Eva½ pana vissajjetv± adinna½ “mamaccayena asukassa hot³”ti d±na½ accayad±natt± na ruhati. Vuttańheta½ aµµhakath±ya½ (c³¼ava. aµµha. 419) “sace hi pańcasu sahadhammikesu yo koci k±la½ karonto ‘mamaccayena mayha½ parikkh±ro upajjh±yassa hotu, ±cariyassa hotu, saddhivih±rikassa hotu, antev±sikassa hotu, m±tu hotu, pitu hotu, ańńassa v± kassaci hot³’ti vadati, tesa½ na hoti, saŖghasseva hoti. Na hi pańcanna½ sahadhammik±na½ accayad±na½ ruhati, gih²na½ pana ruhat²”ti. Ettha ca ekacce pana vinayadhar± “gih²nanti pada½ sampad±nanti gahetv± bhikkh³na½ santaka½ accayad±navasena gih²na½ dadante ruhati, pańcanna½ pana sahadhammik±na½ dento na ruhat²”ti vadanti. Eva½ sante m±t±pit³na½ dadantopi ruheyya tesa½ gihibh³tatt±. “Atha ca pana ‘m±tu hotu, pitu hotu, ańńassa v± kassaci hot³’ti vadati, tesa½ na hot²”ti vacanato na ruhat²ti vińń±yati, tasm± “gih²na½ pan±”ti ida½ na sampad±navacana½, atha kho s±mivacanamev±ti daµµhabba½. Tena gih²na½ pana santaka½ accayad±na½ ruhat²ti sambandho k±tabbo.
Kińca bhiyyo– “sace hi pańcasu sahadhammikesu yo koci k±la½ karonto mamaccayena mayha½ parikkh±ro”ti ±rabhitv± “na hi pańcanna½ sahadhammik±na½ accayad±na½ ruhati, gih²na½ pana ruhat²”ti vuttatt± s±myatthe chaµµh²bahuvacana½ samatthita½ bhavati. Yadi eva½ “gih²nan”ti padassa asampad±natte sati katama½ sampad±na½ hot²ti? “Yassa kassac²”ti pada½. Vuttańhi aµµhakath±ya½ (c³¼ava. aµµha. 419) “m±tu hotu, pitu hotu, ańńassa v± kassaci hot³”ti. Ayamattho ajjukavatthun± (p±r±. 158) d²petabbo. Eva½ j²vam±nak±leyeva datv± matesu vinicchayo amhehi ń±to, kassaci adatv± matesu vinicchayo katha½ ń±tabboti? Tatth±pi saŖghike t±va heµµh± vuttanayena saŖghova issaro, gaŗasantake pana ekaccesu avases± issar±, sabbesu matesu saŖghova issaro. Vuttańhi aµµhakath±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 369) “sabbesu matesu saŖghika½ hot²”ti. Puggalike pana vih±rassa garubhaŗ¹att± avissajjiya½ avebhaŖgika½ saŖghikameva hoti.
Katha½ vińń±yat²ti ce? “Bhikkhussa, bhikkhave, k±lakate saŖgho s±m² pattac²vare, apica gil±nupaµµh±k± bah³pak±r±, anuj±n±mi bhikkhave, saŖghena tic²varańca pattańca gil±nupaµµh±k±na½ d±tu½. Ya½ tattha lahubhaŗ¹a½ lahuparikkh±ra½, ta½ sammukh²bh³tena saŖghena bh±jetu½. Ya½ tattha garubhaŗ¹a½ garuparikkh±ra½, ta½ ±gat±n±gatassa c±tuddisassa saŖghassa avissajjiya½ avebhaŖgikan”ti (mah±va. 369) tena bhagavat± j±nat± passat± arahat± samm±sambuddhena vuttatt± vińń±yati. Evampi “garubhaŗ¹a½ garuparikkh±ra½”icceva bhagavat± vutta½, na “vih±ran”ti, tasm± katha½ vih±rassa garubhaŗ¹abh±voti vińń±yat²ti? “Vih±ro vih±ravatthu, ida½ dutiya½ avebhaŖgikan”ti p±¼iya½,
“DvisaŖgah±ni dve honti, tatiya½ catusaŖgaha½;
catuttha½ navakoµµh±sa½, pańcama½ aµµhabhedana½.
“Iti pańcahi r±s²hi, pańcanimmalalocano;
pańcav²savidha½ n±tho, garubhaŗ¹a½ pak±say²”ti. (C³¼ava. aµµha. 321)–

Aµµhakath±yańca vuttatt± vińń±yati.

Iti d±yako vih±ra½ katv± kul³pakabhikkhussa deti, tassa muńcacetanuppattito pubbak±le d±yako vih±rass±miko hoti, d±tu½ v± vic±retu½ v± issaro, muńcacetanuppattito paµµh±ya paµigg±hakabhikkhu s±miko hoti, paribhuńjitu½ v± ańńesa½ d±tu½ v± issaro. So puggalo attano j²vam±nakkhaŗeyeva saddhivih±rik±d²na½ nissajjitv± deti, tad± te saddhivih±rik±dayo s±mik± honti, paribhuńjitu½ v± ańńassa v± d±tu½ issar±. Yadi pana kassaci adatv±va k±la½ karoti, tad± saŖghova tassa vih±rassa s±miko hoti, na d±yako v± puggalo v±, saŖgh±numatiy± eva puggalo paribhuńjitu½ labhati, na attano issaravat±y±ti daµµhabbo.
Eva½ m³latoyeva saŖghassa dinnatt± saŖghikabh³tavih±ro v± m³le gaŗapuggal±na½ dinnatt± gaŗasantakapuggalikabh³topi tesa½ gaŗapuggal±na½ ańńassa nissajjanavasena adatv± k±lakatatt± pacch± saŖghikabh±va½ pattavih±ro v± saŖghena vic±retabbo hoti. SaŖghenapi bhagavato anumatiy± sen±sanagg±h±paka½ sammannitv± g±h±petabbo. Vuttańheta½ sen±sanakkhandhake (c³¼ava. 317) “atha kho bhikkh³na½ etadahosi ‘kena nu kho sen±sana½ g±hetabban’ti. Bhagavato etamattha½ ±rocesu½– ‘anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, pańcahaŖgehi samann±gata½ bhikkhu½ sen±sanagg±h±paka½ sammannitun’ti”±di.
Imasmi½ µh±ne “sen±sanagg±ho n±ma vassak±lavasena sen±sanagg±ho, utuk±lavasena sen±sanagg±ho, dhuvav±savasena sen±sanagg±hoti tividho hoti. Tesu vassak±lavasena sen±sanagg±ho purimavassavasena sen±sanagg±ho, pacchimavassavasena sen±sanagg±hoti duvidho. Utuk±lavasena sen±sanagg±hopi antar±muttakavasena sen±sanagg±ho, taŖkhaŗapaµisall±navasena sen±sanagg±hoti duvidho”ti ±cariy± vadanti, eta½ p±¼iy± ca aµµhakath±ya ca asamenta½ viya dissati. P±¼iyańhi (c³¼ava. 318) “atha kho bhikkh³na½ etadahosi ‘kati nu kho sen±sanagg±ho’ti. Bhagavato etamattha½ ±rocesu½– tayome, bhikkhave, sen±sanagg±h± purimako pacchimako antar±muttako. Aparajjugat±ya ±s±¼hiy± purimako g±hetabbo, m±sagat±ya ±s±¼hiy± pacchimako g±hetabbo, aparajjugat±ya pav±raŗ±ya ±yati½ vass±v±satth±ya antar±muttako g±hetabbo. Ime kho, bhikkhave, tayo sen±sanagg±h±”ti eva½ ±gato, aµµhakath±yampi (c³¼ava. aµµha. 318) “t²su sen±sanagg±hesu purimako ca pacchimako c±ti ime dve g±h± th±var±. Antar±muttake aya½ vinicchayo…pe… aya½ t±va antovasse vass³pan±yik±divasena p±¼iya½ ±gatasen±sanagg±hakath±, aya½ pana sen±sanagg±ho n±ma duvidho hoti utuk±le ca vass±v±se c±”ti eva½ ±gato, tasm± saŖghena sammatasen±sanagg±h±pakena vic±retabb±.
Sen±sanagg±ho n±ma utuk±le sen±sanagg±ho, vass±v±se sen±sanagg±hoti duvidho. Tattha utuk±lo n±ma hemanta-utugimha-utuvasena aµµha m±s±, tasmi½ k±le bhikkh³ aniyat±v±s± honti, tasm± ye yad± ±gacchanti, tesa½ tad± bhikkh³ uµµh±petv± sen±sana½ d±tabba½, ak±lo n±ma natthi. Aya½ utuk±le sen±sanagg±ho n±ma. Vass±v±se sen±sanagg±ho pana “purimako pacchimako antar±muttako”ti p±¼iya½ ±gatanayena tividho hoti. Antar±muttakopi hi ±yati½ vass±v±satth±ya g±hitatt± vass±v±se sen±sanagg±hameva pavisati, na utuk±le sen±sanagg±ho. Vuttańhi bhagavat± “aparajjugat±ya pav±raŗ±ya ±yati½ vass±v±satth±ya antar±muttako g±hetabbo”ti. TaŖkhaŗapaµisall±navasena sen±sanagg±hoti ca neva p±¼iya½ na aµµhakath±ya½ visu½ ±gato, utuk±le sen±sanagg±hoyeva tadaŖgasen±sanagg±hotipi taŖkhaŗapaµisall±navasena sen±sanagg±hotipi vadanti, tasm± utuk±lavasena sen±sanagg±hopi “antar±muttakavasena sen±sanagg±ho taŖkhaŗapaµisall±navasena sen±sanagg±hoti dubbidho”ti na vattabbo.
Ath±pi vadanti “yath±vuttesu pańcasu sen±sanagg±hesu catt±ro sen±sanagg±h± pańcaŖgasamann±gatena sen±sanagg±h±pakasammutiladdhena bhikkhun± anto-upac±ras²maµµhena hutv± antos²maµµh±na½ bhikkh³na½ yath±vinaya½ vic±retabb± honti, te pana vic±raŗ± y±vajjak±l± th±var± hutv± na tiµµhanti, dhuvav±savasena vic±raŗameva y±vajjak±l± th±vara½ hutv± tiµµhat²”ti, tampi tath± na sakk± vattu½. Kasm±? Sen±sanagg±h±pakabhede “dhuvav±savasena sen±sanagg±ho”ti p±¼iya½ aµµhakath±yańca natthi. Dhuvav±savasena vic±raŗańca sammutiladdhena sen±sanagg±h±pakena vic±retabba½ na hoti, atha kho samaggena saŖghena apalokanakammavasena duvaŖgasamann±gatassa bhikkhussa anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± d±nameva, tasm± samaggo saŖgho bah³pak±rat±guŗavisiµµhat±saŖkh±tehi dv²hi aŖgehi samann±gata½ bhikkhu½ apalokanakammavasena sammannitv± tassa ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ dhuvav±savasena anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± deti, ta½ y±vajjak±l± th±vara½ hutv± tiµµhat²ti vattabba½.
Samaggo saŖghova dhuvav±savasena deti, na sen±sanagg±h±pakoti ayamattho katha½ ń±tabboti ce? “SaŖgho pana bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa v± dhammakathikavinayadhar±d²na½ v± gaŗav±caka-±cariyassa v± bah³pak±rata½ guŗavisiµµhatańca sallakkhento dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ sammannitv± det²”ti (p±ci. aµµha. 120; kaŖkh±. aµµha. anupakhajjasikkh±padavaŗŗan±) “saŖgho pana bahussutassa uddesaparipucch±d²hi bah³pak±rassa bh±ranitth±rakassa ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± det²”ti ca “saŖgho pana bhaŗ¹±g±rikassa v± dhammakathikavinayadharagaŗav±cak±cariy±na½ v± bah³pak±rata½ guŗavisiµµhatańca sallakkhetv± dhuvav±satth±ya vih±ra½ sallakkhetv± sammannitv± det²”ti ca “bahussutassa saŖghabh±ranitth±rakassa bhikkhuno anuµµh±pan²yasen±sanamp²”ti (pari. aµµha. 495-496) ca “apalokanakamma½ n±ma s²maµµhaka½ saŖgha½ sodhetv± chand±rah±na½ chanda½ ±haritv± samaggassa saŖghassa anumatiy± tikkhattu½ s±vetv± kattabba½ kamman”ti ca aµµhakath±su (pari. aµµha. 482) vacanato s±dhuka½ nissa½sayena ń±tabboti.
Katha½ pana apalokanakammena d±tabbabh±vo vińń±yat²ti? “Bahussutassa saŖghabh±ranitth±rakassa bhikkhuno anuµµh±pan²yasen±sanampi saŖghakicca½ karont±na½ kappiyak±rak±d²na½ bhattavetanampi apalokanakammena d±tu½ vaµµat²”ti pariv±raµµhakath±ya½ (pari. aµµha. 495-496) kammavagge ±gatatt± vińń±yati. Katha½ pana duvaŖgasamann±gatassa bhikkhunoyeva d±tabbabh±vo vińń±yat²ti? “Bah³pak±ratanti bhaŗ¹±g±rikat±dibaha-u-upak±rabh±va½. Na kevala½ idamev±ti ±ha ‘guŗavisiµµhatańc±’ti-±di. Tena bah³pak±rattepi guŗavisiµµhatt±bh±ve, guŗavisiµµhattepi bah³pak±ratt±bh±ve d±tu½ na vaµµat²ti dasset²”ti vinayatthamańj³s±ya½ (kaŖkh±. aµµha. µ². anupakhajjasikkh±padavaŗŗan±) vuttatt± vińń±yati.
Kasm± pana sen±sanagg±h±pakena vic±retabbo sen±sanagg±ho y±vajjak±l± na tiµµhat²ti? PańcaŖgasamann±gatassa sen±sanagg±h±pakassa bhikkhuno dullabhatt±, n±n±desav±s²na½ n±n±cariyakulasambhav±na½ bhikkh³na½ ekasambhogaparibhogassa dukkaratt± ca imehi dv²hi k±raŗehi na tiµµhati. Vuttańheta½ bhagavat± “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, pańcahaŖgehi samann±gata½ bhikkhu½ sen±sanagg±h±paka½ sammannitu½, yo na chand±gati½ gaccheyya, na dos±gati½ gaccheyya, na moh±gati½ gaccheyya, na bhay±gati½ gaccheyya gahit±gahitańca j±neyy±”ti (c³¼ava. 317). Aµµhakath±yampi (p±ci. aµµha. 122) “evar³pena hi sabh±gapuggalena ekavih±re v± ekapariveŗe v± vasantena attho natth²”ti vutta½. Kasm± pana dhuvav±satth±ya d±navic±ro y±vajjak±l± tiµµhat²ti? PańcaŖgasamann±gat±bh±vepi s²maµµhakassa samaggassa saŖghassa anumatiy± kattabbatt±. Vuttańhi “apalokanakamma½ n±ma s²maµµhaka½ saŖgha½ sodhetv± chand±rah±na½ chanda½ ±haritv± samaggassa saŖghassa anumatiy± tikkhattu½ s±vetv± kattabba½ kamman”ti (pari. aµµha. 482).
Utuk±le saŖghikasen±sane vasantena ±gato bhikkhu na paµib±hetabbo ańńatra anuµµh±pan²y±. Vuttańhi bhagavat± “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, vass±na½ tem±sa½ paµib±hitu½, utuk±la½ pana na paµib±hitun”ti (c³¼ava. 318). “Ańńatra anuµµh±pan²y±”ti vutta½, katame anuµµh±pan²y±ti? Catt±ro anuµµh±pan²y± vu¹¹hataro, bhaŗ¹±g±riko, gil±no, saŖghato laddhasen±sano ca. Tattha vu¹¹hataro bhikkhu tasmi½ vih±re antos²maµµhakabhikkh³su attan± vu¹¹hatarassa ańńassa abh±v± yath±vu¹¹ha½ kenaci anuµµh±pan²yo. Bhaŗ¹±g±riko saŖghena sammannitv± bhaŗ¹±g±rassa dinnat±ya saŖghassa bhaŗ¹a½ rakkhanto gopento vasati, tasm± so bhaŗ¹±g±riko kenaci anuµµh±pan²yo. Gil±no gelańń±bhibh³to attano laddhasen±sane vasanto kenaci anuµµh±pan²yo. SaŖghato laddhasen±sano samaggena saŖghena dinnasen±sanatt± kenaci anuµµh±pan²yo. Vuttańhi aµµhakath±ya½ (mah±va. aµµha. 343) “catt±ro hi na vuµµh±petabb± vu¹¹hataro, bhaŗ¹±g±riko, gil±no, saŖghato laddhasen±sanoti. Tattha vu¹¹hataro attano vu¹¹hat±ya navakatarena na vuµµh±petabbo, bhaŗ¹±g±riko saŖghena sammannitv± bhaŗ¹±g±rassa dinnat±ya, gil±no attano gil±nat±ya, saŖgho pana bahussutassa uddesaparipucch±d²hi bah³pak±rassa bh±ranitth±rakassa ph±suka½ ±v±sa½ anuµµh±pan²ya½ katv± deti, tasm± so upak±rakat±ya ca saŖghato laddhat±ya ca na vuµµh±petabbo”ti. Żhapetv± ime catt±ro avases± vuµµh±pan²y±va honti.