2. Dutiyap±r±jikavaººan±

G±m± v± araññ± v±ti lakkhaº±nupaññattikatt± ±dimhi vutt±. Sabbasmiñhi vinayapiµake g±mo, g±m³pac±ro, g±makkhetta½, g±mas²m±, g±mas²m³pac±roti pañcavidho g±mabhedo veditabbo. Tath± ±raññakas²m±ya eka½ ag±maka½ arañña½, sa½vidh±nasikkh±pad±na½ (p±ci. 180 ±dayo) eka½, sag±maka½ eka½ avippav±sas²m±ya eka½, gaºamh±-oh²yanakassa (p±ci. 691) ekanti pañcavidho araññabhedo veditabbo. Tattha atthi g±mo na g±maparih±ra½ katthaci labhati, atthi g±mo na g±makicca½ karoti, tath± atthi arañña½ na araññaparih±ra½ katthaci labhati, atthi arañña½ na araññakicca½ karot²ti ayampi bhedo veditabbo.
Tattha avippav±sas²m±sammannanakammav±c±ya µhapetv± “g±mañca g±m³pac±rañc±”ti (mah±va. 144) ettha g±mo n±ma parikkhitto ce, parikkhepassa anto, aparikkhitto ce, parikkhepok±sato anto veditabbo. Aya½ udositasikkh±pade “antog±mo”ti (p±r±. 478) ±gato. S±saªkasikkh±pade “antaragharan”ti (p±r±. 654) ±gato an±saªkato. Yath±ha “antaraghare nikkhipeyy±ti samant± gocarag±me nikkhipeyy±”ti (p±r±. 654). Tath± antaragharappaµisa½yutt±na½ sekhiy±na½ ayameva paricchedo veditabbo. “Y± pana bhikkhun² ek± g±mantara½ gaccheyy±”ti (p±ci. 687) etth±pi ayameva paricchedo adhippeto “parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepa½ atikkamantiy±, aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ atikkamantiy±”ti vuttatt±.
Yesu pur±ºapotthakesu “upac±ra½ okkamantiy±”ti likhita½, ta½ vik±le g±mappavesanasikkh±padesu ±ciººa½ naya½ gahetv± pam±dena likh²yati, na pam±ºa½. Yesu ca potthakesu vik±le g±mappavesanasikkh±padassa vibhaªge (p±ci. 513) “g±ma½ paviseyy±ti parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepa½ atikkamantassa, aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ atikkamantass±”ti likh²yati, s± pam±dalekh±. Upac±ra½ okkamantass±ti tattha p±µho. Vuttañhi samantap±s±dik±ya½ “aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ro adinn±d±ne vuttanayeneva veditabbo”ti (p±ci. aµµha. 512). Idha kaªkh±vitaraºiyampi vutta½ “santa½ bhikkhu½ an±pucchitv±ti…pe… upac±ra½ okkamantass±”ti-±di (kaªkh±. aµµha. vik±lag±mappavesanasikkh±padavaººan±).
Ya½ pana katthaci potthake “bhikkhuniy± g±mantar±dhik±re ekena p±dena itarassa g±massa parikkhepa½ v± atikkamante, upac±ra½ v± okkante thullaccaya½, dutiyena atikkantamatte, okkantamatte ca saªgh±diseso”ti p±µho dissati. Tattha “okkante, okkantamatte”ti et±ni pad±ni adhik±ni kevala½ likhitakehi aññehi likhit±ni. Katthaci potthake “okkantamatte c±”ti pada½ na dissati, itara½ dissati. T±ni dve pad±ni p±¼iy± virujjhanti. “Aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ atikk±mentiy±”ti (p±ci. 692) hi p±¼i Tath± samantap±s±dik±ya (p±ci. aµµha. 692) virujjhanti. “Parikkhep±rahaµµh±na½ ekena p±dena atikkamati, thullaccaya½, dutiyena atikkamati, saªgh±diseso. Apicettha sakag±mato…pe… ekena p±dena itarassa g±massa parikkhepe v± upac±re v± atikkante thullaccaya½, dutiyena atikkantamatte saªgh±diseso”ti (p±ci. aµµha. 692) hi vutta½.
Gaºµhipade cassa “parikkhepa½ atikk±mentiy±”ti vatv± “upac±repi eseva nayo”ti vutta½. Anugaºµhipade ca “aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ ‘okkamantiy±’tipi potthakesu ekaccesu dissati, ta½ na gahetabban”ti vutta½. Aparampi vutta½ “aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ ‘atikk±mentiy±’ti vacanen±pi eva½ veditabba½– vik±le g±mappavesane dvinna½ le¹¹up±t±na½ eva vasena upac±ro paricchinditabbo, itarath± yath± ettha parikkhep±rahaµµh±na½ parikkhepa½ viya katv± ‘atikk±mentiy±’ti vutta½, eva½ tatth±pi ‘aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ atikk±mentass±’ti vadeyya. Yasm± pana tattha parikkhep±rahaµµh±nato uttarimeko le¹¹up±to upac±roti adhippeto. Tasm± tadatthad²panattha½ ‘aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ okkamantass±’ti vuttan”ti.
Ya½ pana andhakaµµhakath±ya½ parikkhep±rahaµµh±na½yeva upac±ranti sallakkhetv± “parikkhepapa-akkhep±rahaµµh±n±na½ ninn±n±karaºad²panattha½ upac±ra½ okkamantass±”ti vutta½, p±¼ivisesamasallakkhetv± “aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ atikkamantassa idha upac±ro parikkhepo yath± bhaveyya, ta½ upac±ra½ paµhama½ p±da½ atikk±mentassa ±patti dukkaµassa, dutiya½ p±da½ atikk±mentassa ±patti p±cittiyass±”ti vutta½, ta½ na gahetabbameva p±¼iy± visesasambhavatoti. Por±ºagaºµhipade “upac±ra½ atikk±mentiy± bhikkhuniy± g±mantar±patt²”ti vutta½. Tasm± idha kaªkh±vitaraºiy± “ekena p±dena itarassa…pe… atikkantamatte saªgh±diseso”ti ayameva p±µho veditabbo. Ett±vat± imesu yath±vuttesu µh±nesu yath±vuttaparicchedova g±moti veditabbo. Imassa atthassa d²panattha½ “g±mo n±ma ekakuµikop²”ti-±di (p±r±. 92) vutta½. Imassa vasena asatipi parikkhep±tikkame, upac±rokkamane v± antar±r±mato v± bhikkhunupassayato v± titthiyaseyyato v± paµikkamanato v± ta½ g±ma½ pavisantassa antar±r±maparikkhepassa, upac±rassa v± atikkamanavasena g±mapaccay± ±pattiyo veditabb±.
G±m³pac±ro pana “µhapetv± g±mañca g±m³pac±rañc±”ti (mah±va. 144) ettha parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepova, aparikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepok±sova. Vuttañheta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “g±m³pac±roti parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepo, aparikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepok±so. Tesu adhiµµhitatec²variko bhikkhu parih±ra½ na labhat²”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 144). Ki½ panettha k±raºa½, yena aya½ g±mo, g±m³pac±ro ca idha aññath±, aññattha tath±ti? Aµµhuppattito “tena kho pana samayena bhikkh³ ‘bhagavat± tic²varena avippav±sasammuti anuññ±t±’ti antaraghare c²var±ni nikkhipant²”ti (mah±va. 143) imiss± hi aµµhuppattiy± “µhapetv± g±mañca g±m³pac±rañc±”ti (mah±va. 144) vutta½. Tasm± yattha antaragharasaññ±, tattha avippav±sas²m± na gacchat²ti veditabb±. Tena ca udositasikkh±pade “antog±me c²vara½ nikkhipitv± antog±me vatthabban”ti (p±r±. 478) ca “sabh±ye v± dv±ram³le v±, hatthap±s± v± na vijahitabban”ti ca vutta½. Kappiyabh³miya½ vasantoyeva hi kappiyabh³miya½ nikkhittac²vara½ rakkhati. S±saªkasikkh±pade pana “yasm± yattha g±me c²vara½ nikkhitta½, tena g±mena vippavasanto c²varena vippavasat²ti vuccati, tasm± puna g±mas²ma½ okkamitv± vasitv± pakkamat²”ti vutta½. Tasmiñhi sikkh±pade g±mas²m± g±mo n±m±ti adhippeto. Tattha vik±le g±mappavesanasikkh±padavibhaªge “parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepa½ atikkamantassa ±patti p±cittiyass±”ti (p±ci. 513) vacanato parikkhepo na g±mo. Kintu g±m³pac±roti lesena dassita½ hoti. Imasmi½ pana sikkh±padavibhaªge “g±m³pac±ro n±m±”ti ±rabhitv± “aparikkhittassa g±massa ghar³pac±re µhitassa majjhimassa purisassa le¹¹up±to”ti imin± aparikkhittassa parikkhepok±so g±m³pac±roti siddha½. Tadatthasambhavato tasmi½ ghar³pac±re µhitassa le¹¹up±to g±m³pac±roti kurundaµµhakath±ya½, mah±paccariyampi vutta½ Upac±ro hi “g±mo ek³pac±ro n±n³pac±ro”ti-±d²su dv±ra½, “ajjhok±so ek³pac±ro”ti ettha samant± sattabbhantarasaªkh±ta½ pam±ºa½, tasm± “g±m³pac±roti parikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepo, aparikkhittassa g±massa parikkhepok±so”ti andhakaµµhakath±ya½ vuttanti veditabba½. Tath± kurundiya½, mah±paccariyañca. Tath± p±¼iyampi “ajjh±r±mo n±ma parikkhittassa ±r±massa anto ±r±mo, aparikkhittassa upac±ro. Ajjh±vasatho n±ma parikkhittassa ±vasathassa anto ±vasatho, aparikkhittassa upac±ro”ti-±d²su dissati. Mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ pana “g±m³pac±ro”ti-±d²su dissati. Tasm± dutiyo le¹¹up±to upac±roti adhippeto.
“Aparikkhittassa g±massa upac±ra½ okkamantassa ±patti p±cittiyass±”ti p±¼ivisesasambhavato ca paµhamo le¹¹up±to g±mo eva, dutiyo g±m³pac±roti vutta½. Parikkhittassa pana g±massa indakh²le µhitassa majjhimassa purisassa le¹¹up±to g±m³pac±roti vuttanti ettha bhedo natthi. Ett±vat± parikkhittassa duvidho upac±ro, aparikkhittassa catubbidho upac±ro yattha sambhavati, yattha ca na sambhavati, ta½ sabba½ dassita½ hoti.
G±makhettassa ca g±mas²m±ya ca lakkhaºa½ aµµhakath±yameva vutta½. Ubhayañhi atthato eka½. Tattha g±mas²m±ya g±mabh±vo s±saªkasikkh±padavasena veditabbo.
G±mas²m³pac±ro n±ma manuss±na½ kaµµhatiºapupphaphal±di-atthik±na½ vanacarak±na½ valañjanaµµh±na½. Imassa g±mas²m³pac±rabh±vo udositasikkh±pade, “ag±make araññe samant± sattabbhantar±”ti (p±r±. 494) ±gataµµh±ne khandhake (mah±va. 147) ca veditabbo. Ettha hi bhagav± g±mantav±s²na½ bhikkh³na½ s²ma½ dassento “ya½ g±ma½ v± nigama½ v± upaniss±ya viharat²”ti (mah±va. 147) vatv± dasseti. Tadanantarameva “ag±make”ti-±din± sattabbhantaras²ma½ dasseti. Tasm± yo bhikkhu g±ma½ v± nigama½ v± upaniss±ya na viharati, kevala½ n±v±ya½ v± thalamaggena v± addh±namaggappaµipanno hoti, tassa tattha tattha sattabbhantaras²m± labbhat²ti veditabbo. Vuttañhi “ekakulassa sattho hoti satthe c²vara½ nikkhipitv± purato v± pacchato v± sattabbhantar± na vijahitabban”ti-±di (p±r±. 489). Idameva arañña½ sandh±ya “±raññakas²m±ya eka½ ag±maka½ araññan”ti vutta½.
Ya½ sandh±ya “ag±make araññe addhayojane addhayojane ±patti p±cittiyass±”ti (p±ci. 414) p±¼iya½ vutta½. Ida½ sa½vidh±nasikkh±pad±na½ eka½ ag±maka½ arañña½ n±ma.
Purimena pana saghara½ saªgahita½, imin± tamasaªgahitanti. Ya½ sandh±ya gaºamh± oh²yan±dhik±re aµµhakath±ya½ (p±ci. aµµha. 692) “ag±make araññeti ettha ‘nikkhamitv± bahi indakh²l± sabbameta½ araññan’ti eva½ vutta½ lakkhaºa½ arañña½. Ta½ paneta kevala½ g±m±bh±vena ‘ag±makan’ti vutta½, na viñjh±µavisadisat±y±”ti vutta½. Ya½ sandh±ya “±raññaka½ n±ma sen±sana½ pañcadhanusatika½ pacchiman”ti (p±r±. 654; p±ci. 573) vutta½. Ida½ ±raññakasen±sana½ n±ma parikkhittassa parikkhepato bahi, aparikkhittassa pana parikkhepok±sato bahi sarukkha½ v± arukkha½ v± vih±re kunnadisam±kiººampi arañña½ n±ma. Tath± “gaºamh± oh²yanakassa ekan”ti vutta½. Ida½ arañña½va. Ida½ pana pubbe ag±makabh±vena ±gataµµh±ne vuttalakkhaºameva hutv± nikkhamitv± bahi indakh²l± dassan³pac±ravijahane ekameva ±patti½ karoti, tato uddha½ an±patti. “Sa½vidh±nasikkh±pad±na½ ekan”ti vutta½ pana addhayojane addhayojane ekeka½ ±patti½ karoti, na tato ora½. Itar±ni t²ºi yath±vuttaparicchedato orameva tattha vuttavidhi½ na samp±denti, para½ samp±denti. Evametesa½ aññamaññan±natta½ veditabba½.
Tattha pañcavidhe g±me yo “parikkhittassa g±massa indakh²le µhitassa le¹¹up±to”ti (p±r±. 92) vutto, so na katthaci vinayapiµake upayoga½ gato, kevala½ aparikkhittassa parikkhepok±sato aparo eko le¹¹up±to g±m³pac±ro n±m±ti d²panattha½ vutto. Parikkhittassapi ce g±massa eko le¹¹up±to kappiyabh³misam±no upac±roti vutto, pageva aparikkhittassa parikkhepok±sato eko. So pana p±kaµatt± ca ajjhok±satt± ca okkamantassa ±patti½ karoti µhapetv± bhikkhuniy± g±mantar±patti½. Bhikkhuniyo hi tasmi½ dutiyale¹¹up±tasaªkh±te g±m³pac±re vasant² ±pattiñca ±pajjanti, g±ma½ pavisant² g±mantar±pattiñca. T±sañhi µhitaµµh±na½ araññasaªkhya½ gacchati “t±vadeva ch±y± metabb±…pe… tass± tayo ca nissaye, aµµha ca akaraº²y±ni ±cikkheyy±th±”ti (c³¼ava. 430) vacanato. Araññappaµisa½yutt±na½ sikkh±pad±na½, vik±leg±mappavesanasikkh±padassa (p±ci. 508) ca bhikkhun²na½ as±dh±raºatt± ca antar±r±mabhikkhunupassayappaµikkaman±d²na½ kappiyabh³mibh±vavacanato ca “ek± gaºamh± oh²yeyy±ti ag±make araññe dutiyik±ya bhikkhuniy± dassan³pac±ra½ v± savan³pac±ra½ v± vijahantiy± ±patti thullaccayass±”ti-±disikkh±padapaññattito (p±ci. 692) ca bhikkhunikkhandhakanaya-ena v± yasm± parikkhittassa g±massa indakh²lato paµµh±ya aparikkhittassa upac±rato paµµh±ya n²yati, tattha antaraghare nikkhittac²vare sati caturaªgasamodh±nena bhikkh³ vasanti, tasm± sag±maka½ n±ma hoti.