Idha pana s±dhakap±µhe “bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa v±”ti vijjam±ne kasm± s±dhyavacane bhaŗ¹±g±riko na vuttoti? Etarahi bhaŗ¹±g±rassa abh±v±. Yadi kesuci vih±resu bhaŗ¹±g±ra½ sammanneyya, so bhaŗ¹±g±ravih±re nisinno saŖghassa pattac²vararakkhaŗ±dika½ upak±ra½ kareyya, tassa bah³pak±rata½ sallakkhento saŖgho bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ etarahipi dhuvav±satth±ya dadeyya, so tassa visu½ dhuvav±savih±roti. Ettha s±dhakap±µhe “dhammakathikavinayadhar±d²na½ v±”ti-±disaddena bahussuto ±gat±gamo dhammadharo vinayadharo m±tik±dharo paŗ¹ito byatto medh±v² lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±moti vuttaguŗavante saŖgaŗh±ti. Ath±pi “eso puggalo bahussuto uddesaparipucch±d²hi bhikkh³na½ bah³pak±ro saŖghabh±ranitth±rako”ti vadati, “s±dhu esopi ph±suk±v±sassa araho, anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ro etassapi d±tabbo”ti vatv± anumoditabbo. Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “SaŖgho pana bahussutassa uddesaparipucch±d²hi bah³pak±rassa bh±ranitth±rakassa ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± det²”ti (mah±va. aµµha. 343) vacanato vińń±yati.
Ath±pi “aya½ puggalo dhammakathiko vinayadharo gaŗav±cak±cariyo saŖghassa bah³pak±ro visiµµhaguŗayutto”ti vadati, “s±dhu etassapi puggalassa dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ sallakkhetv± sammannitv±va d±tabbo”ti vatv± anumoditabbo. Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “SaŖgho pana bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa v± dhammakathikavinayadhar±d²na½ v± gaŗav±cak±cariyassa v± bah³pak±rata½ guŗavisiµµhatańca sallakkhetv± dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ sammannitv± det²”ti (p±ci. aµµha. 120; kaŖkh±. aµµha. anupakhajjasikkh±padavaŗŗan±) vacanato vińń±yati.
Ath±pi “eso puggalo bahussuto saŖghabh±ranitth±rako”ti vadati, “s±dhu etassapi anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± d±tabbo”ti vatv± anumoditabbo. Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “Bahussutassa saŖghabh±ranitth±rakassa bhikkhuno anuµµh±pan²yasen±sanamp²”ti pariv±raµµhakath±ya½ (pari. aµµha. 495-496) vuttatt± vińń±yati. Tato “eva½ duvaŖgasampanno puggalo antos²maµµho v± bahis²maµµho v±”ti pucchitv± “antos²maµµho”ti vutte “s±dhu suµµhu tassa d±tabbo”ti sampaµicchitabba½. “Bahis²maµµho”ti vutte “na d±tabbo”ti paµikkhipitabba½. Kasm±ti ce? “Na, bhikkhave, niss²me µhitassa sen±sana½ g±hetabba½, yo g±heyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (c³¼ava. 318) vacanatoti.
Atha “duvaŖgasamann±gate antos²maµµhe asati ekaŖgasamann±gato antos²maµµho atth²”ti pucchitv± “atth²”ti vutte “s±dhu suµµhu etassa d±tabbo”ti sampaµicchitabba½. Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “Bah³pak±rata½ guŗavisiµµhatańca sallakkhentoti bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa bah³pak±rata½ dhammakathik±d²na½ guŗavisiµµhatańca sallakkhento”ti s±ratthad²paniya½ (s±rattha. µ². p±cittiya 3.119-121) ekekaŖgavasena ±gatatt± vińń±yati. “Antos²maµµho ekaŖgasamann±gatopi natthi, bahis²maµµhova atth²”ti vutte “±gantv± antos²me µhitassa d±tabbo”ti vattabbo. Kasm±ti ce? “Asampatt±nampi upac±ras²ma½ paviµµh±na½ antev±sik±d²su gaŗhantesu d±tabbamev±”ti aµµhakath±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 379) vacanato vińń±yati.
Sace pana ekaŖgayuttabh±vena v± duvaŖgayuttabh±vena v± sam±n± dve tayo bhikkh³ antos²m±ya½ vijjam±n± bhaveyyu½, kassa d±tabboti? Va¹¹hatarass±ti. Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “Na ca, bhikkhave, saŖghika½ yath±vu¹¹ha½ paµib±hitabba½, yo paµib±heyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (c³¼ava. 311) vacanatoti. Sace pana antos²m±ya½ ekaŖgayutto v± duvaŖgayutto v± bhikkhu natthi, sabbeva ±v±sik± b±l± abyatt±, eva½ sati kassa d±tabboti? Yo ta½ vih±ra½ ±gacchati ±gantuko bhikkhu, so ce lajj² hoti pesalo bahussuto sikkh±k±mo, so tehi ±v±sikehi bhikkh³hi ańńattha agamanattha½ saŖgaha½ katv± so ±v±so d±tabbo.
Ayamattho katha½ j±nitabboti ce? “Idha pana, bhikkhave, ańńatarasmi½ ±v±se sambahul± bhikkh³ viharanti b±l± abyatt±, te na j±nanti uposatha½ v± uposathakamma½ v± p±timokkha½ v± p±timokkhuddesa½ v±. Tattha ańńo bhikkhu ±gacchati bahussuto ±gat±gamo dhammadharo vinayadharo m±tik±dharo paŗ¹ito byatto medh±v² lajj² kukkuccako sikkh±k±mo, tehi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³hi so bhikkhu saŖgahetabbo anuggahetabbo upal±petabbo upaµµh±petabbo cuŗŗena mattik±ya dantakaµµhena mukhodakena. No ce saŖgaŗheyyu½ anuggaŗheyyu½ upal±peyyu½ upaµµh±peyyu½ cuŗŗena mattik±ya dantakaµµhena mukhodakena, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (mah±va. 163) samm±sambuddhena pańńattatt±, aµµhakath±yańca (mah±va. aµµha. 163) “saŖgahetabboti ‘s±dhu, bhante, ±gatattha, idha bhikkh± sulabh± s³pabyańjana½ atthi, vasatha anukkaŗµham±n±’ti eva½ piyavacanena saŖgahetabbo, punappuna½ tath±karaŗavasena anuggahetabbo, ‘±ma vasiss±m²’ti paµivacanad±panena upal±petabbo. Atha v± cat³hi paccayehi saŖgahetabbo ceva anuggahetabbo ca, piyavacanena upal±petabbo, kaŗŗasukha½ ±lapitabboti attho, cuŗŗ±d²hi upaµµh±petabbo. ¾patti dukkaµass±ti sace sakalopi saŖgho na karoti, sabbesa½ dukkaµa½. Idha neva ther±, na dahar± muccanti, sabbehi v±rena upaµµh±tabbo, attano v±re anupaµµhahantassa ±patti. Tena pana mah±ther±na½ pariveŗasammajjanadantakaµµhad±n±d²ni na s±ditabb±ni. Evampi sati mah±therehi s±ya½p±ta½ upaµµh±na½ ±gantabba½. Tena pana tesa½ ±gamana½ ńatv± paµhamatara½ mah±ther±na½ upaµµh±na½ gantabba½. Sacassa saddhi½car± bhikkh³ upaµµh±k± atthi, ‘mayha½ upaµµh±k± atthi, tumhe appossukk± viharath±’ti vattabba½. Ath±pissa saddhi½ car± natthi, tasmi½yeva pana vih±re eko v± dve v± vattasampann± vadanti ‘mayha½ therassa kattabba½ kariss±ma, avases± ph±su viharant³’ti, sabbesa½ an±patt²”ti vuttatt±. Eva½ t±disa½ bahis²mato antos²mam±gata½ lajj²pesalabahussutasikkh±k±mabh³ta½ bhikkhu½ antos²m±ya dhuvaniv±satth±ya ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± d±tabboti vińń±yati.
Nanu ca “na, bhikkhave, niss²me µhitassa sen±sana½ g±hetabba½, yo g±heyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (c³¼ava. 318) bhagavat± vutta½, atha kasm± niss²mato ±gatassa dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ro d±tabboti? Vuccate– “niss²me µhitass±”ti ida½ an±dare s±mivacana½, tasm± niss²me µhita½yeva sen±sana½ na g±hetabbanti attho daµµhabbo, na niss²me µhitassa tassa bhikkhussa antos²ma½ paviµµhassapi sen±sana½ na g±hetabbanti attho, tasm± pubbe bahis²m±ya½ µhitepi id±ni antos²ma½ paviµµhak±lato paµµh±ya catupaccayabh±go labbhati. Vuttańhi aµµhakath±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 379) “asukavih±re kira bahu½ c²vara½ uppannanti sutv± yojanantarikavih±ratopi bhikkh³ ±gacchanti, sampattasampatt±na½ µhitaµµh±nato paµµh±ya d±tabban”ti. Antos²maµµhesu p±timokkha½ uddisitu½ asakkontesu yattha p±timokkhuddesako atthi, so ±v±so gantabbo hoti. Antovassepi p±timokkhuddesakena vin± vassa½ vasitu½ na labhati. Yattha p±timokkhuddesako atthi, tattha gantv± vassa½ vasitabba½, tasm± bahis²mato ±gatopi lajj²pesalabahussutasikkh±k±mabhikkhu saŖgahetabbo hoti. Vuttańheta½ bhagavat±–
“Idha pana, bhikkhave, ańńatarasmi½ ±v±se tadahuposathe sambahul± bhikkh³ viharanti b±l± abyatt±, te na j±nanti uposatha½ v± uposathakamma½ v± p±timokkha½ v± p±timokkhuddesa½ v±. Tehi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³hi eko bhikkhu s±mant± ±v±s± sajjuka½ p±hetabbo ‘gacch±vuso sa½khittena v± vitth±rena v± p±timokkha½ pariy±puŗitv± ±gacch±’ti. Evańceta½ labhetha, icceta½ kusala½. No ce labhetha, tehi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³hi sabbeheva yattha j±nanti uposatha½ v± uposathakamma½ v± p±timokkha½ v± p±timokkhuddesa½ v±, so ±v±so gantabbo. No ce gaccheyyu½, ±patti dukkaµassa. Idha pana, bhikkhave, ańńatarasmi½ ±v±se sambahul± bhikkh³ vassa½ vasanti b±l± abyatt±, te na j±nanti uposatha½ v± uposathakamma½ v± p±timokkha½ v± p±timokkhuddesa½ v±. Tehi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³hi eko bhikkhu s±mant± ±v±s± sajjuka½ p±hetabbo ‘gacch±vuso sa½khittena v± vitth±rena v± p±timokkha½ pariy±puŗitv± ±gacch±’ti. Evańceta½ labhetha, icceta½ kusala½. No ce labhetha, eko bhikkhu satt±hak±lika½ p±hetabbo ‘gacch±vuso sa½khittena v± vitth±rena v± p±timokkha½ pariy±puŗitv± ±gacch±’ti. Evańceta½ labhetha, icceta½ kusala½. No ce labhetha, na, bhikkhave, tehi bhikkh³hi tasmi½ ±v±se vassa½ vasitabba½, vaseyyu½ ce, ±patti dukkaµass±ti” (mah±va. 163).
Eva½ bahis²mato ±gatassapi saŖghassa upak±ra½ k±tu½ sakkontassa visiµµhaguŗayuttassa d±tabbabh±vo vińń±yati, tasm± “amh±ka½ gaŗo na hoti, amh±ka½ va½so paveŗ² na hoti, amh±ka½ sandiµµhasambhatto na hot²”ti-±d²ni vatv± na paµikkhipitabbo. Gaŗ±dibh±vo hi appam±ŗa½, yath±vuttabah³pak±rat±dibh±voyeva pam±ŗa½. S±maggikaraŗato paµµh±ya hi sam±nagaŗo hoti. Tath± hi ukkhitt±nuvattak±na½ laddhin±n±sa½v±sak±nampi laddhivissajjanena tividha-ukkhepan²yakammakat±na½ kamman±n±sa½v±sak±nampi os±raŗa½ katv± s±maggikaraŗena sa½v±so bhagavat± anuńń±to. Alajji½ pana bahussutampi saŖgaha½ k±tu½ na vaµµati. So hi alajj²parisa½ va¹¹h±peti, lajj²parisa½ h±peti. Bhaŗ¹anak±raka½ pana vih±ratopi nikka¹¹hitabba½. Tath± hi “bhaŗ¹anak±rakakalahak±rakameva sakalasaŖgh±r±mato nikka¹¹hitu½ labhati. So hi pakkha½ labhitv± saŖghampi bhindeyya. Alajj²-±dayo pana attano vasanaµµh±natoyeva nikka¹¹hitabb±, sakalasaŖgh±r±mato nikka¹¹hitu½ na vaµµat²”ti aµµhakath±ya½ (p±ci. aµµha. 128) vutta½.
Vu¹¹h±pac±yan±dis±maggirasarahita½ visabh±gapuggalampi saŖgaha½ k±tu½ na labhati. Vuttańhi “evar³pena hi visabh±gapuggalena ekavih±re v± ekapariveŗe v± vasantena attho natthi, tasm± sabbatthevassa niv±so v±rito”ti (p±ci. aµµha. 122), tasm± ±v±siko v± hotu ±gantuko v±, sagaŗo v± hotu ańńagaŗo v±, bahussutas²lavantabh³to bhikkhu saŖgahetabbo. Vuttańhi bhagavat±–
“Bahussuta½ dhammadhara½, sappańńa½ buddhas±vaka½;
nekkha½ jambonadasseva, ko ta½ nanditumarahati;
dev±pi na½ pasa½santi, brahmun±pi pasa½sito”ti. (A. ni.4.6)–

Aya½ antos²maµµhena saŖghena bah³pak±rat±guŗavisiµµhat±saŖkh±tehi guŗehi yuttassa saŖghabh±ranitth±rakassa bhikkhuno ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± d±ne vinicchayo.

Yad± pana saŖghatthero jar±dubbalat±ya v± rogap²¼itat±ya v± vivekajjh±sayat±ya v± gaŗa½ apariharituk±mo ańńassa d±tuk±mo, attano accayena v± kalahaviv±d±bh±vamicchanto saddhivih±rik±d²na½ niyy±tetuk±mo hoti, tad± na attano issaravat±ya d±tabba½, aya½ vih±ro saŖghiko, tasm± saŖgha½ sannip±t±petv± ta½ k±raŗa½ ±cikkhitv± bah³pak±rat±guŗavisiµµhat±yuttapuggalo vicin±petabbo. Tato saŖgho catt±ri agatigaman±ni anupagantv± bhagavato ajjh±say±nur³pa½ lajj²pesalabahussutasikkh±k±mabh³ta½ puggala½ vicinitv± “aya½ bhikkhu imassa vih±rassa anucchaviko”ti ±roceti. Mah±therassapi tameva ruccati, icceta½ kusala½. No ce ruccati, attano bh±rabh³ta½ vuttappak±ra-aŖgaviyutta½ puggala½ d±tuk±mo hoti. Eva½ sante saŖgho chand±di-agati½ na gacchati, puggalova gacchati, tasm± saŖghasseva anumatiy± vih±ro d±tabbo.
Sace pana saŖgho ya½ kańci ±misa½ labhitv± yath±vuttaguŗaviyuttassa bhikkhuno d±tuk±mo hoti, puggalo pana bhagavato ajjh±say±nur³pa½ vuttappak±ra-aŖgayuttabh³tasseva bhikkhussa d±tuk±mo, tad± puggalopi saŖghapariy±pannoyev±ti katv± dhammakammak±rakassa puggalasseva anumatiy± vih±ro d±tabbo, na saŖgh±numatiy±. Vuttańheta½ aµµhakath±ya½ (p±r±. aµµha. 2.538-539) “sace saŖgho kińci labhitv± ±misagarukat±ya na niv±reti, eko bhikkhu niv±reti, sova bhikkhu issaro. SaŖghikesu hi kammesu yo dhammakamma½ karoti, sova issaro”ti. Vuttańhi–
“Chand± dos± bhay± moh±;
yo dhamma½ ativattati;
nih²yati tassa yaso;
k±¼apakkheva candim±.
“Chand± dos± bhay± moh±;
yo dhamma½ n±tivattati;
±p³rati tassa yaso;
sukkapakkheva candim±”ti. (D². ni. 3.246; a. ni. 4.17-18; p±ri. 382, 386).
Yad± pana theropi kińci avatv± yath±kammaŖgato, saŖghopi na kassaci vic±reti, eva½ saŖghikavih±re abhikkhuke suńńe vattam±ne tasmi½ dese yena kenaci s±sanassa vuddhimicchantena ±cariyena antos²maµµhak± bhikkh³ eva½ samuss±hetabb± “m± tumhe ±yasmanto eva½ akattha, antos²maµµhakesu bhikkh³su bah³pak±rat±diyutta½ puggala½ vicinatha, vicinitv± labhant± tassa puggalassa samaggena saŖghena dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± detha, no ce antos²maµµhakesu bhikkh³su alattha, atha bahis²maµµhakesu bhikkh³su vicinatha. Bahis²maµµhakesu bhikkh³su vicinitv± yath±vutta-aŖgayuttapuggale labbham±ne ta½ puggala½ antos²ma½ pavesetv± antos²maµµhakassa saŖghassa anumatiy± dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ sammannitv± anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± detha. Eva½ karont± hi tumhe ±yasmanto appicchakath±-santosakath±-sallekhakath±-pavivittakath±v²riy±rambhakath±-s²lakath±-sam±dhikath±-pańń±kath±-vimuttikath±-vimuttiń±ŗadassanakath±saŖkh±tadasakath±vatthusampanna½ puggala½ upaniss±ya assutapubba½ dhamma½ suŗissatha, sutapubba½ dhamma½ pariyod±pissatha, kaŖkha½ vinodissatha, diµµhi½ uju½ karissatha, citta½ pas±dessatha. Yassa lajjino pesalassa bahussutassa sikkh±k±massa bhikkhuno bhikkha½ anusikkham±n± saddh±ya va¹¹hissanti, s²lena va¹¹hissanti, sutena va¹¹hissanti, c±gena va¹¹hissanti, pańń±ya va¹¹hissant²”ti. Vuttańheta½ visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.14) “katamo upanissayagocaro dasakath±vatthuguŗasamann±gato kaly±ŗamitto, ya½ niss±ya assuta½ suŗ±ti, suta½ pariyodapeti, kaŖkha½ vitarati, diµµhi½ uju½ karoti, citta½ pas±deti. Yassa v± anusikkham±no saddh±ya va¹¹hati, s²lena va¹¹hati, sutena va¹¹hati c±gena va¹¹hati, pańń±ya va¹¹hati, aya½ vuccati upanissayagocaro”ti. Eva½ samuss±hetv± dhammakatha½ katv± antos²maµµhakasaŖgheneva dhuvav±savih±ro d±petabboti.
Eva½ jinas±sanassa, va¹¹hik±mo supesalo;
ak±si pańńav± bhikkhu, suµµhu ±v±sanicchayanti.

Iti vinayasaŖgahasa½vaŗŗan±bh³te vinay±laŖk±re

Vih±ravinicchayakath±laŖk±ro.