Nissaggiyakaº¹a½

1. C²varavaggo

1. Kathinasikkh±padavaººan±

Niµµhitac²varasminti (p±r±. aµµha. 2.462-463) niµµhitañca ta½ c²varañc±ti niµµhitac²vara½, niµµhite ±nisa½sam³lake c²vare, pacc±s±c²vare c±ti attho. Yasm± pana ta½ c²vara½ karaºenapi niµµhita½ hoti n±san±d²hipi, tasm± “s³cikammapariyos±nena v±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ya½ kiñci s³ciy± kattabba½ p±sakapaµµagaºµhikapaµµapariyos±nakamma½, ta½ s³cikammapariyos±na½ n±ma, tena. Naµµhanti cor±d²hi haµa½. Etampi hi karaºapalibodhassa niµµhitatt± “niµµhitan”ti vuccati. Vinaµµhanti upacik±d²hi kh±dita½. Da¹¹hanti aggin± da¹¹ha½. C²var±s± v± upacchinn±ti “asukasmi½ n±ma kule c²vara½ labhiss±m²”ti y± c²var±s± uppann± hoti, s± upacchinn±. Etesampi karaºapalibodhasseva niµµhitatt± niµµhitabh±vo veditabbo. Ten±ha “imesu v±”ti-±di. Etena c²varapalibodh±bh±vo vutto. Ten±ha “c²varassa karaºapalibodhe upacchinneti attho”ti. Kathameta½ viññ±yat²ti ±ha “atthatakathinassa h²”ti-±di. Pañc±nisa½se aññattha gantu½ adatv± saªgaºhanaµµhena kathina½, thiranti attho, atthata½ kathina½ yena so atthatakathino, tassa atthatakathinassa. ti k±raºatthe nip±to. T±va kathin±nisa½sa½ labhat²ti ettha yo atthatakathino bhikkh³ti ajjh±haritabba½, t±va so atthatakathino bhikkh³ti veditabbo, an±mantac±r±dika½ kathin±nisa½sa½ labhat²ti attho. “Atthatakathinassa bhikkhuno”ti ida½ v± “atthatakathino bhikkh³”ti vibhattivipariº±ma½ katv± yojetabba½. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– c²varapalibodho ±v±sapalibodhoti dve palibodh±. Tesu ekapalibodhepi sati yasm± an±mantac±r±dika½ ±nisa½sa½ labhati, n±sati. Kasm±? “Niµµhitac²varasmin”ti etassa c²varassa karaºapalibodhe upacchinneti ayamattho viññ±yat²ti. Saªghass±ti saªghena. Kattari ceta½ s±mivacana½. Ubbhateti aµµhanna½ m±tik±namaññatarena, antarubbh±rena v± uddhaµe.
Tatr±ti tasmi½ kathine. Ubbh±ro uddharaºa½. Purimavassa½vuµµhe ti½samatte p±veyyake bhikkh³ uddissa “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, vassa½vuµµh±na½ bhikkh³na½ kathina½ attharitun”ti kathinakkhandhake (mah±va. 306) bhagavat± kathinassa anuññ±tatt± “ayañhi kathinatth±ro n±ma…pe… anuññ±to”ti vutta½. Tattha purimavassa½vuµµh±nanti vassaccheda½ akatv± purimavassa½vuµµh±nanti attho. Etena vuµµhavassavasena t±va purimik±ya vassa½ upagat±yeva kathinatth±ra½ labhanti, na pacchimik±ya upagat±ti dasseti. Vuµµhavassavasena t±va eva½ hotu, gaºanavasena ta½ kittak± labhant²ti ±ha “so”ti-±di. Soti kathinatth±ro. Sabbantimena pariccheden±ti gaºanavasena pacchimakoµiy±. Pañcanna½ jan±na½ vaµµat²ti pacchimakoµiy± catt±ro kathinadussassa d±yak±, eko paµigg±hakoti pañcanna½ jan±na½ vaµµati. Keci pana “pañcavaggakaraº²yatt± ‘pañcanna½ jan±na½ vaµµat²’ti vuttan”ti vadanti, ta½ tesa½ matimatta½ “tatra, bhikkhave, yv±ya½ catuvaggo bhikkhusaªgho µhapetv± t²ºi kamm±ni upasampada½ pav±raºa½ abbh±nan”ti campeyyakkhandhake (mah±va. 388) vuttatt±. Tasm±ti yasm± vuµµhavassavasena purimavassa½vuµµh±na½ anaññ±to, yasm± ca sabbantimena paricchedena pañcanna½ jan±na½ vaµµati, tasm±. Yatth±ti yasmi½ vih±re. ¾nisa½seti an±mantac±r±dike kathin±nisa½se. Atha pana catt±ro bhikkh³ vassa½ upagat±, eko paripuººavasso s±maºero sace pacchimik±ya upasampajjati, gaºap³rako ceva hoti, ±nisa½sañca labhati. Tayo bhikkh³, dve s±maºer±, dve bhikkh³, tayo s±maºer±, eko bhikkhu, catt±ro s±maºer±ti etth±pi eseva nayo.
Khandhake vutt±ya ñattidutiyakammav±c±y±ti–
“Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ida½ saªghassa kathinadussa½ uppanna½. Yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho ima½ kathinadussa½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno dadeyya kathina½ attharitu½, es± ñatti. Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ida½ saªghassa kathinadussa½ uppanna½, saªgho ima½ kathinadussa½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno deti kathina½ attharitu½. Yass±yasmato khamati imassa kathinadussassa itthann±massa bhikkhuno d±na½ kathina½ attharitu½, so tuºhassa. Yassa nakkhamati, so bh±seyya. Dinna½ ida½ saªghena kathinadussa½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno kathina½ attharitu½, khamati saªghassa, tasm± tuºh², evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti (mah±va. 307)–

Eva½ kathinakkhandhake vutt±ya ñattidutiyakammav±c±ya. Kathinatth±r±rahass±ti kathina½ attharitu½ bhabbassa. So ca kho pubbakaraºaj±nan±d²hi aµµhahi aªgehi samann±gatoti veditabbo. Vuttañheta½ vinayavinicchaye “aµµhadhammakovido bhikkhu, kathinatth±ramarahat²”ti. Pariv±repi (pari. 409) vutta½–

“Aµµhahaªgehi samann±gato puggalo bhabbo kathina½ attharitu½. Katamehi aµµhahaªgehi samann±gato puggalo bhabbo kathina½ attharitu½? Pubbakaraºa½ j±n±ti, paccuddh±ra½ j±n±ti, adhiµµh±na½ j±n±ti, atth±ra½ j±n±ti, m±tika½ j±n±ti, palibodha½ j±n±ti, uddh±ra½ j±n±ti, ±nisa½sa½ j±n±ti, imehi aµµhahaªgehi samann±gato puggalo bhabbo kathina½ attharitun”ti.
Ettha ca pubbakaraºa½ n±ma dhovanavic±raºacchedanabandhanasibbanarajanakappakaraºa½. Paccuddh±ro n±ma pur±ºasaªgh±µi-±d²na½ paccuddharaºa½. Adhiµµh±na½ n±ma kathinac²var±dhiµµh±na½. Atth±ro n±ma kathinatth±ro. M±tik± n±ma aµµha m±tik±. Palibodho n±ma ±v±sapalibodho c²varapalibodhoti dve palibodh±. Uddh±ro n±ma pakkamanantik±dayo. ¾nisa½so n±ma pañc±nisa½s±.
Ya½ pana samantap±s±dik±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 306) vutta½ “kathina½ pana kena attharitabba½? Yassa saªgho kathinac²vara½ deti, saªghena pana kassa d±tabba½? Yo jiººac²varo hoti, sace bah³ jiººac²var± honti, vu¹¹hassa d±tabba½. Vu¹¹hesupi yo mah±pariso tadaheva c²vara½ katv± attharitu½ sakkoti, tassa d±tabba½. Sace vu¹¹ho na sakkoti, navakataro sakkoti, tassa d±tabba½. Apica saªghena mah±therassa saªgaha½ k±tu½ vaµµati, tasm± ‘tumhe, bhante, gaºhatha, maya½ katv± dass±m±’ti vattabban”ti, tampi kathinatth±r±raha½yeva gahetv±va d±tabba½. Dentena pana t²su c²varesu ya½ ya½ jiººa½ hoti, ta½ tadatth±ya d±tabba½. Pakatiy± dupaµµac²varassa dupaµµatth±yeva d±tabba½. Sacepissa ekapaµµac²vara½ ghana½ hoti, kathinas±µako ca pelavo, s±ruppatth±ya dupaµµappahonakameva d±tabba½. “Aha½ alabhanto ekapaµµa½ p±rup±m²”ti vadantass±pi dupaµµa½ d±tu½ vaµµati. Yo pana lobhapakatiko hoti, tassa na d±tabba½. Ten±pi kathina½ attharitv± pacch± sibbetv± “dve c²var±ni kariss±m²”ti na gahetabba½.
Ten±ti kathinatth±rakena bhikkhun±. Tadahev±ti tasmi½yeva divase. Pañca v± atirek±ni v± khaº¹±ni chinditv±ti yath± pañcakhaº¹ik±d²na½ saªgh±µi-±d²na½ tiººa½ c²var±na½ aññatarappahonak±ni mah±maº¹ala-a¹¹hamaº¹al±divasena pañca khaº¹±ni v± atirek±ni v± satt±dikhaº¹±ni honti, eva½ chinditv±. Tasmiñca kathinac²vare kariyam±ne “aha½ thero”ti v± “bahussuto”ti v± eken±pi ak±tu½ na labbhati. An±dariyena akarontassa dukkaµa½. Tasm± sabbeheva sannipatitv± dhovanachedanasibbanarajan±ni niµµh±petabb±ni. Ten±ha “sesabhikkh³hipi tassa sah±yehi bhavitabban”ti. Katac²varamev±ti niµµhitaparikammameva kathinadussa½. Sabbantimena paricchedena antarav±sakopi chinditv±va k±tabbo aññath± atth±ravipattito. Yath±ha–
“Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, anatthata½ hoti kathina½? Na ullikhitamattena atthata½ hoti kathina½…pe… na aññatra pañcakena v± atirekapañcakena v± tadaheva sañchinnen±”ti (mah±va. 308).
Tenev±ha “acchinn±sibbita½ pana na vaµµat²”ti. Tena bhikkhun±ti atth±rakena bhikkhun±. Attharitabbanti attharaºa½ k±tabba½. Tañca kho tath±vac²bhedakaraºamev±ti daµµhabba½. Yath±ha–
“Sace saªgh±µiy± kathina½ attharituk±mo hoti, por±ºik± saªgh±µi paccuddharitabb±, nav± saªgh±µi adhiµµh±tabb±, ‘im±ya saªgh±µiy± kathina½ atthar±m²’ti v±c± bhinditabb±”ti (pari. 413)–

Vitth±ro. “Bhante, ±vuso”ti ca “anumodatha, anumod±h²”ti ca vacanabheda½ sandh±ya “ther±nañc±”ti-±di vutta½.

Eva½ atth±rakena paµipajjitabbavidhi½ dassetv± id±ni anumodakehi paµipajjitabbavidhi½ dassetu½ “tehip²”ti-±di vutta½. “Anumod±m±”ti attan±va attani g±ravavasena vutta½. Kiñc±pi eva½ vutta½, tath±pi ekakena “anumod±m±”ti vattu½ na vaµµati, “anumod±mi”cceva vattabbanti vadanti, v²ma½sitv± gahetabba½. Id±ni kathin±nisa½se dassetu½ bh³mi½ vic±rayanto “purimavassa½vuµµhesup²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha tesa½yev±ti atth±raka-anumodak±na½yeva. Vuttañheta½ pariv±re “dvinna½ puggal±na½ atthata½ hoti kathina½ atth±rakassa ca anumodakassa c±”ti (pari. 403). Teti atth±raka-anumodak±. Tato paµµh±y±ti atth±r±numodanato paµµh±ya. Y±va kathinassubbh±r±ti na kevala½ c²varam±seyeva, atha kho aµµhanna½ m±tik±na½ aññatarena v± antarubbh±rena v± y±va kathinassubbh±r± pañc±nisa½se labhanti, uddhaµe pana na labhant²ti attho.
Id±ni te pañc±nisa½se sar³pato dassetu½ “an±mantac±ro”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha an±mantac±ro n±ma pañcanna½ bhojan±na½ aññatarena nimantitassa santa½ bhikkhu½ an±pucch± kulesu c±ritt±pajjana½. Asam±d±nac±ro n±ma n±men±dhiµµhitassa c²varassa asam±d±nacaraºa½, n±men±dhiµµhit±na½ tiººa½ c²var±namaññatara½ c²vara½ yattha katthaci nikkhipitv± aññattha aruºuµµh±pananti attho, c²varavippav±soti vutta½ hoti. Y±vadatthac²varanti y±vat± c²varena attho hoti, t±vataka½ anadhiµµhita½ avikappita½ c²varadh±raºa½, das±hamatikkamitv± c²varassa µhapananti attho. Gaºassa bhojana½ gaºabhojana½. Gaºoti cettha catt±ro v± tatuttari v± bhikkh³. Tesa½ viññattito v± nimantanato v± laddhassa odan±d²na½ pañcanna½ aññatarabhojanassa saha gahaºanti attho. Yo ca tattha c²varupp±doti tattha kathinatthatas²m±ya matakac²vara½ v± hotu, saªgha½ uddissa dinna½ v± saªghikena tatrupp±dena ±bhata½ v± yena kenaci ±k±rena ya½ saªghika½ c²vara½ uppajjati, ta½ tesa½ bhavissat²ti attho. Ten±ha “tasmi½ ±v±se saªghassa uppannac²varañc±”ti.
“Ya½ pana tattha saªghassa uppanna½ patt±di v± añña½ bhaº¹a½ v±, ta½ sabbesa½ p±puº±ti. Ya½ pana tatrupp±dena taº¹ul±din± vattha½ cet±pita½, atthatakathin±nameva t±ni vatth±ni p±puºanti. Vatthehi pana taº¹ul±d²su cet±pitesu sabbesa½ t±ni p±puºant²”ti gaºµhipade vutta½, tampi cet±pitak±lato paµµh±ya c²varupp±do na hot²ti suvuttanti daµµhabba½. Anatthatakathin± pana imesu pañcasu ±nisa½sesu c²varam±se asam±d±nac±ra½ µhapetv± ses±nisa½se labhanti. Yadi asam±d±nac±ropi labbheyya, p±veyyak± bhikkh³ vassa½vuµµh± okapuººehi c²varehi na bhagavanta½ upasaªkameyyu½. Yasm± ta½ na labbhati, tasm± c²varam±sepi c²vara½ sam±d±ya eva bhagavanta½ upasaªkami½su.