Nissaggiyakaŗ¹a½

1. C²varavaggo

1. Kathinasikkh±padavaŗŗan±

Nissaggiyakaŗ¹e tiŗŗa½ kathinasikkh±pad±na½, vassikas±µika-accekac²varas±saŖkasikkh±pad±nańca ekadesan±ya tath±kiŗŗ±pattikkhandh±va veditabb±–
Kathina½ yassa catt±ro, sahaj± samayadvaya½;
channa½ sikkh±pad±nańca, ekadesavinicchayo.
Tattha kathinanti “saŖghassa anumodan±ya, gaŗassa anumodan±ya, puggalassa atth±r± saŖghassa atthata½ hoti kathinan”ti (pari. 414) vacanato tesa½yeva anumodan±didhamm±na½ saŖgaho kathina½ n±ma. Yath±ha “kathina½ j±nitabbanti tesańńeva dhamm±na½ saŖgaho samav±yo n±ma½ n±makamman”ti-±di (pari. 412). Tasm± kathinanti ida½ bah³su dhammesu n±mamatta½, na paramatthato eko dhammo. Ko panassa atth±roti? Tadekadesova kh²rassa dh±r± viya. Yath± c±ha “atth±ro ekena dhammena saŖgahito vac²bheden±”ti. Sahaj± n±ma aµµha m±tik±, dve palibodh±, pańc±nisa½s±ti ime pannarasa dhamm±. Samayadvaya½ n±ma kathinatth±rasamayo, c²varasamayo c±ti. Tattha kathinatth±rasamayo vass±nassa pacchimo m±so. C²varasamayo n±ma anatthate kathine aya½ kattikam±so, atthate catt±ro hemantik± c±ti pańca m±s±.
Tattha aµµha m±tik± n±ma pakkamanantik±dayo. T± sabb±pi atth±rena ekato uppajjanti n±ma. Tabbh±vabh±vit±ya atth±re sati uddh±ro sambhavati. Tattha kathinatth±rena ekupp±d± ekanirodh± antarubbh±ro sahubbh±ro, avases± kathinubbh±r± ekupp±d±, n±n±nirodh± ca. Tattha ekanirodh±ti atth±rena saha nirodh±, antarubbh±rasahubbh±r±na½ uddh±r±bh±vo ekakkhaŗe hot²ti attho. Ses± n±n± nirujjhanti n±ma. Tesu hi uddh±rabh±va½ pattesupi atth±ro tiµµhati ev±ti aµµhakath±ya½ atthavibh±van±. Sace atthate kathine bhikkhusmi½ s±pekkhe tamh± ±v±s± pakkamante saŖgho antarubbh±ra½ karoti, tassa bhikkhuno paµhamameva m³l±v±se niµµhitac²varapalibodh±bh±vepi sati antarubbh±re palibodho chijjati satipi s±pekkhat±ya sa-uss±hatt±. Imin± pariy±yena pakkamanantiko kathinuddh±ro atth±rena ekupp±do n±n±nirodho hoti. Tath± antarubbh±re sati suŗantass±pi y±va c²varaniµµh±na½ na gacchati, t±va parih±rasambhavato niµµh±nantiko. Y±va sanniµµh±na½ na gacchati, t±va parih±rasambhavato sanniµµh±nantiko. Y±va na nassati, t±va parih±rasambhavato n±sanantiko. Y±va na suŗ±ti, t±va parih±rasambhavato savanantiko. Y±va c²var±s± na chijjati, t±va parih±rasambhavato ±s±vacchediko. Y±va s²ma½ n±tikkamati, t±va parih±rasambhavato s²m±tikkantiko. Atth±rena ekupp±do n±n±nirodho hot²ti veditabbo.
Tattha antarubbh±rasahubbh±r± dve antos²m±ya½ eva sambhavanti, na bahis²m±ya½. Pakkamanasavanas²m±tikkantik± bahis²m±yameva sambhavanti, na antos²m±ya½. Niµµh±nasa-a-±µµh±n±s±vacchedik± antos²m±yańceva bahis²m±yańca. Antarubbh±ro saŖgh±yatto, pakkamananiµµh±nasanniµµh±nas²m±tikkantik± puggal±dh²n±, ses± tadubhayavipar²t±.
Tattha “niµµhitac²varasmin”ti imin± c²varapalibodh±bh±vameva d²peti. Na ±v±sapalibodh±bh±va½. “Ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti imin± ubhayapalibodh±bh±va½ d²peti, tasm± ubhayapalibodh±bh±vad²panattha½ tadeva vattabbanti ce? Na, visesatt±. Katha½? K±mańceta½ tasm± “ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti kesańci kathinuddh±r±na½ n±n±nirodhatt±, saŖghapuggal±dh²n±nadh²natt± ca antobahi-ubhayas²m±su niyam±niyamato ca ubbhatasmi½ kathine saŖghassa, na puggalassa ubbhata½ hoti, tath±pi “ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti ida½ s±mańńavacana½. Tasm± “niµµhitac²varasmin”ti imin± niyameti.
Ki½ vutta½ hoti– saŖghassa antarubbh±rena ubbhatasmi½ kathine acchinnac²varapalibodho bahis²m±gato pacch± gantv± attano s²m±gato aniµµhitac²varo ±nisa½sa½ labhati ev±ti katv± “niµµhitac²varasmin”ti vuttanti veditabba½. Tattha ±v±sapalibodho n±ma vasati v± tasmi½ ±v±se, s±pekkho v± pakkamati. C²varapalibodho n±ma c²vara½ akata½ vippakata½, c²var±s±nupacchinn±, tabbipar²tena apalibodho veditabbo. Tattha anatthatakathin±na½ c²varak±lasamaye niyamato catt±ro ±nisa½s± labbhanti, asam±d±nac±ro aniyamato. Tena s±saŖkasikkh±pada½ vutta½. Katha½ catt±ro niyat±ti ce? “C²varak±lasamayo n±ma anatthate kathine vass±nassa pacchimo m±so”ti (p±r±. 649) vacanato anatthatakathin±na½ tasmi½ m±se y±vadatthac²vara½ siddha½, tath± tatiyakathinasikkh±pade (p±r±. 497 ±dayo) ak±lac²vara½ n±ma piµµhisamayato paµµh±ya ta½ paµiggahetv± saŖghato labhitabba½ ce, y±va c²varak±lasamaya½ nikkhipitv± bh±jetv± gahetabba½. Puggalika½ ce, vass±nassa chaµµhapakkhassa pańcamito paµµh±ya y±va c²varak±lasamaya½ anadhiµµhita½ avikappita½ vaµµati accekac²varasikkh±padena anuńń±tatt±, na tato para½. Tad± uppannac²varassa paµisiddhatt± paµhamakathinena. Tattha aµµhakath±ya½ vuttanayo saŖghika½ sandh±ya, tath± por±ŗagaŗµhipade c±ti veditabba½.
Paµhamakathine (p±r±. 459 ±dayo) paµhamapańńattiy±, avisesena v± ek±dasame divase ±patti. Vass±nassa hi antoniv±raŗattha½ aµµhakath±ya “niµµhitac²varasmi½ bhikkhun± ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti (p±r±. 462 ±dayo) vutta½. Eseva nayo dutiye, tatiye ca. Tena c²varak±lato pure v± anto v± uppanna½ c²varak±lato uddha½ ekadivasampi parih±ra½ na labhati. Yadi labheyya, accekac²varasikkh±padavirodho. “Y±va c²varak±lasamaya½ nikkhipitabba½, tato ce uttari nikkhipeyya, nissaggiyan”ti (p±r±. 648) hi tattha vutta½. Vass±v±sikabh±vena saŖghato laddha½ vuµµhavassatt± attano santakabh³ta½ accekac²vara½ c²varak±lasamaya½ atikk±mayato eva ±patti, na accekac²varak±la½ atikk±mayato ±patt²ti. “Anatthate kathine ek±dasam±se uppannan”ti (p±r±. 500) vacanato yo ca tattha c²varupp±do, so ca nesa½ bhavissat²ti siddha½, an±mantac±ragaŗabhojanasikkh±pade “ańńatra samay±”ti (p±ci. 222 ±dayo) vuttatt± sesadvaya½ siddhameva. Tasm± “k±lepi ±dissa dinna½, eta½ ak±lac²varan”ti (p±r±. 500) vacanato ±dissa dinnac²vara½ parih±ra½ na labhati.
Aparakattik±yameva v± ubbhatasmi½ kathine labhati, eva½ “ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti vuttatt±ti ce? Na vattabba½. Cha µh±n±ni hi s±pekkhat±ya vutt±ni Duµµhadosadvaye adhikaraŗacatuttha½, paµham±niyate sotassa raho, tatiyakathine ±dissa dinna½ c²vara½, accekac²varasikkh±pade “sańń±ŗa½ katv± nikkhipitabban”ti pada½, duµµhull±rocanappaµicch±danadvaye adhikaraŗa½, p±r±jikavacanańca, t²su kathinasikkh±padesu “aµµhanna½ m±tik±na½ ańńatar±y±”ti vacananti. Tattha ±dissa dinna½ c²vara½ saŖghika½ bh±jitabbac²vara½ sandh±ya vutta½, na puggalika½. Sańń±ŗa½ katv± nikkhipitabbanti vass±v±sikac²vara½ sandh±ya vutta½. Avuµµhavassena pacch± d±tabbatt± sańń±ŗa½ k±tabba½, na ń±tippav±ritato laddha½ puggalika½ sandh±ya. Tasm± duvidha½ accekac²vara½ saŖghe ninna½, puggale ninnańc±ti siddha½. Tattha saŖghe pariŗata½ accekac²vara½ vass³pan±yikadivasato paµµh±ya, piµµhisamayato paµµh±ya v± y±va pav±raŗ± nikkhipitu½ vaµµati eva saŖghikatt±, puggalikampi “vassa½vuµµhak±le gaŗhath±”ti dinnatt±. T±disańhi y±va vassa½vuµµho na hoti, t±va tasseva d±yakassa santaka½ hoti. Ettako visesahetu.
“Anaccekac²vare anaccekac²varasańń² c²varak±lasamaya½ atikk±meti, an±patt²”ti vacanato accekac²varakasseva so apar±dho. Yena “virodho”ti vacana½ dasseyy±ti na vinaye visesahetu pariyesitabbo. Buddhavisayatt± pam±ŗanti ce? Na, yadi eva½ ettha attano santakabh³tampi accekac²vara½ sańń±ŗa½ katv± nikkhipitabbameva, na adhiµµh±tabba½ na vikappetabba½ na vissajjetabba½. Tato “an±patti, antosamaye adhiµµheti vikappeti vissajjet²”ti-±divacanavirodho (p±r±. 651) adhiv±setabbo siy±. Tath± “vass±nassa pacchime m±se kathinuddh±re kate tasmi½ m±se atthate kathine kathinuddh±radivasa½ atikk±meti, nissaggiya½ hot²”ti vacanato nissaggiya½ hot²ti ayampi atthavirodho adhiv±setabbo siy±. Tasmińca “anaccekac²vare an±patt²”ti vutta½, tańca anadhiµµhita½ avikappitamev±ti ettako visesahetu. Atirekac²varańceta½ paµhamasikkh±paden±patti, itara½ ce an±pattiyev±ti imassa atthassa aya½ bhagavato visesahetu. Tath± atirekadas±h±n±gat±yeva kattikapuŗŗam±ya saŖghassa vass±v±sikattha½ accekac²vara½ viya dadam±na½ na gahetabba½, das±h±n±gat±ya eva gahetabbanti ettako visesahetu. Tato aµµhakath±nayavirodho ca adhiv±setabbo siy±. Tattha “adhiµµhitato paµµh±ya uppanna½ accekac²vara½ na hot²”ti vatv± ańńath± nayo dassito. Por±ŗagaŗµhipade so ca nayo saŖghika½ up±d±ya vuttatt± na virujjhat²ti neva so ca paµikkhitto. Yath± anaccekac²vara½ chaµµhito paµµh±ya uppanna½ atirekadas±h±n±gat±yapi paµiggahetabba½, paµiggahetv± c²varak±lasamaya½ atikk±mayatopi an±patt²ti ayampi nayo adhiv±setabbo siy±. Tato paµhamakathinavirodho. Das±h±n±gat±ya eva paµiggahetabba½, paµiggahetv± c²varak±lasamaya½ atikk±mayato an±patt²ti ce, ta½ dve das±he labhat²ti ettako visesahetu.
Antar± an±pattikkhettac²varak±lappaviµµhatt± adhiµµhahitv± paccuddhaµa½ viya ta½ punapi das±he labhat²ti ce? Na, k±lappaveso adhiµµh±na½ viya hot²ti ce? Na, “vassikas±µika½ vass±na½ c±tum±sa½ adhiµµh±tu½, tato para½ vikappetun”ti vacanavirodha½ katv±, tato para½ das±ha½ avikappentass±pi an±patti siy±. Apica ya½ vutta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “vassikas±µik± antovasse laddh± ceva niµµhit± ca, antodas±he adhiµµh±tabb±, das±h±tikkame niµµhit±, tadaheva adhiµµh±tabb±, das±he appahonte c²varak±la½ n±tikk±metabb±”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.630). Tena ±pattito na mucceyya. K±lappaveso hi adhiµµh±napariy±yo na j±toti. Ett±vat± yath±vutto atthavikappo p±¼inayeneva patiµµh±pito hoti.
Apicettha ya½ vutta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “das±he appahonte c²varak±la½ n±tikk±metabb±”ti, tatthapi c²varak±le uppanna½, das±he appahonte cassa karaŗa½ natthi, ta½ accekac²vara½ ak±lac²varamiva c²varak±la½ n±tikk±metabbanti siddhameta½. P±¼ito ca tańce antok±le uppajjati, das±he appahontepi uppajjati, eva½ uppanna½ accekac²vara½ accekac²varameva na hoti. Na hi ta½ k±lavisesavasena accekac²varasaŖkha½ gacchati. Vuttańheta½ “accekac²vara½ n±ma sen±ya v± gantuk±mo hoti, pav±sa½ v± gantuk±mo hoti, gil±no v± hoti, gabbhin² v± hoti assaddhassa v± saddh± uppann± hoti…pe… ‘vass±v±sika½ dass±m²’ti eva½ ±rocita½, eta½ accekac²vara½ n±m±”ti (p±r±. 649). Tasm± yath± ta½ c²vara½ n±tikk±metabba½, tath± anaccekac²varamp²ti siddha½ hoti. Tena vutta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “das±he appahonte c²varak±la½ n±tikk±metabb±”ti. Apica yadi eva½ ta½ accekac²varasikkh±padameva accekac²vara½ c²varak±la½ n±tikk±metabbanti imassa pana atthavisesassa dassanattha½ bhagavat± pańńatta½.
Mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ pana ta½ eva½ vutta½– k±mańceda½ “das±haparama½ atirekac²vara½ dh±retabban”ti imin± siddha½, aµµhuppattivasena pana apubba½ viya attha½ dassetv± sikkh±pada½ µhapitanti atthavisesad²panapayojanato. Tasm± ta½ tassa atthavisesadassanattha½ vuttanti siddhameva. Tasm±pi veditabbameva ya½ kińci c²vara½ c²varak±lasamaya½ n±tikk±metabbanti. Apica ya½ vutta½ aµµhakath±ya½ “chaµµhito paµµh±ya pana uppanna½ anaccekac²varampi paccuddh±retv± µhapitac²varampi eta½ parih±ra½ labhat²”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.646-649). Tena “anaccekac²vare anaccekac²varasańń² c²varak±lasamaya½ atikk±meti, an±patt²”ti (p±r±. 650) imin±pi anaccekac²varass±pi accekac²varaparih±ral±bha½ d²pet²ti.
Ett±vat± yath±vutto dutiyo atthavikappo p±¼inayena, aµµhakath±nayena ca patiµµh±pito hoti. Eva½ t±va pakiŗŗak±ya adhikath± parato p±µhato vitth±rit± hot²ti apakiŗŗaka½.
C²varapalibodho, ±v±sapalibodho c±ti dve palibodh±. Tesu ekapalibodhepi sati an±mantac±r±di-±nisa½sa½ labhati, ta½ idha natth²ti dassetu½ “niµµhitac²varasmi½ bhikkhun± ubbhatasmi½ kathine”ti vutta½. Tasm± eva “atthatakathinassa hi bhikkhuno”ti-±di vutta½. Kathinatth±r±rahass±ti ettha “aµµhahi aŖgehi samann±gato puggalo bhabbo kathina½ attharitu½– pubbakaraŗa½ j±n±ti, paccuddh±ra½ j±n±ti, adhiµµh±na½ j±n±ti, atth±ra½ j±n±ti, m±tika½ j±n±ti, palibodha½ j±n±ti, uddh±ra½ j±n±ti, ±nisa½sa½ j±n±t²”ti (pari. 409) vacanato imehi aµµhahi aŖgehi samann±gato puggalo kathinatth±r±raho n±ma. Pubbakaraŗa½ n±ma dhovanavic±raŗacchedanasibbanarajanakappakaraŗa½.
“C²vara½ n±ma khoman”ti-±din± p±¼ivasena j±tińca pam±ŗańca dassetv± id±ni atirekac²vara½ dassetu½ “ya½ pana vutta½ adhiµµhitavikappites³”ti-±di vutta½. Żhapitaµµh±na½ sallakkhetv±”ti vuttepi yasmi½ µh±ne ya½ µhapita½, tasmi½ ta½ pacch± hotu v±, m± v±, adhiµµh±na½ ruhateva. Pure pacch± µhapanaµµh±na½ na pam±ŗa½.
Antimavatthu½ ajjh±pannassa bhikkhubh±vaparicc±gavasena setavatthaniv±sana½ v± k±s±vacajana½ v± h²n±y±vattana½.
Ek±dasame aruŗuggamaneti antima½ µhapetv± tato purimatarasminti attho veditabbo. Tattha antima½ n±ma aparakattik±ya paµham±ruŗuggamana½. Tańhi k±latt± nissaggiya½ na karoti. Idha “niµµhitac²varasmi½ bhikkhun±”ti karaŗavacana½ nid±n±napekkha½ nid±ne karaŗ±bh±vato. Tasm± eva “das±haparaman”ti ayamettha anupańńatt²ti vutta½. “Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, tic²vara½ adhiµµh±tu½ na vikappetun”ti-±di (mah±va. 358) vacanato ca idha “vikappet²”ti avisesena vuttavacana½ viruddha½ viya dissati, na ca viruddha½ tath±gat± bh±santi, tasm± evamassa attho veditabbo– tic²vara½ tic²varasaŖkhepena parih±rato adhiµµh±tumeva anuj±n±mi, na vikappetu½. Vassikas±µika½ pana catum±sato para½ vikappetumeva, na adhiµµh±tunti. Evańca pana sati yo tic²vare ekena c²varena vippavasituk±mo hoti, tassa tic²var±dhiµµh±na½ paccuddharitv± vippav±sasukhattha½ vikappan±ya ok±so dinno hoti, das±h±tikkame ca an±patt²ti. Etena up±yena sabbattha vikappan±ya apaµisiddhabh±vo veditabboti likhita½.
Imassa pana sikkh±padassa aya½ saŖkhepavinicchayo– anatthate kathine hemant±na½ paµhamadivasato paµµh±ya, atthate kathine gimh±na½ paµhamadivasato paµµh±ya uppannac²vara½ sandh±ya “niµµhitac²varasmin”ti-±di vutta½. Etth±ha– “rajakehi dhov±petv± setaka½ k±r±pentass±pi adhiµµh±na½ adhiµµh±namev±”ti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.465) vacanato arajitepi adhiµµh±na½ ruhat²ti. Tena s³cikamma½ katv± rajitv± kappabindu½ datv± adhiµµh±tabbanti niyamo k±tabbo, na k±tabboti? Kattabbova. Patto viya adhiµµhito yath± puna setabh±va½ v± tambabh±va½ v± patto adhiµµh±na½ na vijahati, na ca pana t±diso ya½ adhiµµh±na½ upagacchati, evameta½ daµµhabbanti. “Sve kathina½ uddharissat²”ti laddhac²vara½ sace ajjeva na adhiµµh±ti, aruŗuggamane eva nissaggiya½ hoti. Kasm±? “Niµµhitac²varasmin”ti-±din± (p±r±. 462-463;) sikkh±padassa vuttatt±. Kathinabbhantare das±hato uttaripi parih±ra½ labhati, kathinato pana pacch± ekadivasampi na labhati. Yath± ki½– yath± atthatakathino saŖgho tic²vara½ atthatadivasato paµµh±ya y±va ubbh±r± ±nisa½sa½ labhati, na tato para½, eva½ atthatadivasato paµµh±ya y±va ubbh±r± labhati, uddhate pana kathine ekadivasampi na labhati. Etth±ha– ubbhatadivasato paµµh±ya puna das±ha½ labhat²ti? Na, kasm±? “Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, das±haparama½ atirekac²vara½ dh±retun”ti vacanato. Kathinabbhantarepi ek±dase aruŗuggamane nissaggiyanti ±panna½. Ta½ pana atippasaŖga½ niv±retu½ “niµµhitac²varasmin”ti-±di vutta½, na kathinadivas±ni adivas±n²ti d²panattha½. Ayamattho tattha tattha ±vibhavissati. Atha v± vassikas±µik± anatirittappam±ŗ± n±ma½ gahetv± vuttanayeneva catt±ro vassike m±se adhiµµh±tabb±, tato para½ paccuddharitv± vikappetabb±ti vutta½. Ettha “paccuddharitv±”ti vacane uposathadivase eva paccuddharitv± vikappetv± µhapita½ hoti, tato para½ hemantassa paµhamadivasato paµµh±ya paccuddharaŗ±bh±v±. Eva½ kathinabbhantare uppannac²varampi veditabbanti likhita½.

Kathinasikkh±padavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.