P±r±jikakaŗ¹a½

1. Paµhamap±r±jikavaŗŗan±

Idha pana µhatv± sikkh±pad±na½ kamabhedo pak±setabbo. Katha½– sabbasikkh±pad±na½ yath±sambhava½ desan±kkamo, pah±nakkamo, paµipattikkamo, uppattikkamoti catubbidho kamo labbhati. Tattha bhagavat± r±jagahe bhikkh³na½ p±timokkhuddesa½ anuj±nantena p±timokkhuddesassa yo desan±kkamo anuńń±to, ta½ desan±kkama½ anukkamantova mah±kassapo paµhama½ p±r±jikuddesa½ pucchi, tadanantara½ saŖgh±disesuddesa½, tadanantara½ aniyatuddesa½, tadanantara½ vitth±ruddesa½. Tadanantara½ bhikkhunivibhaŖgańca teneva anukkamena pucchi. Tato para½ tayo ±pattikkhandhe saŖgahetu½ vin± gaŗanaparicchedena sekhiyadhamme pucchi. ¾pattikkhandhe sabh±gato paµµh±ya pucchanto v²satikhandhake pucchi. Nid±nuddesantogadh±na½ v± sar³pena anuddiµµh±na½ pucchanattha½ khandhake pucchi. Etena khandhake pańńatt± thullaccay±pi saŖgahit± honti. Pucchit±nukkameneva ±yasm± up±litthero by±k±si. Ayamettha desan±kkamo. UbhatovibhaŖgakhandhakato pana uccinitv± tad± pariv±ro visu½ p±¼i kato, imameva vacana½ sandh±ya aµµhakath±ya½ vutta½ “eteneva up±yena khandhaka½ pariv±repi ±ropayi½s³”ti-±di (p±r±. aµµha. 1.paµhamamah±saŖga-²tikath±). Apica p±¼iya½ “eteneva up±yena ubhatovibhaŖge pucchi. Puµµho puµµho ±yasm± up±li vissajjes²”ti (c³¼ava. 439) ettakameva vutta½. Tasm± thero ubhatovibhaŖge eva pucchi. Vissajjanto pana ±yasm± up±li niravasesa½ dassento khandhakapariv±re anto katv± desesi. Gaŗasajjh±yak±le pana tad± khandhakapariv±r± visu½ p±¼i kat±ti ayamettha desan±kkamo.
Yadi eva½ nid±nuddeso paµhamadesan±ti ce? Na, uposathakkhandhake (mah±va. 133) “y±ni may± bhikkh³na½ sikkh±pad±ni pańńatt±ni, t±ni nesa½ p±timokkhuddesa½ anuj±neyyan”ti vacanato, “yassa siy± ±patt²”ti (mah±va. 134) vacanato ca. Akusal±by±kat±na½ ±patt²na½ diµµhadhammasampar±yik±savaµµh±niyatt± yath±bh³ta½ s²lasa½varakena parivajjanena pah±tabbatt± pah±nakkamopettha sambhavati “t±vadeva catt±ri akaraŗ²y±ni ±cikkhitabb±n²”ti vacanato. Tath± “sam±d±ya sikkhati sikkh±pades³”ti (ma. ni. 3.75; vibha. 508) vacanato yath±bh³ta½ ±cikkhanasikkhanena paµipattikkamopi sambhavati. Yathuddesakkama½ pariy±puŗitabbapariyatti-atthen±pi paµipattikkamo, evamimehi t²hi kamehi desetabb±nametesa½ sikkh±pad±na½ yath±sambhava½ uppattikkamo sambhavati. Tath± hi ya½ ya½ s±dh±raŗa½, ta½ ta½ bhikkhu½ ±rabbha uppanne eva vatthusmi½ “y± pana bhikkhun² chandaso methuna½ dhamman”ti-±din± nayena bhikkhun²nampi pańńatta½. Yato bhikkhun²na½ ta½ anuppannapańńatti na siy±, tato anuppannapańńatti tasmi½ natth²ti (pari. 201-202) pariv±ravacana½ na virujjhati. Ett±vat± purimena kamattayena ya½ paµhama½ desetabba½, ta½ p±r±jikuddese paµhamuppannatt± methunadhammap±r±jika½ sabbapaµhama½ desetuk±mo ±yasm± up±litthero “tatra suda½ bhagav± ves±liya½ viharat²”ti (p±r±. 23) ves±liyameva p±petv± µhapesi.
Id±ni sabbesa½ sikkh±pad±na½ pańń±panavidh±na½ veditabba½. Katha½? “Evańca pana, bhikkhave, ima½ sikkh±pada½ uddiseyy±th±”ti (p±r±. 39, 43) eva½ sa-uddesa-anuddesabhedato duvidha½. Tattha p±timokkhe sar³pato ±gat± pańca ±pattikkhandh± sa-uddesapańńatti n±ma. S±pi dvidh± sapuggal±puggalaniddesabhedato. Tattha yass± pańńattiy± anto ±pattiy± saha, vin± v± puggalo dassito, s± sapuggalaniddes±. Itar± apuggalaniddes±.
Tattha sapuggalaniddes± dvidh± adassitadassit±pattibhedato. Tattha adassit±pattik± n±ma aµµha p±r±jik± dhamm± veditabb±. “P±r±jiko hoti asa½v±so”ti (p±r±. 39, 44, 89, 91, 167, 171, 195, 197) hi puggalova tattha dassito, n±patti. Dassit±pattik± n±ma bhikkhunip±timokkhe ±gat± sattarasa saŖgh±dises± dhamm±. “Ayampi bhikkhun² paµham±pattika½ dhamma½ ±pann± niss±raŗ²ya½ saŖgh±disesan”ti (p±ci. 683, 687) hi tattha ±patti dassit± saddhi½ puggalena.
Tath± apuggalaniddes±pi adassitadassit±pattibhedato dvidh±. Tattha adassit±pattik± n±ma sekhiy± dhamm±. Vutt±vases± dassit±pattik±ti veditabb±.
S±pi dvidh± aniddiµµhak±rakaniddiµµhak±rakabhedato. Tattha aniddiµµhak±rak± n±ma sukkavisaµµhimus±v±domasav±dapesuńńabh³tag±ma-ańńav±daka-ujjh±panakagaŗabhojanaparamparabhojanasur±meraya-aŖgulipatodakahasadhamma-an±dariyatalagh±takajatumaµµhakasikkh±pad±na½ vasena pańcadasavidh± honti. Tattha niddiµµhak±rake miss±missabhedo veditabbo– tattha upayogabhummavibhattiyo eka½sena miss±. Avases± miss± ca amiss± ca. Seyyathida½– paccatta½ t±va dv²su aniyatesu upayogena missa½, dv±dasasu p±µidesan²yesu karaŗena missa½, ³napańcabandhanapattasikkh±padesu s±mikaraŗehi, ³nav²sativasse bhummena, mohanake upayogas±mibhummehi. Yasm± “vivaŗŗakan”ti bh±vo adhippeto, na katt±, tasm± vivaŗŗakasikkh±pada½ yad± na sambhavati, eva½ paccatta½ pańcavidha½ missa½ hoti. Sesesu paµham±niyata½ µhapetv± ±dimhi “yo pana bhikkh³”ti evam±gata½ paccatta½ v±, dutiy±niyata½ µhapetv± paŗ²tabhojanasamaŗuddesatatiyacatutthap±µidesan²yasikkh±padesu majjhe “yo pana bhikkh³”ti evam±gata½ paccatta½ v±, dubbacakulad³sakasa½saµµhasikkh±padesu ±dimhi kevala½ “bhikkh³”ti ±gata½ paccatta½ v±, bhed±nuvattakasikkh±pade majjhe ±gata½ paccatta½ v± ańń±ya vibhattiy± amissameva hoti. Tattha bhed±nuvattakatuvaµµanadvayasa½saµµhadutiyap±µidesan²yasikkh±padesu bahuvacana½, itarattha sabbattha ekavacanamev±ti veditabba½.
Tath± upayogo dv²su vikappanasikkh±padesu, tantav±yasikkh±pade ca paccattena misso, abhihaµasikkh±pade karaŗena, r±jasikkh±pade karaŗas±mipaccatteh²ti upayogo tidh± misso hoti. Karaŗańca kuµik±ramahallakadutiyakathinadvebh±ganis²danasanthatadubbaŗŗakaraŗasikkh±padesu chasu paccattena missa½, paµhamatatiyakathina-aµµhaŖgulap±dakanis²danakaŗ¹uppaµicch±dikavassikas±µika-udakas±µikadvedhammapacc±s²sanasikkh±padesu aµµhasu s±min± missanti karaŗa½ dvidh± missa½ hoti. Avasesesu chabbassavassikas±µikadvatticchadan±vasathapiŗ¹amah±n±magarulahup±vuraŗasikkh±padesu sattasu karaŗavibhatti ańńavibhattiy± amiss±, acceka-e¼akalomasikkh±padesu s±mivibhatti karaŗavibhattiy± miss±. Atirekapattabhesajjasikkh±padesu aggahitaggahaŗena s±mivibhatti amiss±va hot²ti veditabb±. Eva½ t±va niddiµµhak±rakesu sikkh±padesu–
Pańcadh± ca tidh± ceva, dvidh± cepi tathekadh±;
bhinn± vibhattiyo pańca, sabbek±dasadh± siyu½.
Eva½ t±va yath±vuttesu sa-uddesapańńattisaŖkh±tesu sikkh±padesu aggahitaggahaŗena pańń±suttaresu tisatesu navuti-aniddiµµhak±rake vajjetv± niddiµµhak±rak±ni atirekasaµµhidvisat±ni honti. Tesu paccattakaraŗ±ni ti½suttar±ni dvisat±ni honti. Tesu amissapaccattakaraŗ±ni dv±dasuttar±ni dvisat±ni, missapaccattakaraŗ±ni aµµh±rasa honti. Avasesesu ti½satiy± sikkh±padesu missopayogakaraŗ±ni pańca honti, missakaraŗ±ni cuddasa, amiss±ni satta, miss±missakaraŗ±ni dve, amiss±ni dveti sabbesupi niddiµµhak±rakesu bhed±nuvattakadubbacakulad³sakapaµhamadutiyatatiyakathina-abhihaµakuµik±ramahallakavikappanadvayadvebh±gachabbassanis²danasanthata-e¼akalom±tirekapattabhesajjavassikas±µikatantav±ya-accekach±rattadva pańcatti½sesu “yo pana bhikkh³”ti natthi. Dutiy±niyatapaŗ²tabhojanasamaŗuddesatatiyacatutthap±µidesan²yesu majjhe atthi.
Ett±vat± sa-uddes±nuddesaduka½, sapuggal±puggalaniddesaduka½, paccekadassit±pattidukadvaya½, aniddiµµhak±rakaduka½, tattha niddiµµhak±rakesu paccattabhummaduka½, sayopan±yopanaduka½, ayopanamajjheyopanaduka½, ek±nekavacanadukanti nava duk±ni dassit±ni honti. Visesak±raŗa½ tasmi½ tasmi½ sikkh±pade sampatte ±vibhavissati. Eva½ t±va sa-uddesapańńatti½ ńatv± sesavinayapiµake y± k±ci pańńatti anuddesapańńatt²ti veditabb±. S± padabh±janantar±pattivin²tavatthupaµikkhepapańńatti-avuttasiddhisikkh±padavasena chabbidh± hoti.
Tattha “yebhuyyena khayite ±patti thullaccayassa (pari. 157-158), vaµµakate mukhe acchupantassa ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (p±r±. 73) evam±dik± padabh±jane sandissam±n±patti padabh±janasikkh±pada½ n±ma. “Na ca, bhikkhave, sabbamattik±may± kuµi k±tabb±, yo kareyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti-±di (p±r±. 85) antar±pattisikkh±pada½ n±ma. “Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, div±paµisall²yantena dv±ra½ sa½varitv± paµisall²yitun”ti (p±r±. 77) evam±di vin²tavatthusikkh±pada½ n±ma. “SaŖghabhedako, bhikkhave, anupasampanno na upasamp±detabbo”ti (mah±va. 115) evam±di paµikkhepasikkh±pada½ n±ma.
Yasm± pana tena tena paµikkhepena “yo pana bhikkhu samagga½ saŖgha½ adhammasańń² bhindeyya, p±r±jiko hoti asa½v±so. Yo pana bhikkhu duµµhacitto bhagavato j²vam±nakasar²re lohita½ upp±deyya, p±r±jiko hoti asa½v±so”ti sikkh±pad±ni pańńatt±ni honti. Y±ni sandh±ya “ekassa chejjak± hoti, catunna½ thullaccaya½, catunnańceva an±patti, sabbesa½ ekavatthuk±”ti vutta½. “Atth±patti tiµµhante bhagavati ±pajjati, no parinibbute”ti (pari. 323) ca vutta½. Tena na kevala½ “na, bhikkhave, j±na½ saŖghabhedako anupasampanno upasamp±detabbo…pe… ±patti dukkaµass±”ti idameva sikkh±pada½ pańńatta½ hoti s±dhaka½ hoti. “Paŗ¹ako, bhikkhave, anupasampanno na upasamp±detabbo, upasampanno n±setabbo”ti (mah±va. 109) evam±d²su pana upajjh±y±d²na½ dukkaµameva pańńatta½, na paŗ¹ak±d²na½ p±r±jik±patti. Na hi tesa½ bhikkhubh±vo atthi. Yato siy± p±r±jik±patti. Tath± “na acchinne theve pakkamitabban”ti (mah±va. 66, 67, 78, 79) evam±dikańca paµikkhepasikkh±padameva n±ma.
Khandhakesu pańńattadukkaµathullaccay±ni pańńattisikkh±pada½ n±ma. “Tena hi, s±riputta, bhed±nuvattake thullaccaya½ des±peh²”ti (c³¼ava. 345) vutta½, thullaccayampi tattheva samodh±na½ gacchati. Ida½ tesa½ vibhattikammakkhaŗe apańńattatt± avijjam±nampi bhagavato vacanena visuddhakkhaŗepi vijjam±na½ j±tanti eke. “Bhed±nuvattake des±peh²”ti vacanato sesabhed±nuvattak±na½ “yo pana bhikkhu j±na½ saŖghabhedak±na½ anuvatteyya, ±patti thullaccayass±”ti sikkh±pada½ pańńatta½ hot²ti veditabba½. Tath± sabb±ni khandhakavatt±ni, vinayakamm±ni ca tattheva samodh±na½ gacchanti. Yath±ha “pańńatte ta½ up±li may± ±gantuk±na½ bhikkh³na½ ±gantukavatta½…pe… eva½ supańńatte kho may± up±li sikkh±pade”ti-±di. “Y± pana bhikkhun² nacca½ v± g²ta½ v± v±dita½ v± dassan±ya gaccheyya p±cittiyan”ti (p±ci. 834) imin± suttena bhikkhun² nacceyya v± g±yeyya v± v±deyya v±, p±cittiyanti evam±dika½ ya½ kińci aµµhakath±ya dissam±na½ ±pattij±ta½ vinayakamma½ v± avuttasiddhisikkh±pada½ n±ma. Chabbidhampeta½ chahi ±k±rehi uddes±raha½ na hot²ti anuddesasikkh±pada½ n±m±ti veditabba½. Seyyathida½– pańcahi uddesehi yath±sambhava½ visabh±gatt± thullaccayadubbh±sit±na½ sabh±gavatthukampi dukkaµathullaccayadvaya½ asabh±g±pattikatt± antar±pattipańńattisikkh±pad±na½, n±n±vatthuk±pattikatt± paµikkhepasikkh±pad±na½, kesańci vin²tavatthupańńattisikkh±pad±nańca adassit±pattikatt±, adassitavatthukatt± bhed±nuvattakathullaccayassa, adassit±pattivatthukatt± avuttasiddhisikkh±pad±nanti. Ett±vat± “duvidha½ sikkh±padapańń±pana½ sa-uddes±nuddesabhedato”ti ya½ vutta½, ta½ sam±sato pak±sita½ hoti.