Kintu aµµhakath±nayo paµikkhitto hoti, so ca na paµikkhep±raho hoti, adhipp±yo panettha pariyesitabbo. Sabbesu sikkh±padesu idameva bhikkhulakkhaºa½ s±dh±raºa½ yadida½ “bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti. Kh²º±savopi s±vako ±patti½ ±pajjati acittaka½, tath± sekkho, puthujjano pana sacittakampi, tasm± sekkh±sekkhaputhujjan±na½ s±maññamida½ bhikkhulakkhaºanti katv± kevala½ sikkh±sam±panno, kevala½ s±j²vasam±panno, ubhayasam±panno c±ti sar³pekadesa-ekasesanayena “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”tveva sampiº¹etv± ukkaµµhaggahaºena anukkaµµh±na½ gahaºasiddhito aµµhakath±ya½ ukkaµµhova vutto. Tameva samp±detu½ “tasmi½ sikkhati, tena vuccati s±j²vasam±panno”ti ettha sikkh±saddassa avacane parih±ra½ vatv± yasm± pana so sikkhampi sam±panno, tasm± sikkh±sam±pannotipi atthato veditabboti ca vatv± “ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ apaccakkh±ya, yañca s±j²va½ sam±panno, tattha dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti vuttanti ayamaµµhakath±ya adhipp±yo veditabbo. Etasmi½ pana adhipp±ye adhis²lasikkh±ya eva gahaºa½ sabbatthikatt±, s²l±dhik±rato ca vinayass±ti veditabba½. Yath± ca sikkh±pada½ sam±diyanto s²la½ sam±diyat²ti vuccati, eva½ sikkh±pada½ paccakkhanto s²la½ paccakkh±t²ti vattu½ yujjati, tasm± tattha vutta½ “ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ apaccakkh±y±”ti (p±r±. aµµha. sikkh±paccakkh±navibhaªgavaººan±). Ett±vat± sam±sato “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti ettha vattabbavinicchayo niµµhito hoti.
Ki½ imin± visesavacanena payojana½, nanu “yo pana bhikkhu sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv±…pe… asa½v±so”ti ettakameva vattabbanti ce? Na vattabba½ aniµµhappasaªgato. “Yo pana sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno theyyasa½v±s±diko kevalena samaññ±mattena, paµiññ±mattena v± bhikkhu, tass±pi sikkh±paccakkh±na½ atthi, sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya ca methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevantassa p±r±jik±patti. Yo v± pacch± p±r±jika½ ±patti½ ±pajjitv± na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, tassa ca, yo v± pakkhapaº¹akatt± paº¹akabh±v³pagamanena na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, tassa ca tadubhaya½ atth²ti ±pajjati. Paº¹akabh±vapakkhe ca paº¹ako upasampad±ya na vatth³”ti vutta½. Tasm± itarasmi½ pakkhe vatth³ti siddha½. Tasmi½ pakkhe upasampanno paº¹akabh±vapakkhe paº¹akatt± na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, so pariccajitabb±ya sikkh±ya abh±vena sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya mukhena parassa aªgaj±taggahaºanayena methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyya, tassa kuto p±r±jik±patt²ti adhipp±yo. Aya½ nayo apaº¹akapakkha½ alabham±nasseva parato yujjati, labhantassa pana ar³pasatt±na½ kusal±disam±pattikkhaºe bhavaªgavicchede satipi amaraºa½ viya paº¹akabh±vapakkhepi bhikkhubh±vo atthi. Sa½v±sa½ v± s±diyantassa na theyyasa½v±sakabh±vo atthi antimavatthu-ajjh±pannassa viya. Na ca sahaseyy±di½ janeti Gaºap³rako pana na hoti antimavatthu½ ajjh±panno viya. Na so sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno. Itarasmi½ pana pakkhe hoti, aya½ imassa tato viseso. Kimaya½ sahetuko, ud±hu ahetukoti? Na ahetuko. Yato upasampad± tassa apaº¹akapakkhe anuññ±t± sahetukappaµisandhikatt±. Paº¹akabh±vapakkhepi kissa n±nuññ±t±ti ce? Paº¹akabh³tatt± opakkamikapaº¹akassa viya.
Apica “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti imin± tassa sikkh±sam±d±na½ d²petv± ta½ sam±dinna½ sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya, tattha ca dubbalya½ an±vikatv±ti vattu½ yujjati, na aññath±ti imin± k±raºena yath±vutt±niµµhappasaªgato “yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno sikkha½ apaccakkh±y±”ti-±di vutta½. Yath± cettha, eva½ “yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv± g±m± v± araññ± v± adinna½…pe… yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv± sugatac²varappam±ºa½ c²vara½ k±r±peyy±”ti sabbattha yojetabba½.
“Antamaso tiracch±nagat±yap²”ti manussitthi½ up±d±ya vutta½. Na hi pageva paº¹ake, purise v±ti vattu½ yujjati. Sesa½ tattha tattha vuttanayameva Aya½ t±va m±tik±ya vinicchayo aññatth±pi yath±sambhava½ yojetv± d²petabbo.
S±riputtabelaµµhas²s±nand±dayopi sikkh±padapaññattik±raºatt± ca ±patti-±pajjanato ca kasm± mah±vibhaªge ñatticatuttha-upasampad±yeva ±gat±ti? Paµikkhitt±ya saraºagaman³pasampad±ya anuññ±tappasaªgabhay±ti upatissatthero. ¾pattiy± bhabbata½ sandh±ya tasmimpi vutte pubbe paµikkhitt±pi bhagavat± puna anuññ±t±ti bhikkh³na½ micch±g±ho v± vimati v± uppajjati, tasm± na vutt±ti vutta½ hoti.
“Adhammakamma½ vaggakamma”ti (mah±va. 387) vacanato kuppakammampi katthaci “kamman”ti vuccati, tasm± “akuppen±”ti vutta½. Yasm± akuppakammampi ekacca½ na µh±n±raha½, yena apatto os±raºa½ su-os±ritoti vuccati, tasm± “µh±n±rahen±”ti vutta½. Yadi eva½ “µh±n±rahen±”ti idameva vattabba½ imin± akuppasiddhitoti ce? Na, aµµh±n±rahena akuppena upasampanno imasmi½ atthe na adhippeto aniµµhappasaªgato. Dv²hi panetehi ekato vuttehi ayamattho paññ±yati– kevala½ tena akuppena upasampanno ayampi imasmi½ atthe adhippeto bhikkh³ti, µh±n±rahena ca akuppena ca upasampanno ayampi imasmi½ atthe adhippeto bhikkh³ti, kuppena upasampanno n±dhippetoti.
“Paµisandhiggahaºato paµµh±ya aparipuººav²sativasso”ti vuttatt± opap±tikañc±ti so¼asavassuddesik± opap±tik± paµisandhito paµµh±ya aparipuººav²sativass±ti vadanti. ‘So¼asavassuddesik± hont²’ti vuttatt± puna catt±ri vass±ni icchitabb±ni, ‘paµisandhiggahaºato paµµh±y±’ti ida½ gabbhaseyyak±na½ vasena vuttan”ti eke. “Keci vadant²”ti yattha yattha likh²yati, tattha tattha vic±retv± attha½ suµµhu upalakkhaye. Opakkamike paº¹akabh±vo ±ru¼hanayena veditabbo. “Pakkhapaº¹ako apaº¹akapakkhe pabb±jetv± paº¹akapakkhe n±setabbo”ti (vajira. µ². mah±vagga 109) likhita½.
“Bindu½ adatv± ce niv±seti, theyyasa½v±sako na hot²”ti vadanti, v²ma½sitabba½. Liªg±nur³pass±ti s±maºer±rahassa sa½v±sassa s±ditatt±ti adhipp±yo.
R±jabhay±d²hi gahitaliªg±na½ “gih² ma½ ‘samaºo’ti j±nant³”ti vañcanacitte satipi bhikkh³na½ vañcetuk±mat±ya ca tehi sa½vasituk±mat±ya ca abh±v± doso na j±toti. “Yo eva½ pabbajati, so theyyasa½v±sako n±ma hot²”ti v± “eva½ k±tu½ na labbhat²”ti v± “eva½ pabbajito s±maºero na hot²”ti v± na j±n±ti, vaµµati. “J±n±ti, na vaµµat²”ti ca likhita½. “R±jadubbhikkh±di-atth±ya c²vara½ p±rupitv± sa½v±sa½ s±diyanto theyyasa½v±sako hoti. Kasm±? Asuddhacittatt±. Puna so ‘suddha½ brahmacariya½ kariss±mi, ki½ eten±ti vippaµis±rena v± paccay±disulabhat±ya v± kariss±m²’ti suddham±naso hutv± y±va so sa½v±sa½ n±dhiv±seti, t±va theyyasa½v±sako na hoti. Eva½ suddhacittuppattito paµµh±ya sa½v±sa½ s±diyati ce, theyyasa½v±sako hot²ti adhippeto. Itarath± sabba½ virujjhat²”ti eke.
“N±bhipar±m±s±din± j±to tath±r³pa½ pitara½ gh±teti ce, pitugh±tako hot²”ti vadanti.
Yo pana k±yasa½saggena s²lavin±sa½ p±peti, na so bhikkhunid³sako “tiººa½ magg±nan”ti vacanato. Bhikkhuni½ pana ekato-upasampanna½ d³setv±pi bhikkhunid³sako hoti, sopi p±r±jiko hot²ti vinicchayo. Bhikkhun² pana theyyasa½v±sik±, m±tupitu-arahantagh±tik±, lohitupp±dik±, titthiyapakkantik± ca hoti, aµµhakath±su an±gata½ vinayadhar± sampaµicchanti.
“Sampaj±namus±v±de p±cittiyan”ti (p±ci. 2) vutta½ mariy±da½ av²tikkamanto tasmiñca sikkh±pade sikkhat²ti vuccati. Sikkh±padanti asabh±vadhammo saªketova, idha paññatti adhippet±. “Methunasa½varasseta½ adhivacanan”ti samantap±s±dik±ya½ vutta½, ta½ panattha½ sandh±y±ti likhita½. Sikkh±ti ta½ ta½ sikkh±pada½, sikkhanabh±vena pavattacittupp±do. S±j²vanti paññatti. Tadatthadassanattha½ pubbe “methunasa½varasseta½ adhivacanan”ti vutta½. Yasm± sikkh±ya guºasammat±ya puññasammat±ya tantiy± abh±vato lokassa dubbaly±vikamma½ tattha na sambhavati. Patthan²y± hi s±, tasm± “yañca s±j²va½ sam±panno, tasmi½ dubbalabh±va½ appak±setv±”ti vutta½. ¾º±ya hi dubbalya½ sambhavat²ti upatisso. Dubbaly±vikammapada½ sikkh±paccakkh±napadassa byañjanasiliµµhat±ya v± pariv±rakabh±vena v± veditabba½. Atha v± yasm± sikkh±paccakkh±nassa ekacca½ dubbaly±vikamma½ akata½ hoti, tasm± ta½ sandh±ya “sikkha½ apaccakkh±y±”ti padassa attha½ vivaranto “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti ±ha. Tattha siy± yasm± na sabba½ dubbaly±vikamma½ sikkh±paccakkh±na½, tasm± “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti paµhama½ vatv± tassa atthaniyamattha½ “sikkha½ apaccakkh±y±”ti vattabbanti? Ta½ na, kasm±? Atth±nukkam±bh±vato. “Sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti hi vuttatt± “ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ apaccakkh±ya, yañca s±j²va½ sam±panno, tattha dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti vuccam±ne anukkameneva attho vutto hoti, na aññath±, tasm± idameva paµhama½ vuttanti. Tesa½yev±ti cuddasanna½.
“Sikkha½ apaccakkh±y±”ti sabbasikkh±pad±na½ s±dh±raºattha½ “ayamettha anupaññatt²”ti vutta½.
Pavesana½ n±ma aªgaj±ta½ pavesentassa aªgaj±tena samphusana½. Paviµµha½ n±ma y±va m³la½ pavesentassa vippakatak±lo v±y±mak±lo. Sukkavisaµµhisamaye aªgaj±ta½ µhita½ n±ma. Uddharaºa½ n±ma n²haraºak±lo. Vinayagaºµhipade pana “v±y±mato oramitv± µh±na½ µhita½ n±m±”ti vutta½, ta½ asaªkarato dassanattha½ vutta½. Pavesanapaviµµha-uddharaºak±lesupi sukkavisaµµhi hotiyeva. S±diyana½ n±ma sevanacittassa adhiv±sanacittassa upp±dana½.
Ubhatovibhaªge eva paññatt±ni sandh±ya “idañhi sabbasikkh±pad±na½ nid±nan”ti vutta½. “Vinayadharapañcamena gaºena upasampad±”ti (mah±va. 259) vuttatt± idha tatiy± sahayogena vutt±. Tasm± v²satipi bhikkh³ ce nisinn±, pañcamo vinayadharova icchitabbo, eva½ sati p±r±jiko ce vinayadharo, upasampad±kamma½ kopet²ti ce? Na, pariv±r±vas±ne kammavagge (pari. 482 ±dayo) ya½ kammavipattilakkhaºa½ vutta½, tassa tasmi½ natthit±ya. “Katha½ vatthuto v± ñattito v± anuss±vanato v± s²mato v± parisato v±”ti ettaka½ vutta½, nanu aya½ “parisato v±”ti vacanena saªgahitoti ce? Na, “dv±dasahi ±k±rehi parisato kamm±ni vipajjant²”ti (pari. 487) suttassa hi vibhaªge tassa an±maµµhatt±ti ayamattho yasm± tattha tattha sar³pena vuttap±¼ivaseneva sakk± j±nitu½, tasm± nayamukha½ dassetv± sa½khittoti likhita½. “Aªgan”ti pada½ uddharitv± “sabbasikkh±padesu ±patt²na½ aªg±naªga½ veditabban”ti vutta½, idha pana “aªgan”ti vutta½, kasm±? Samuµµhan±d²na½ pariv±r±d²su saªkhepena ±gatatt± tattha gahetv± idh±pi niddiµµh±na½ anaªg±na½ vavatth±n±bh±vato, sabbattha saªkhepato ca vitth±rato ca anaªgatte vuccam±ne ativitth±rat±ya tasmi½ tasmi½ sikkh±pade an³na½ vattabbato c±ti veditabbo, sabb±patt²na½ saªg±hakavasen±ti attho.
Y±ni sikkh±pad±ni “kiriy±n²”ti vuccanti, tesa½ vasena k±yav±c± saha viññattiy± veditabb±, akiriy±na½ vasena vin± viññattiy± veditabb±. Citta½ panettha appam±ºa½ bh³t±rocanasamuµµh±nassa kiriyatt±, acittakatt± ca. Tattha kiriy± ±pattiy± anaªgantaracittasamuµµh±n± veditabb±. Aviññattijanakampi ekacca½ b±hullanayena “kiriyan”ti vuccati yatheva paµhamap±r±jika½. Viññattiy± abh±vepi “so ce s±diyati, ±patti p±r±jikassa, na s±diyati, an±patt²”ti hi vutta½, viññattisaªkh±t±pi kiriy± vin± sevanacittena na hoti vuttacittajatt±, vik±rar³patt±, citt±nuparivattikatt± ca. Tasm± kiriy±saªkh±tamida½ viññattir³pa½, itara½ cittajar³pa½ viya janakacittena vin± na tiµµhati, itara½ sadd±yatana½ tiµµhati, tasm± kiriy±ya sati ekantato tajjanaka½ sevanacitta½ atthi ev±ti katv± na s±diyati, an±patt²ti na yujjat²ti. Yasm± viññattijanakampi sam±na½ sevanacitta½ na sabbak±la½ viññatti½ janeti, tasm± vin±pi viññattiy± saya½ uppajjat²ti katv± “s±diyati, ±patti p±r±jikass±”ti vutta½. Nuppajjati ce, na s±diyati n±ma, tassa an±patti. Teneva bhagav± “ki½citto tva½ bhikkh³”ti (p±r±. 135) citteneva ±patti½ paricchindati, na kiriy±y±ti veditabba½.
Ettha samuµµh±naggahaºa½ kattabbato v± akattabbato v± k±y±dibhed±pekkhameva ±patti½ ±pajjati, na aññath±ti dassanappayojana½. Tesu kiriy±ggahaºa½ k±y±d²na½ saviññattik±viññattikabhedadassanappayojana½. Saññ±ggahaºa½ ±pattiy± aªg±naªgacittavisesadassanappayojana½. Tena ya½ citta½ kiriyalakkhaºe v± akiriyalakkhaºe v± sannihita½, yato v± kiriy± v± akiriy± v± hoti, na ta½ avisesena ±pattiy± aªga½ v± anaªga½ v± hoti. Kintu y±ya saññ±ya “saññ±vimokkhan”ti vuccati, t±ya sampayutta½ citta½ aªga½, itara½ anaªganti dassita½ hoti. Id±ni yena cittena sikkh±pada½ sacittaka½ hoti, tadabh±v± acittaka½, tena tassa avisesena s±vajjat±ya “lokavajjamev±”ti vutta½. Kintu s±vajja½yeva sam±na½ ekacca½ lokavajja½, ekacca½ paººattivajjanti dassanappayojana½ cittalokavajjaggahaºa½. Cittameva yasm± “lokavajjan”ti vuccati, tasm± manokammampi siy± ±patt²ti aniµµhappasaªganiv±raºappayojana½ kammaggahaºa½.
Ya½ panettha akiriyalakkhaºa½ kamma½, ta½ kusalattikavinimutta½ siy±ti aniµµhappasaªganiv±raºappayojana½ kusalattikaggahaºa½. Y± panettha aby±kat±patti, ta½ ekacca½ avedanampi nirodha½ sam±panno ±pajjat²ti vedan±ttika½ ettha na labbhat²ti aniµµhappasaªganiv±raºattha½ vedan±ttikaggahaºa½. Sikkh±padañhi sacittakapuggalavasena “ticitta½ tivedanan”ti laddhavoh±ra½ acittaken±pannampi “ticitta½ tivedana”miceva vuccati. Tatrida½ s±dhakasutta½– “atth±patti acittako ±pajjati acittako vuµµh±ti (pari. 324), atth±patti kusalacitto ±pajjati kusalacitto vuµµh±t²”ti-±di (pari. 470). “Sacittaka½ ±pattid²pana½, saññ±vimokkha½ an±pattid²pana½, acittaka½ vatthu-aj±nana½, nosaññ±vimokkha½ v²tikkaman±j±nana½. Idameva tesa½ n±n±ttan”ti (vajira. µ². p±r±jika 61-66 pakiººakakath±vaººan±) likhita½.
Sacittakapakkheti ettha aya½ t±va gaºµhipadanayo– sacittakapakkheti sur±p±n±di-acittake sandh±ya vutta½. Sacittakesu pana ya½ ekantamakusaleneva samuµµh±ti, tañca ubhaya½ lokavajja½ n±ma. Sur±p±nasmiñhi “sur±”ti v± “p±tu½ na vaµµat²”ti v± j±nitv± pivane akusalamev±ti. Tattha “na vaµµat²ti j±nitv±”ti vuttavacana½ na yujjati paººattivajjassapi lokavajjat±pasaªgato. Ima½ aniµµhappasaªga½ pariharituk±mat±ya ca vajirabuddhittherena likhita½– “idha ‘sacittakan’ti ca ‘acittakan’ti ca vic±raº± vatthuvij±nane eva hoti, na paññattivij±nane. Yadi paññattivij±nane hoti sabbasikkh±pad±ni lokavajj±neva siyu½, na ca sabbasikkh±pad±ni lokavajj±ni. Tasm± vatthuvij±nane eva hot²ti ida½ yujjati. Kasm±? Yasm± sekhiyesu paññattivij±nanameva pam±ºa½, na vatthumattavij±nanan”ti. Aya½ panettha attho sikkh±padas²sena ±patti½ gahetv± yassa sikkh±padassa sacittakassa citta½ akusalameva hoti, ta½ lokavajja½, sacittak±cittakasaªkh±tassa acittakassa ca sacittakapakkhe citta½ akusalameva hoti, tampi sur±p±n±dilokavajjanti imamattha½ sandh±ya “yass± sacittakapakkhe citta½ akusalameva hoti, aya½ lokavajj± n±m±”ti vutta½. “Sacittakapakkhe”ti hi ida½ vacana½ acittaka½ sandh±y±ha. Na hi eka½sato sacittak±ya “sacittakapakkhe”ti visesane payojana½ atth²ti, eva½ santepi aniyamena vuttañca niyamavasena eva gahetabbanti attho.
Tiracch±n±na½ pan±ti pana-saddena thullaccay±dik±ra½ nivatteti. Kiriy±ti ettha “µhita½ s±diyat²”ti (p±r±. 58) vuttatt± ta½ kathanti ce? “S±diyat²”ti vuttatt± kiriy± eva. Eva½ sante “k±yakamma½ manokamman”ti vattabbanti ce? Na, pacuravoh±ravasena “k±yakamman”ti vuttatt±. Ubbhaj±ºumaº¹alik±ya labbhati ev±ti likhita½. Pubbe vuttanayena sa½sandetv± gahetabba½. “Dunnikkhittassa, bhikkhave, padabyañjanassa atthopi dunnayo hot²”ti (a. ni. 2.20) vadanten±pi atthassa sukhaggahaºatthameva padabyañjanassa sunikkhittabh±vo icchito, na akkharavacan±ya, tasm± ±ha “atthañhi n±tho saraºa½ avoc±”ti-±di.

Paµhamap±r±jikavaººan± niµµhit±.