Nid±navaººan±

“¾vikat± hissa ph±su hoti, tatth±yasmante pucch±mi…pe… tuºh², evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±nan”ti-±din± nayena vutta½. Ettheva y±vatatiy±nus±vanakath±vas±ne atha kho uddesak±le “±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±na½. Tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti-±din± nayena ±gata½. Uposathakkhandhakepi evameva ±gata½. Tattha pubbe vutta½ pacch± ±gatasuttena virujjhati. Tasm± yath± na virujjhati, tath± upaparikkhitv± gahetabba½. Eva½ na virujjhat²ti eke. Katha½? “¾vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±na½. Tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti-±din± su-uddiµµha½ hot²ti eta½ uddesalakkhaºa½ idh±pi khandhakepi vuttatt±. Tasm± “ph±su hot²”ti vatv± “tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti vuttaµµh±ne avuttampi ±netv± gahetabba½. Kasm±? Idha nid±na½ na dassita½, uddeso uddesak±le uddisitabbalakkhaºassa tattha vuttatt±. Apica “nid±nuddeso”ti pada½ uddharitv± nid±nuddesa½ dassetuk±mopi “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho…pe… ±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti p±µhavasena ±gata½ nid±na½ niµµh±petv± upari aµµhakath±vasena yojetabba½ p±¼i½ idha yojetv± “tatth±yasmante pucch±mi…pe… dh±ray±m²”ti nid±nap±¼i½ paripuººa½ katv± puna “tattha nid±nuddeso”ti uddhaµapadavasena saªkhepato nid±nuddesalakkhaºa½ dassetu½ “evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±nan”ti-±di vutta½, tasm± eva½ upari ca khandhake ca, atha kho uddesak±le “±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±na½. Tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti-±di nid±nuddesova dassito, na nid±na½.
Savan±ºattivacananti ettha saªghanavakatarena vattu½ ayuttanti ce? Yuttameva. “P±timokkhuddesakena eva½ vattabban”ti bhagavat± vuttatt± bhagavatova ±ºatti, na uddesakassa. Idha navakataravasena vutta½. Theropi pana uddisitu½ labhat²ti dassanattha½ “ther±dhika½ p±timokkhan”ti vutta½. Imin± suttena navakataro na labhat²ti ce? Ta½ dassetu½ “yo tattha bhikkh³”ti-±di vutta½.
Yath± catuvaggena µhapetv± upasampad±pav±raº±-abbh±n±ni sabba½ saªghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati, eva½ “atirekav²sativaggena ima½ n±ma kamma½ k±tabban”ti avatv± atirekavacanatt± añña½ attha½ s³ceti, ki½ tanti “catuvagg±din±”ti-±di. Tañhi tehi eva siddha½. Katha½? Catuvaggena upasampad±pav±raº±…pe… v²sativaggena na kiñci saªghakamma½ k±tu½ na vaµµat²ti. Ettha “dasavaggena abbh±nakammamatta½ µhapetv±”ti vadantena catupañcavaggena karaº²y±nipi dasavaggena k±tu½ anuññ±t±ni. Tasm± atirekena vaµµat²ti d²pita½, “µhapetv±”ti vacanena ³natarena na vaµµat²ti d²pitameva. Tasm± na vattabba½ atirekav²sativaggoti ce? Vattabbameva. Catupañcavaggena kattabba½ chasatta-aµµhanavavaggena k±tabbanti ca, dasavaggena k±tabba½ ek±dasadv±dasa…pe… ek³nav²sativaggena k±tabbanti ca d²pita½. Ðnatarena na vaµµat²ti d²pita½ p±kaµato. Sabbappak±rena pana atirekav²sati-anatirekav²sativagge vuttepi d²pita½ hot²ti vajirabuddhittherena likhita½. Ito paµµh±ya “likhitan”ti vutte vajirabuddhittheren±ti gahetabba½.
Sace anuposathepi vaµµeyya, “uposatha½ kareyy±”ti na vadeyya, yasm± anuposathe k±tu½ na vaµµati, tasm± “ajjuposatho”ti vatv± puna “uposatha½ kareyy±”ti vutta½. “Pacchimakattikapuººam± ev±”ti avadh±raºa½ tato para½ pav±raº±divasassa natthit±ya kata½. Uddha½ pakati-uposathe vuttena pakatic±rittena saddhi½ idampi.
“Nimittena nimitta½ sambandhitv±”ti na vattabba½ “tividhasampattiyutt±”ti vuttatt±ti ce? Vattabbameva. Kasm±? Tividhasampatti n±ma nimittasampatti, paris±sampatti, kammav±c±sampatt²ti-±di½ vatv± “nimittasampatti n±ma pabbatanimitta½, p±s±ºanimittan”ti-±di vutta½, na nimittena nimittasambandhana½ vutta½. Apica “tividhasampattiyutt±”ti sampayogaªgesu dassetv± puna tameva pah±naªgesu dassetu½ “nimittena nimitta½ sambandhitv±”ti vutta½. Nadisamuddaj±tassaresu sammatas²m±to kamm±ni na vipajjanti udakukkhepas²matt±ti “vipattis²m±yo n±m±”ti kasm± vutt±ti ce? Sesalakkhaº±ni samp±detv± nadiya½ s²m±ya baddh±ya udakapariyanta½ katv± s²m±gatatt± puna ta½ nadi½ anto katv± ta¼±ke kate sace tass± s²m±ya kamma½ k±tu½ vaµµeyya, s²m±to kamm±ni na vipajjeyyu½. Yasm± pana eva½ k±tu½ na vaµµati, tasm± “udakukkhepas²matt±”ti vutta½ ak±raºa½.
V²sativaggakaraº²yatt± saªghakammassa kamm±rahena saddhi½ ekav²sati bhikkh³ nis²ditu½ na sakkont²”ti vutta½, sukhanisajj±vasena nis²ditunti adhipp±yo. “Parimaº¹al±k±rena nis²ditun”ti aµµhakath±ya½ vutta½. Tiyojana½ atikkamitv±ti majjhe µhatv± diya¹¹ha½ katv± tiyojana½. Koºato hi koºa½ tiyojana½ atikk±meti, ±pattiñca ±pajjati, s²m± ca as²m± hoti. Kittetv±ti nimitt±ni sampann±nipi aññamaññan±mavipariy±yena, animitt±na½ n±mehi ca kittetv±ti attho.
R±sikata½ pa½supi rukkhesu j±tesu suddhapa½supabbato hoti. Gu¼apiº¹aparim±ºo th³lat±ya, na tulagaºan±ya. Bh³miya½ patiµµhito”ti imin± kuµasar±v±d²su ropita½ paµikkhipati, tato apanetv± pana taªkhaºampi bh³miya½ ropito vaµµati. Navam³las±kh±niggamana½ pana ak±raºa½. Khandha½ chinditv± ropite pana eta½ yujjati. S³cidaº¹akappam±ºo kaniµµhaªguliparim±ºamatto. “Aµµhaªgulubbedho”ti imin± ubbedho paricchinno hoti, “govis±ºamatto”ti imin± pariº±ho. “Eva½ santepi govis±ºapariº±he paricchedo natthi, tasm± khuddakopi mahantopi vaµµati ev±ti vadanti.
J±tassare paripuººameva udaka½ nimitt³paga½ disv± aparipuººa½ antar± µhitibh³ta½ “j±tassare sammat±”ti vutta½ vipatti½ na ±pajjat²ti “nadiy± sammat±, samudde sammat±, j±tassare sammat±”ti etth±pi loº² na gahit±. Baddhas²ma½ v± nadisamuddaj±tassare v± anokkamitv±ti etth±pi “nadiy± v±, bhikkhave, samudde v± j±tassare v±”ti (mah±va. 147) etth±pi na gahit±. Tasm± loº² na abaddhas²m±ti ce? Abaddhas²m±va. “Yopi nadi½ v± samudda½ v± bhinditv± nikkhanta-udakena kato sobbho eta½ lakkhaºa½ p±puº±ti, ayampi j±tassaroyev±”ti (kaªkh±. aµµha. nid±navaººan±) vuttatt± j±tassaraggahaºena gahit±ti tattha tattha avutt±. “Y±vatik± tasmi½ g±makhette”ti vuttatt± aññampi g±ma½ anto katv± sam±nasa½v±sakas²m±sammannanak±le tasmi½ g±me bhikkh³ ±gacchantu v± m± v±, vaµµati. Avippav±sas²m±sammannanak±le ±gantabbameva.
Agamanapathes³ti ettha ekadivasena gantv± pacc±gantu½ asakkuºeyyaµµh±neti vadanti, baddhas²m±bh±va½ paµikkhipitv±ti attho.
“Samant± udakukkhep±”ti vuttatt± sabbadis±su gahetabbamev±ti ce? Yato labbhati, tato gahetabbo “yasmi½ padese pakativ²ciyo ottharitv± saºµhahanti, tato paµµh±ya kappiyabh³mi, tattha µhatv± uposath±dikamma½ k±tu½ vaµµat²”ti vuttatt±. Anubandho a¹¹ham±so anva¹¹ham±so, a¹¹ham±sassa v± anu. Yo pana kenaci antamaso tiracch±nenapi khaºitv± akatoti adhipp±yo.
“Añña½ tattaka½yeva pariccheda½ anatikkamitv± µhitopi kamma½ kopet²”ti vuttatt± atikkamitv± µhito na kopet²ti d²pitameva hot²ti upatissatthero, ta½ pana “dvinna½ udakukkhep±na½ antare añño eko udakukkhepo upac±ratth±ya µhapetabbo”ti vacanena virujjhati. Samantap±s±dik±yañhi “añña½ tattaka½yev±”ti pada½ natthi. Tasm± tass±dhipp±yo pariyesitabbo. Anto-udakukkhepas²m±ya upac±ratth±ya µhapita½ udakukkhepapariccheda½ anatikkamitv±ti attho gahetabbo. Therena aññath± papañcitv± likhita½.
“Sabh±gavatthun± lahuk±pattin”ti vuttatt± sabh±gasaªgh±disesa½ ±rocetu½ vaµµat²ti ce? Na vaµµati desan±g±mini½ sandh±ya idha vuttatt±. Tasm± eva samuccayakkhandhake “sabh±gasaªgh±disesa½ ±pannassa pana santike ±vik±tu½ na vaµµati. Sace ±vikaroti, ±patti ±vikat± hoti, dukkaµ± pana na muccat²”ti (c³¼ava. aµµha. 102) vutta½. Yath± saªghena “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho…pe… paµikarissat²”ti vatv± uposatha½ k±tu½ labhati, eva½ t²hi dv²hipi añña½ suddha½ passitv± “paµikariss±m±”ti vatv± uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµati. Eken±pi “parisuddha½ labhitv± paµikariss±m²”ti ±bhoga½ katv± uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµat²ti. Aµµhakath±yampi “s±manto bhikkhu evamassa vacan²yoti ettha sabh±go eva vattabbo. Visabh±gassa hi vuccam±ne bhaº¹anakalahasaªghabhed±d²nipi honti, tasm± tassa avatv± ito vuµµhahitv± paµikariss±m²”ti ±bhoga½ katv± uposatho k±tabboti andhakaµµhakath±ya½ vuttan”ti vatv± tassa appaµikkhittatt± vaµµat²ti d²pitameva. “Yad± añña½ suddha½ bhikkhu½ an±pattika½ passissati, tad± tassa santike”ti vuttatt± lahukasseva anuññ±tatt± samuccayakkhandhake vuttatt± sabh±gasaªgh±disesa½ pana ñattiy± ±rocetv± uposatha½ k±tu½ na vaµµati.
Devabrahm± pana “tiracch±nagato”ti pada½ µhapetv± yena kenaci padena asaªgahit±pi imin± saªgahit±ti dassanattha½ “yassa upasampad± paµikkhitt±”ti vutta½.
“C±tum±siniya½ pana pav±rit±na½ santike anupagatena v± chinnavassena v± vuµµhavassena v±”ti avatv± “anupagatena v± chinnavassena v±”ti ettakameva vutta½. Vuµµhavasso pana tasmi½ k±le anupagatatt± “anupagato”ti saªkhya½ gatoti. Sabb±ya vuµµhit±ya sabbe vuµµhahitv± gate sannip±tetu½ na sakk±, ekacce sannip±tetv± p±risuddhi½ ±rocetu½ vaµµat²ti vadanti. Kasm±? Ñatti½ µhapetv± kattabbasaªghakamm±bh±v± vagga½ na hot²ti. Pav±raº±yapi eseva nayo. Ayañhettha viseso– sace purimik±ya upagatehi pacchimik±ya upagat± thokatar± ceva honti samasam± ca, saªghapav±raº±ya ca gaºa½ p³renti, saªghapav±raº±vasena ñatti µhapetabb±ti. “Ekova bhikkhu hoti…pe… aññesa½ an±gatabh±va½ ñatv±”ti vuttatt± adhiµµh±nuposatha½ s²ma½ pavisitv± k±tu½ na sakk±ti vadanti.
“Ki½ saªghassa pubbakiccan”ti ida½ na ñatti½ µhapetv± vattabba½. Tañhi ñattito puretarameva kar²yati. Tasm± “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho, ki½ saªghassa pubbakicca½, yadi saªghassa pattakallan”ti vattabba½ siy±ti. Tath±pi na vattabba½. Na hi ta½ ñattiy± anto kar²yat²ti. Eva½ sante neta½ vattabbanti ±pajjati payojan±bh±v±ti ce? Na, yath±gataµµh±ne eva vattabbato, parapad±pekkhat±y±ti vutta½ hoti. Ida½ pubbakicca½ akatv± uposathakamma½ karonto saªgho, puggalo v± µhapanakkhett±tikkame ±pajjati. Tasmiñhi khette atikkante sammajjan±dikaraºe ±pattimokkho na hoti uposathakammato pubbe kattabbakamm±karaºapaccayatt± tass± ±pattiy±. Na s± kammapariyos±n±pekkh± etth±gatasampaj±namus±v±d±patti viya, tasm± p±timokkhuddesako bhikkhu “p±risuddhi½ ±yasmanto ±roceth±”ti vattuk±mo paµhamameva p±risuddh±p±risuddhipaccaya½ pubbakicca½ sar±peti. Tañhi kata½ p±risuddhipaccayo hoti, akata½ ap±risuddhipaccayo. Teneva ubhay±pekkh±dhipp±yena kata½, na katanti avatv± “ki½ saªghassa pubbakicca”miccev±ha. Tattha akatapakkhe t±va p±risuddhi-±rocanakkamanidassanattha½ parato “yassa siy± ±patti, so ±vikareyy±”ti ca, katapakkhe “asantiy± ±pattiy± tuºh² bhavitabban”ti ca vakkhati.
“Sabbantimena paricchedena cat³hi bhikkh³hi sannipatitv±”ti ca, “uposathakaraºattha½ sannipatite saªghe bahi…pe… adentena chando d±tabbo”ti ca vadanti. Asannipatitepi pana vaµµati. Idañhi chandad±nasamayadassanattha½ vutta½. Uposathakaraºattha½ sannipatite saªghe bahi uposatha½ katv± ±gatassa kattabb±k±radassanatthañca vutta½. Padh±nagharav±sino padh±naghara½ pavisituk±m± attano sabh±gabhikkh³na½ chanda½ datv± sace saªgho sannipatati, “mayha½ chando ±rocetabbo”ti vatv± padh±naghara½ pavisanti. Aya½ s²ha¼ad²pe payogo. ¾rocentena pana sannipatite ±rocetabba½. Pañcasu bhikkh³su ekasmi½ vih±re vasantesu ekassa chandap±risuddhi½ ±haritv± catunna½ p±timokkha½ uddisitu½ anuññ±tatt± sannipatite chando gahetabbo ±rocetabboti vacana½ niratthaka½ viya. “Theyyasa½v±sako paµij±n±t²ti (mah±va. 165) vacanato s±maºerena ±haµ±pi vaµµati. Kamma½ na kopet²”ti ca, “sace pubbe chanda½ datv± bahis²m±gato puna pavisati, pacch± chandaggahaºakicca½ natthi, tassa payogo s²m±sammutivasena veditabbo”ti ca “chandad±ne tikkhattu½ vacane ida½ payojana½– paµhama½ samaggabh±va½, dutiya½ pacch± vidh±tabbabh±va½, tatiya½ chandah±rakassa dukkaµamocana½ d²pet²”ti (vajira. µ². mah±vagga 164) ca likhita½. Bi¼±lasaªkhalik±baddh±va hoti antogehe eva sampayojanatt±, yath± s± na katthaci gacchati, tath± s±pi na katthaci gacchat²ti adhipp±yo. Itarath± visesana½ niratthaka½ hot²ti ±cariyena gahita½.
“Na hi ta½ akatv± uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµat²”ti pubbe dassitatt± “idampi hi ubhayan”ti kasm± vuttanti ce? Ses±ni therena ±ºattena k±tabb±ni dassit±ni, ime pana dve therena v± p±timokkhuddesakena v± ñattiµµhapanakena v± yena v± tena v± k±tabb±n²ti ca, sammajjan±d²ni tattha tattha t±dis±ni payojan±ni nipph±denti, ime pana dve tattha tattha na kiñci kamma½ s±dhenti, tasm± “ki½ imin±”ti avatv± k±tabbamev±ti dassetuñca “idampi hi ubhayan”ti-±di vutta½. “¾yasmant±na½ p±de vandat²”ti gaºavasena vatv± puggalavasena na vutta½ tena ±rocetabbassa aññassa abh±v±.
Saªghassa uddiµµha½ hot²ti saªghena uddiµµha½ hot²ti attho. Samaggassa hi saªghass±ti ettha samaggabh±vassa k±yas±maggik±raºatt± natthi dosoti ce? Ta½ na, uddesepi savanepi samaggabh±vassa icchitabbatt±. “Suº±tu me, bhante”ti hi imin± cittas±maggi½ d²peti savane sabbehi ek²bh³tabh±vato.
Sañcicca ±patti½ ±pajjat²ti ettha an±dariyavasena ±pajjanto eva alajj² hoti, na itaroti. ¾patti½ parig³hat²ti ettha lajj±ya parig³hanto alajj² na hoti, ‘ki½ imin±’ti an±dariyavasena parig³hanto hot²”ti ca likhita½.
“Sattanna½ ±pattikkhandh±nan”ti na vattabba½, “channan”ti vattabbanti ce? Sattannamev±ti vattabba½. P±r±jik±patti½ ±panno hi sace attano s±pattikabh±va½ pak±seti, saªghassa ca uposatho sampajjati, tassa ca gihibh±vena v± s±maºerabh±vena v± suddhi hot²ti.
Ekacce ±cariy± n±ma dhammabh±riko kira ±cariyo. Kasm± eva½ vuttanti ce? Y±vatatiy±nus±van± n±ma tikkhattu½ vacana½. Tath± p±µhe an±gatatt± kevala½ “y±vatatiya½ anus±vitan”ti padameva disv± “yassa siy± ±patti, so ±vikareyy±”ti ida½ “sace ±patti½ ±pann±, ±vikaroth±”ti imamattha½ d²peti. “Asantiy± ±pattiy± tuºh² bhavitabban”ti idampi tamevattha½ d²peti. “Tuºh²bh±vena kho pan±yasmante parisuddh±ti vediss±m²”ti idampi tamev±ti evamattha½ gahetv± vutta½ kira.
Apareti atthadassitthero kira. Eta½ sandh±y±ti ettha “sakimpi anus±vitan”ti padassa vacanena tikkhattu½ anus±van± k±tabb±ti ettakameva d²pita½ viya dissati.
Imamattha½ sandh±ya vuttanti katha½ viññ±yat²ti ce? “Ayamettha ±cariyaparampar±bhato vinicchayo”ti vutta½.
“Saram±nen±”ti imin± sampaj±namus±v±dassa sacittakatta½ dasseti. Saªghamajjhe v±ti-±di lakkhaºavacana½ kira. Saªghuposathakaraºattha½ saªghamajjhe ce nisinno, tasmi½ saªghamajjhe ±vik±tabb±. Gaºuposathakaraºatthañce gaºamajjhe nisinno, tasmi½ gaºamajjhe. Ekasseva santike ce p±risuddhi-uposatha½ kattuk±mo, tasmi½ ekapuggale ±vik±tabb±ti, etena na kevala½ saªghamajjhe ev±ya½ mus±v±do sambhavati, atha kho ettha vuttalakkhaºena asatipi “p±risuddhi½ ±yasmanto ±roceth±”ti-±dividh±ne gaºuposathepi s±pattiko hutv± uposatha½ kattuk±mo an±rocetv± tuºh²bh³tova ce karoti, aya½ sampaj±namus±v±d±patti½ ±pajjat²ti imassatthassa ±vikaraºato lakkhaºavacana½ kiretanti vuttanti takkik±. Aññath± “gaºamajjhe v±”ti na vattabbanti tesa½ adhipp±yo. ¾rocan±dhipp±yavasena vuttanti ±cariyassa takko. ¾rocento hi “saªghassa ±rocem²”ti adhipp±yena ±vikaronto saªghamajjhe ±vikaroti n±ma, ubhatopasse nisinn±na½ ±rocento gaºamajjhe ±vikaroti n±ma, “ekasseva ±rocess±m²”ti adhipp±yena ±vikaronto ekapuggale ±vikaroti n±ma. Sacepi vematiko hoti…pe… paµikariss±m²ti eva½ kate y±va vematiko hoti, t±va sabh±g±patti½ paµiggahetu½ labhati, aññesañca kamm±na½ parisuddho n±ma hoti. Puna nibbematiko hutv± desetabba½ v± na v±ti neva p±¼iya½, na aµµhakath±ya½ atthi, desite pana doso natthi. Tath± ito vuµµhahitv± ta½ ±patti½ paµikariss±m²ti ettha ca sakalasaªghe sabh±g±patti½ ±panne, vematike c±ti likhita½ (vajira. µ². mah±vagga 169-170).

Nid±navaººan± niµµhit±.