29. Kathinatth±ravinicchayakath±

226. Eva½ catupaccayabh±janavinicchaya½ kathetv± id±ni kathinavinicchaya½ kathetum±ha “kathinanti ettha pan±”ti-±di. Tattha kathinanti katama½ kathina½? Sam³hapaññatti. Na hi paramatthato kathina½ n±ma eko dhammo atthi, purimavassa½vutth± bhikkh³, an³napañcavaggasaªgho, c²varam±so, dhammena samena uppannac²varanti-±d²su yesu n±mar³pesu samuppajjam±nesu tesa½ n±mar³padhamm±na½ sam³hasamav±yasaªkh±ta½ sam³hapaññattimattameva kathina½. Ayamattho katha½ j±nitabboti? “Tesaññeva dhamm±na½ saªgaho samav±yo n±ma½ n±makamma½ n±madheyya½ nirutti byañjana½ abhil±po, yadida½ kathinan”ti pariv±rap±¼iya½ (pari. 412) ±gatatt± ca, “tesaññeva dhamm±nanti yesu r³p±didhammesu sati kathina½ n±ma hoti, tesa½ samodh±na½ miss²bh±vo. N±ma½ n±makammanti-±din± pana ‘kathinan’ti ida½ bah³su dhammesu n±mamatta½, na paramatthato eko dhammo atth²ti dasset²”ti aµµhakath±ya½ (pari. aµµha. 412) ±gatatt± ca, “yesu r³p±didhammes³ti purimavassa½vutth± bhikkh³, pañcahi an³no saªgho, c²varam±so, dhammena samena samuppanna½ c²varanti evam±d²su yesu r³p±r³padhammesu. Sat²ti santesu. Miss²bh±voti sa½saggat± sam³hapaññattimatta½. Ten±ha na paramatthato eko dhammo atth²ti dasset²”ti vimativinodaniya½ (vi. vi. µ². pariv±ra 2.412) ±gatatt± ca j±nitabboti.
Kenaµµhena kathinanti? Thiraµµhena. Kasm± thiranti? An±mantac±ra-asam±d±nac±ragaºabhojanay±vadatthac²varayocatatthac²varupp±dasaªkh±te pañc±nisa½se antokaraºasamatthat±ya. Vuttañhi s±ratthad²paniya½ (s±rattha. µ². mah±vagga 3.306) “pañc±nisa½se antokaraºasamatthat±ya thiranti attho”ti, tath± vimativinodaniya½ (vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.306) vajirabuddhiµ²k±yañca (vajira. µ². mah±vagga 306). Atha v± kenaµµhena kathinanti? Saªgaºhanaµµhena. Katha½ saªgaºh±t²ti? Pañc±nisa½se aññattha gantu½ adatv± saªgaºh±ti saªkhipitv± gaºh±ti. Vuttañhi vinayatthamañj³s±ya½ (kaªkh±. abhi. µ². kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) “pañc±nisa½se aññattha gantu½ adatv± saªgaºhanaµµhena kathinan”ti.
Kathina-saddo k±ya dh±tuy± kena paccayena sijjhat²ti? ݲk±cariy± dh±tupaccaye acintetv± anipphannap±µipadikavaseneva vaººenti, tasm± aya½ saddo ru¼h²suddhan±mabh³to anipphannap±µipadikasaddoti vuccati. Katha½ viññ±yat²ti ce? T²supi vinayaµ²k±su (s±rattha. µ². mah±vagga 3.306; vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.306; vajira. µ². mah±vagga 306; kaªkh±. abhi. µ². kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) “thiranti attho” icceva vaººitatt±. Pañc±nisa½se antokaraºasamatthat±y±ti pana thirat± cassa hetupadameva. Atha v± kathina-saddo kathadh±tuy± inapaccayena sijjhati. Katha½? Katha saªgahaºetimassa laddhadh±tusaññ±dissa pañc±nisa½se aññattha gantu½ adatv± saªgaºh±t²ti atthe “ina sabbatth±”ti yogavibh±gena v± “supato c±”ti ettha ca-saddena v± inapaccaya½ katv± parakkhara½ netv± kathinasaddato syuppatt±dimhi kate r³pa½. Katha½ viññ±yat²ti ce? “Saªgaºhanaµµhen±”ti vutta½ kaªkh±vitaraº²µ²k±p±µha½ niss±ya viññ±yati. Atha v± kaµha kicchaj²vaneti dh±tuto inapaccaya½ katv± sijjhati. Ayamattho “kaµha kicchaj²vane, muddhajadutiyanto dh±tu, ino”ti abhidh±nappad²pik±µ²k±ya½ vuttatt± viññ±yati.
Bah³ pana paº¹it± ima½ p±µha½yeva gahetv± “kathina-saddo muddhajadutiyantoyeva hoti, na dantajo”ti vadanti ceva likhanti ca, na paneva½ ekantato vattabba½. Kasm±? Abhidh±nappad²pik±µ²k±ya½ kakkha¼apariy±ya½ guºasaddabh³ta½ kaµhinasadda½ sandh±ya vutta½, na s±sanavoh±rato n±masaddabh³ta½. Tenev±ha “pañcaka½ kakkha¼e”ti. Anekesu pana p±¼i-aµµhakath±dipotthakesu jinas±sanavoh±rato n±masaddabh³to kathina-saddo dantajoyeva yebhuyyena paññ±yati teneva ca k±raºena abhidh±nappad²pik±µ²k±yampi vaººavipariy±ye kathinantipi vutta½. Atha v± kattha sil±gh±yanti dh±tuto inapaccaya½ katv± sasa½yogatthak±ra½ nisa½yoga½ katv± sijjhati. Ayamattho sil±gh±disuttassa vuttiya½ “sil±gha katthane”ti vacanato, saddan²tiyañca “katthana½ pasa½sanan”ti vaººitatt± ca viññ±yati. Idañca vacana½ “idañhi kathinavatta½ n±ma buddhappasatthan”ti aµµhakath±vacanena (mah±va. aµµha. 306) sameti. ¾cariy± pana “kaµhadh±tu inapaccayo”ti vikappetv± “kaµha samatthane”ti attha½ vadanti, ta½ µ²k±su (s±rattha. µ². mah±vagga 3.306; vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.306; vajira. µ². mah±vagga 306; kaªkh±. abhi. µ². kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) “thiranti attho”ti vacana½ anapekkhitv± “pañc±nisa½se antokaraºasamatthat±y±”ti hetumeva atthabh±vena gahetv± vutta½ siy±, ta½ pana thirabh±vassa hetuyeva.
Katha½ viggaho k±tabboti? Aya½ kathina-saddo cat³su padesu n±mapada½, pañcasu n±mesu suddhan±ma½, cat³su suddhan±mesu ru¼h²suddhan±ma½, dv²su p±µipadikasaddesu anipphannap±µipadikasadda-o, tasm± viggaho na k±tabbo. Vuttañhi–
“Ru¼h²khy±ta½ nip±tañcu-pasagg±lapana½ tath±;
sabban±mikametesu, na kato viggaho chas³”ti.
Ayamattho “kathinanti…pe… thiranti attho”ti µ²k±su (s±rattha. µ². mah±vagga 3.306; vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.306; vajira. µ². mah±vagga 306; kaªkh±. abhi. µ². kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) vacanato viññ±yati. Atha v± pañc±nisa½se aññattha gantu½ adatv± kathati saªgaºh±t²ti kathina½, aya½ vacanattho yath±vuttavinayatthamañj³s±p±µhavasena (kaªkh±. abhi. µ². kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) viññ±yati. Atha v± kaµhati kicchena j²vat²ti kathino, rukkho, tassa esoti kathino, thirabh±vo, so etassa atth²ti kathina½, paññattij±ta½ µha-k±rassa tha-k±ra½ katv± kathinanti vutta½. Aya½ nayo “kaµha kicchaj²vane”ti dh±tvatthasa½vaººan±ya ca “pañc±nisa½se antokaraºasamatthat±ya thiranti attho”ti µ²k±vacanena (s±rattha. µ². mah±vagga 3.306; vi. vi. µ². mah±vagga 2.306; vajira. µ². mah±vagga 306; kaªkh±. abhi. kathinasikkh±padavaººan±) ca samet²ti daµµhabbo. Atha v± kath²yate sil±ghate pasa½s²yate buddh±d²h²ti kathina½, aya½ nayo “kattha sil±gh±yan”ti dh±tvatthasa½vaººan±ya ca “idañhi kathinavatta½ n±ma buddhappasatthan”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 306) aµµhakath±vacanena ca samet²ti daµµhabbo.
Ettha pana saªkheparucitt± ±cariyassa saddalakkhaºa½ avic±retv± atthameva puccha½ katv± vissajjetu½ “kathina½ attharitu½ ke labhanti, ke na labhant²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha ke labhant²ti ke s±dhent²ti attho. Pañca jan± labhant²ti pañca jan± s±dhenti. Kathinadussassa hi d±yak± pacchimakoµiy± catt±ro honti, eko paµigg±hakoti. “Tatra, bhikkhave, yv±ya½ catuvaggo bhikkhusaªgho µhapetv± t²ºi kamm±ni upasampada½ pav±raºa½ abbh±nan”ti campeyyakkhandhake (mah±va. 388) vuttatt± na pañcavaggakaraº²yanti gahetabba½. Paµhamappav±raº±ya pav±rit±ti ida½ vassaccheda½ akatv± vassa½vutthabh±vasandassanattha½ vutta½ antar±yena apav±rit±nampi vutthavass±na½ kathinatth±rasambhavato. Teneva “appav±rit± v±”ti avatv± “chinnavass± v± pacchimik±ya upagat± v± na labhant²”ti ettakameva vutta½. Aññasmi½ vih±re vutthavass±pi na labhant²ti n±n±s²m±ya aññasmi½ vih±re vutthavass± imasmi½ vih±re kathinatth±ra½ na labhant²ti attho. Sabbeti chinnavass±dayo, anupagat±pi tattheva saªgahit±. ¾nisa½santi kathin±nisa½sac²vara½. Eka½ atthatac²vara½yeva hi kathinac²vara½ n±ma hoti, avases±ni c²var±ni v± s±µak± v± kathin±nisa½s±yeva n±ma. Vakkhati hi “avasesakathin±nisa½se balavavatth±ni vass±v±sikaµhitik±ya d±tabb±n²”ti. (Vi. saªga. aµµha. 226) itaresanti purimik±ya upagat±na½.
So ce pacchimik±ya upasampajjati, gaºap³rako ceva hoti, ±nisa½sañca labhat²ti imin± s±maºer±na½ vass³pagamana½ anuññ±ta½ hoti. So hi purimik±ya vass³pagatatt± ±nisa½sa½ labhati, pacchimik±ya pana upasampajjitatt± gaºap³rako hot²ti. Sace purimik±ya upagat± kathinatth±rakusal± na hont²ti-±din± “aµµhadhammakovido bhikkhu, kathinatth±ramarahat²”ti vinayavinicchaye (vi. vi. 2704) ±gatatt± saya½ ce aµµhadhammakusalo, sayameva attharitabba½. No ce, aññe aµµhadhammakusale pariyesitv± netabb±, eva½ akatv± kathina½ attharitu½ na vaµµat²ti dasseti. Kathina½ atthar±petv±ti sak±ritavacanena tehi b±hirato ±gatattherehi saya½ kathina½ na attharitabba½, sabbapubbakicc±dika½ sa½vidahitv± te purimik±ya vass³pagat± antos²maµµhabhikkh³yeva atthar±petabb±ti dasseti, aññath± añño kathina½ attharati, añño ±nisa½sa½ labhat²ti ±pajjati, na paneva½ yujjati. Vakkhati hi “±nisa½so pana itaresa½yeva hot²”ti. D±nañca bhuñjitv±ti kh±dan²yabhojan²yabh³ta½ annap±n±did±na½ bhuñjitv±. Na hi te vatthud±na½ labhanti.
Kathinac²vara½ dem±ti d±tu½ vaµµat²ti ettha “saªghassa kathinac²vara½ dem±”ti vattabba½. Evañhi sati “ida½ saªghassa kathinadussa½ uppannan”ti (mah±va. 307) kammav±c±ya sameti. Atha ca pana pubbe kataparicayatt± “saªghass±”ti avuttepi sampad±na½ p±kaµanti katv± avutta½ siy±ti. Ettheke ±cariy± vadanti “saªghass±ti avuttepi k±le dinna½ saªghika½ hot²”ti, tatreva½ vattabba½ “na k±le dinna½ sabba½ saªghika½ hot²”ti. Katha½ viññ±yat²ti ce? “Yañca k±lepi saªghassa v± ida½ ak±lac²varanti, puggalassa v± ida½ tuyha½ damm²ti-±din± nayena dinna½, eta½ ak±lac²vara½ n±m±”ti kaªkh±vitaraºiya½ (kaªkh±. aµµha. ak±lacivarasikkh±padavaººan±) ±gatatt± puggalikampi hot²ti viññ±yati, tasm± parammukh±pi n±ma½ vatv± sammukh±pi p±dam³le µhapetv± dinna½ puggalikameva hoti, na saªghika½. Vuttañheta½ aµµhakath±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 379) “puggalassa det²ti ‘ima½ c²vara½ itthann±massa damm²’ti eva½ parammukh± v±, p±dam³le µhapetv± ‘ima½, bhante, tumh±ka½ damm²’ti eva½ sammukh± v± det²”ti. Eva½ puggalike sati ta½ c²vara½ saªghassa bh±jetabba½ hoti v± na hoti v±ti? So puggalo attano saddhivih±rika-antev±sikabh³tassa saªghassa v± aññassa sahadhammikasaªghassa v± bh±jetuk±mo bh±jeyya, abh±jetuk±mo “bh±jet³”ti na kenaci vacan²yo. Katha½ viññ±yat²ti ce? “Na hi puggalassa ±dissa dinna½ kenaci bh±jan²ya½ hot²”ti µ²k±su ±gamanato viññ±yati. Atheke ±cariy± eva½ vadanti “kathinassa eka½ m³la½ saªghoti (pari. 408) vuttatt± puggala½ uddissa dinnepi saªgh±yatta½ saªghika½ hoti. Yath± ki½ ‘s²m±ya dammi, sen±sanassa damm²’ti vuttepi ta½ d±na½ saªghika½ hoti, yath± ca ‘kathinac²vara½ damm²’ti vutte saªghika½ hot²”ti.
Tatreva½ vic±retabba½– “kathinassa eka½ m³la½ saªgho”ti vacana½ (pari. 408) kathinassa m³la½ kathinassa k±raºa½ dasseti. Yath± hi m³le vijjam±ne rukkho tiµµhati, avijjam±ne na tiµµhati, tasm± m³la½ rukkhassa k±raºa½ hoti, patiµµha½ hoti, eva½ saªghe vijjam±ne kathina½ hoti, no avijjam±ne, tasm± saªgho kathinassa m³la½ kathinassa k±raºa½ n±ma hoti. Katha½ saªghe vijjam±ne kathina½ hoti? Sabbantimena paricchedena catuvaggabh³tena saªghena atth±r±rahassa bhikkhuno ñattidutiyakammav±c±ya kathinac²vare dinneyeva tena c²varena atthata½ kathina½ n±ma hoti, no adinne, tasm± catuvaggasaªghe alabbham±ne sahassakkhattu½ “kathina½ damm²”ti vuttepi kathina½ n±ma na hoti, tasm± upac±ras²m±ya paricchinne vih±re eko v± dve v± tayo v± catt±ro v± bhikkh³ viharanti, tattha kathinac²vare uppanne aññato pariyesitv± catuvaggasaªgho eko paµigg±hakoti pañcanna½ bhikkh³na½ p³raºe sati kathina½ attharitu½ labhati, n±sati, eva½ saªghe vijjam±neyeva kathina½ n±ma hoti, no avijjam±ne, tasm± saªghassa kathinassa m³labh³tata½ k±raºabh³tata½ sandh±ya “kathinassa eka½ m³la½ saªgho”ti vutta½. “Kathinan”ti vutte saªghika½yeva hoti, no puggalikanti adhipp±yo etasmi½ p±µhe na labbhati. Yath± ki½ “kicc±dhikaraºassa eka½ m³la½ saªgho”ti (c³¼ava. 219) ettha apalokanakammañattikammañattidutiyakammañatticatutthakammasaªkh±ta½ kicc±dhikaraºa½ catuvagg±dike saªghe vijjam±neyeva hoti, no avijjam±ne, tasm± saªghassa kicc±dhikaraºassa m³labh³tata½ k±raºabh³tata½ sandh±ya “kicc±dhikaraºassa eka½ m³la½ saªgho”ti vuccati, eva½sampadamida½ daµµhabba½.