, yo satthuno mah±bodhin± vibh³sito, tattha vasanti s²len±ti mah±vih±rav±sino, tesa½ mah±vih±rav±s²na½ V±can±magganissitanti kath±magganissita½, aµµhakath±nissitanti attho, mah±vih±rav±s²na½ s²ha¼aµµhakath±naya½ idha niss±y±ti vutta½ hoti. Vaººayiss±m²ti pavattayiss±mi. N±men±ti attano guºan±mena. Kaªkh±vitaranti et±y±ti kaªkh±vitaraº², ta½ kaªkh±vitaraºi½. Subhanti atthabyañjanasampannatt± sundara½, saddalakkhaºasubhato, vinicchayasubhato, viññeyyasubhato ca subha½ parisuddha½. Ettha ca “kaªkh±vitaraºatth±y±”ti imin± payojana½ dasseti, puripuººavinicchayan”ti imin± sa½vaººan±ppak±ra½, “mah±vih±rav±s²na½ v±can±magganissitan”ti imin± sa½vaººan±ya nissayavisuddhi½ nik±yantaraladdhisaªkaradosavivajjanato, “vaººayiss±m²”ti imin± attano ajjh±saya½ dasset²ti daµµhabba½. “Vattayiss±m²”tipi p±µho.

Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan± niµµhit±.