Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan±

Vividhavisesanayasamann±gata½ k±yav±c±vinayanakaraºasamattha½ lajjipesalabhikkh³na½sa½sayavinodanak±raka½ yog±vacarapuggal±na½ s²lavisuddhisamp±paka½ jinas±sanavu¹¹hihetubh³ta½pakaraºamidam±rabhituk±mo ayam±cariy±sabho paµhama½ t±va ratanattayapaº±mapaº±m±rahabh±va-abhidheyyakaraºahetukaraºappak±rapakaraº±bhidh±nanimittapayojan±ni dassetu½ “vatthuttaya½ namassitv±”ti-±dim±ha.Ettha hi vatthuttaya½ namassitv±ti imin± ratanattayapaº±mo vutto paº±metabbapaº±ma-atthadassanato.Saraºa½ sabbap±ºinanti imin± paº±m±rahabh±vo paº±mahetudassanato. P±¼imuttavinicchayantiabhidheyyo imassa pakaraºassa atthabh±vato. Vippakiººamanekatth±ti karaºahetu tenevak±raºenapakaraºassa katatt±. Sam±haritv± ekattha, dassayissaman±kulanti karaºappak±ro ten±k±renapakaraºassa karaºato. Pakaraº±bhidh±na½ pana sam±haritasaddassa s±matthiyato dassita½ sam±haritv±dassaneneva imassa pakaraºassa vinayasaªgaha-iti n±massa labhanato.
Nimitta½ pana ajjhattikab±hiravasena duvidha½. Tattha ajjhattika½ n±ma karuº±, ta½dassanakiriy±ya s±matthiyato dassita½ tasmi½ asati dassanakiriy±ya abh±vato. B±hira½n±ma sotujanasam³ho, ta½ yog±vacarabhikkh³nanti tassa karuº±rammaºabh±vato. Payojana½pana duvidha½ paº±mapayojanapakaraºapayojanavasena. Tattha paº±mapayojana½ n±ma antar±yavisosanapas±dajanan±dika½,ta½ saraºa½ sabbap±ºinanti imassa s±matthiyato dassita½ hetumhi sati phalassa avin±bh±vato.Vuttañhi abhidhammaµ²k±cariyena “guºavisesav± hi paº±m±raho hoti,paº±m±rahe ca kato paº±mo vuttappayojanasiddhikarova hot²”ti (dha. sa. m³laµ². 1).Pakaraºapayojanampi duvidha½ mukhy±nusaªgikavasena. Tesu mukhyapayojana½ n±ma byañjan±nur³pa½atthassa paµivijjhana½ pak±sanañca atth±nur³pa½ byañjanassa uddisana½ uddes±panañca, ta½ vinayep±µavatth±y±ti imin± vutta½. Anusaªgikapayojana½ n±ma s²l±di-anup±d±parinibb±nantoattho, ta½ sam±haritv± ekattha dassayissanti imassa s±matthiyena dassita½ ekatthasam±haritv± dassane sati taduggahaparipucch±din± katapayogassa anantar±yena tadatthasijjhanatoti.
Kimattha½ panettha ratanattayapaº±m±dayo ±cariyena kat±, nanu adhippetaganth±rambhova k±tabboti?Vuccate– ettha ratanattayapaº±makaraºa½ tabbihatantar±yo hutv± an±y±sena ganthaparisam±panattha½.Paº±m±rahabh±vavacana½ attano yuttapattak±rit±dassanattha½, ta½ viññ³na½ tos±panattha½,ta½ pakaraºassa uggahaºattha½, ta½ sabbasampattinipph±danattha½. Abhidheyyakathana½ vidit±bhidheyyassaganthassa viññ³na½ uggahadh±raº±divasena paµipajjanattha½. Karaºahetukathana½ ak±raºekatassa v±y±massa nipphalabh±vato tappaµikkhepanattha½. Karaºappak±rakathana½ viditappak±rassaganthassa sot³na½ uggahaº±d²su rucijananattha½. Abhidh±nadassana½ voh±rasukhattha½. Nimittakathana½±sannak±raºadassanattha½. Payojanadassana½ duvidhapayojanak±m²na½ sot³na½ samuss±hajananatthanti.
Ratanattayapaº±mapayojana½ pana bah³hi pak±rehi vitth±rayanti ±cariy±, ta½ tattha tatthavuttanayeneva gahetabba½. Idha pana ganthagarubh±vamocanattha½ aµµhakath±cariyehi adhippetapayojanamevakathayimha. Vuttañhi aµµhakath±cariyena–
“Nipaccak±rassetassa
katassa ratanattaye;
±nubh±vena sosetv±;
antar±ye asesato”ti. (Dha. sa. aµµha. ganth±rambhakath± 7).

Ayamettha samud±yattho, aya½ pana avayavattho– aha½ sabbap±º²na½ saraºa½ saraº²bh³ta½vatthuttaya½ namass±mi, namassitv± yog±vacarabhikkh³na½ vinaye p±µavatth±ya anekatthavippakiººa½p±¼imuttavinicchaya½ ekattha sam±haritv± an±kula½ katv± dassayissa½ dassayiss±m²tiyojan±.

Tattha vasanti etth±ti vatthu. Ki½ ta½? Buddh±diratana½. Tañhi yasm± saraºagat± sappuris±saraºagamanasamaªgino hutv± buddh±diratana½ ±rammaºa½ katv± tasmi½ ±rammaºe vasanti ±vasantinivasanti, tasm± “vatth³”ti vuccati. ¾rammaºañhi ±dh±ro, ±rammaºika½ ±dheyyoti.Ito par±nipi vatthusaddassa vacanatth±d²ni ±cariyehi vutt±ni, t±nipi tattha tattha vuttanayenevaveditabb±ni. Idha pana ganthavitth±rapariharaºattha½ ettakameva vuttanti veditabbanti.Tiººa½ sam³hoti taya½, tayo a½s± avayav± ass±ti v± taya½. Ki½ ta½? Samud±yo.Vatth³na½ tayanti vatthuttaya½. Ki½ ta½? Buddh±diratanattaya½. Namass±m²ti namassitv±,anaminti namassitv±. Buddh±diratanañhi ±rammaºa½ katv± cittassa uppajjanak±letv±-paccayo paccuppannak±liko hoti, tasm± paµhamo viggaho kato, p±¼imuttavinicchaya½ekattha dassanak±le at²tak±liko, tasm± dutiyo viggaho. Teneva ca k±raºenaatthayojan±yapi paccuppannak±la-at²tak±lavasena yojan± kat±.
Sarati hi½sat²ti saraºa½. Ki½ ta½? Buddh±diratanattaya½. Tañhi saraºagat±na½ sappuris±na½bhaya½ sant±sa½ dukkha½ duggativinip±ta½ sa½kilesa½ sarati hi½sati vin±seti,tasm± “saraºan”ti vuccati. Vuttañhi bhagavat±–
“Yasmi½, mah±n±ma, samaye ariyas±vako tath±gata½ anussarati, nevassa tasmi½ samayer±gapariyuµµhita½ citta½ hot²”ti-±di (a. ni. 6.10; 11.11),
“Eva½ buddha½ sarant±na½;
dhamma½ saªghañca bhikkhavo;
bhaya½ v± chambhitatta½ v±;
lomaha½so na hessat²”ti ca. (Sa½. ni. 1.249).

Yasm± pana “saraºan”ti ida½ pada½ “n±than”ti padassa vevacanabh³ta½ kitasuddhan±mapada½ hoti,na kitamattapada½, tasm± dh±tvattho anton²to. “Sara hi½s±yan”ti hi vutta½ hi½sattha½gahetv± sabbap±º²na½ saraºa½ hi½saka½ vatthuttaya½ namassitv± viññ±yam±ne aniµµhappasaªgatosabbap±º²na½ saraºa½ saraº²bh³ta½ n±thabh³ta½ vatthuttaya½ namassitv±ti viññ±yam±neyevayujjati, teneva ca k±raºena atthayojan±yampi tath± yojan± kat±. Sabba-saddo niravasesatthav±caka½sabban±mapada½. Saha avena yo vattat²ti sabboti kate pana sakala-saddo viya samud±yav±caka½sam±san±mapada½ hoti. P±ºo etesa½ atth²ti p±ºino, p±ºoti cettha j²vitindriya½adhippeta½. Sabbe p±ºino sabbap±ºino, tesa½ sabbap±º²na½. Ett±vat± vatthuttayassasabbalokasaraºabh±va½, tatoyeva ca namassan±rahabh±va½, namassan±rahe ca kat±yanamassanakiriy±yayath±dhippetatthasiddhikarabh±va½, attano kiriy±ya ca khettaªgatabh±va½ dasseti.

Eva½ sahetuka½ ratanattayapaº±ma½ dassetv± id±ni pakaraº±rambhassa sanimitta½ mukhyapayojana½dassetum±ha “vinaye p±µavatth±ya, yog±vacarabhikkh³nan”ti. Etthaca vinaye p±µavatth±y±ti mukhyapayojanadassana½, ta½dassanena ca anusaªgikapayojanampivibh±vitameva hoti k±raºe siddhe k±riyassa sijjhanato. Yog±vacarabhikkh³nantib±hiranimittadassana½, tasmi½ dassite ajjhattikanimittampi d²pitameva hoti±rammaºe ñ±te ±rammaºikassa ñ±tabbato. Tattha vividh± nay± etth±ti vinayo, duvidhap±timokkhaduvidhavibhaªgapañcavidhap±timokkhuddesapañca-±pattikkhandhasatta-±pattikkhandh±dayovividh± anekappak±r± nay± ettha sant²ti attho. Atha v± vises± nay± etth±ti vinayo,da¼h²kammasithilakaraºapayojan± anupaññattinay±dayo vises± nay± ettha sant²ti attho.Atha v± vinet²ti vinayo. K±yo vineti k±yav±c±yo, iti k±yav±c±na½ vinayanatovinayo. Vuttañhi aµµhakath±ya½–
“Vividhavisesanayatt±
vinayanato ceva k±yav±c±na½;
vinayatthavid³hi aya½;
vinayo ‘vinayo’ti akkh±to”ti. (P±r±. aµµha. 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±; dha. sa.aµµha. nid±nakath±; d². ni. aµµha. 1.paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±).

Ko so? Vinayapiµaka½. Tasmi½ vinaye. Paµati viyattabh±va½ gacchat²ti paµu.Ko so? Paº¹ito. Paµuno bh±vo p±µava½. Ki½ ta½? ѱºa½. Asati k±raº±nur³pa½bhavat²ti attho. Ko so? Payojana½. P±µavameva attho p±µavattho, tassa p±µavatth±ya,vinayapiµake kosallañ±ºapayojan±y±ti vutta½ hoti. Yuñjana½ yogo, kammaµµh±namanasik±ro.Avacarant²ti avacar±, yoge avacar± yog±vacar±, kammaµµh±nik± bhikkh³. Sa½s±re bhaya½ikkhant²ti bhikkh³, yog±vacar± ca te bhikkh³ c±ti yog±vacarabhikkh³, tesa½ yog±vacarabhikkh³na½.Etena vinaye paµubh±vo n±ma bhikkh³na½yeva attho hoti, na gahaµµhat±pasaparibb±jak±d²na½.Bhikkh³su ca kammaµµh±ne niyutt±na½ lajjipesalabhikkh³na½yeva, na vissaµµhakammaµµh±n±na½alajjibhikkh³nanti imamattha½ dasseti.

Eva½ pakaraº±rambhassa sanimitta½ payojana½ dassetv± id±ni sahetuka½ abhidheyya½ dassetu½“vippakiººamanekattha, p±¼imuttavinicchayan”ti ±ha. Tattha vippakiººa½anekatth±ti imin± pakaraº±rambhassa hetu½ dasseti hetumantavisesanatt±, imassa anekatthavippakiººatt±yeva±cariyassa ±rambho hoti, na avippakiººe sati. Vakkhati hi “sam±haritv± ekatthadassayissan”ti (vi. saªga. aµµha. ganth±rambhakath±). P±¼imuttavinicchayanti imin±pakaraº±bhidheyya½. Tattha kirati vikkhipat²ti kiººo, pak±rena kiººo pakiººo,vividhena pakiººo vippakiººo. Ko so? P±¼imuttavinicchayo, ta½ vippakiººa½.
Anekatth±ti ettha saªkhy±v±cako sabban±miko eka-saddo, na eko aneke. Bahvatthav±cakoanekasaddo. Ekanta-ekavacanantopi eka-saddo na-itinip±tena yuttatt± bahuvacanantoj±toti. Tattha anekattha bah³s³ti attho, p±r±jikakaº¹aµµhakath±d²su anekesupakaraºes³ti vutta½ hoti. Por±ºaµ²k±ya½ pana anekatth±ti anekesu sikkh±padapadeses³tiattho dassito, evañca sati upari “sam±haritv± ekatth±”ti vakkham±natt± “anekatthavippakiººa½ekattha sam±haritv±”ti imesa½ pad±na½ sahayog²bh³tatt± anekesu sikkh±padapadesesuvippakiººa½ ekasmi½ sikkh±padapadese sam±haritv±ti attho bhaveyya, so ca atthoayutto. Kasm±? Anekesu pakaraºesu vippakiººa½ ekasmi½ pakaraºe sam±haritv±ti attho amhehi vutto. Atha pana “ekatth±”ti imassa “ekato”ti attha½vikappetv± anekesu sikkh±padapadesesu vippakiººa½ ekato sam±haritv±tiattha½ gaºheyya, so attho yutto bhaveyya.
Pakaµµh±na½ ±¼²ti p±¼i, uttam±na½ vacan±na½ anukkamoti attho. Atha v± attatthaparatth±dibheda½attha½ p±leti rakkhat²ti p±¼i, la¼±namaviseso. K± s±? Vinayatanti. Muccat²timutto, p±¼ito mutto p±¼imutto. Chindiyate anen±ti chayo, n²haritv± chayonicchayo, visesena nicchayo vinicchayo, khilamaddan±k±rena pavatto saddanayo atthanayoca. P±¼imutto ca so vinicchayo c±ti p±¼imuttavinicchayo, ta½ p±¼imuttavinicchaya½.Idañca “±nagar± khadiravanan”ti-±d²su viya yebhuyyanayavasena vutta½ katthaci p±¼ivinicchayassapidissanato. Por±ºaµ²k±ya½ pana p±¼ivinicchayo ca p±¼imuttavinicchayo ca p±¼imuttavinicchayotieva½ ekadesasar³pekasesavasena v± eta½ vuttanti daµµhabbanti dutiyanayopi vutto, evañcasati p±¼ivinicchayap±¼imuttavinicchayehi aññassa vinicchayassa abh±v± kimetena ganthagarukarenap±¼imuttaggahaºena. Visesanañhi sambhavabyabhic±re ca sati s±tthaka½ siy±ti paµhamanayova±r±dhan²yo hoti.
Eva½ sahetuka½ abhidheyya½ dassetv± id±ni karaºappak±ra½ dasseti “sam±haritv±”ti-±din±.Duvidho hettha karaºappak±ro ekatthasam±haraºa-an±kulakaraºavasena. So duvidhopi tenapak±rena pakaraºassa katatt± “karaºappak±ro”ti vuccati. Tattha sam±hariss±m²ti sam±haritv±,sa½-saddo saªkhepattho, tasm± saªkhipiya ±hariss±m²ti attho. An±gatak±likavasena paccam±nena“dassayissan”ti padena sam±nak±latt± an±gatak±liko idha tv±-paccayovutto. Ekatth±ti ekasmi½ idha vinayasaªgahappakaraºe. Ekatth±ti v± ekato.Dassayissanti dassayiss±mi, ñ±payiss±m²ti attho. ¾kulati by±kulat²ti±kulo, na ±kulo an±kulo, pubb±paraby±kiººavirahito p±¼imuttavinicchayo.An±kulanti pana bh±vanapu½saka½, tasm± karadh±tumayena katv±saddena yojetv± dassanakiriy±yasambandhitabba½.
Eva½ ratanattayapaº±m±dika½ pubbakaraºa½ dassetv± id±ni ye p±¼imuttavinicchaye dassetuk±mo,tesa½ anukkamakaraºattha½ m±tika½ µhapento “tatr±ya½ m±tik±”ti-±dim±ha. M±tik±yahi asati dassitavinicchay± vikiranti vidha½senti yath± ta½ suttena asaªgahit±ni pupph±ni.Santiy± pana m±tik±ya dassitavinicchay± na vikiranti na vidha½senti yath± ta½ suttenasaªgahit±ni pupph±ni. Ta½ ta½ attha½ j±nituk±mehi m±tik±nus±rena gantv±icchiticchitavinicchaya½ patv± so so attho j±nitabbo hoti, tasm± sukhaggahaºattha½ m±tik±µhapit±. Tattha tatr±ti tasmi½ p±¼imuttavinicchaye. Ayanti aya½ may± vakkham±n±.M±t± viy±ti m±tik±. Yath± hi putt± m±tito pabhavanti, eva½ niddesapad±niuddesato pabhavanti, tasm± uddeso m±tik± viy±ti “m±tik±”ti vuccati.
Div±seyy±ti-±d²su div±seyy± div±seyyavinicchayakath±. Parikkh±ro parikkh±ravinicchayakath±…pe…pakiººaka½ pakiººakavinicchayakath±ti yojan±. Teneva vakkhati “div±sayanavinicchayakath±samatt±”ti-±di. Iti-saddo idamattho v± nidassanattho v± parisam±panattho v±.Tesu idamatthe k± s±? Div±seyy±…pe… pakiººaka½ iti ayanti. Nidassanatthe katha½ s±? Div±seyy±…pe… pakiººaka½ iti daµµhabb±ti. Parisam±panatthes± kittakena parisamatt±? Div±seyy±…pe… pakiººaka½ iti ettakena parisamatt±tiattho. Imesa½ pana div±seyy±dipad±na½ v±kyaviggaha½ katv± atthe idha vuccam±ne atipapañcobhavissati, sot³nañca dussallakkhaº²yo, tasm± tassa tassa niddesassa ±dimhiyeva yath±nur³pa½vakkh±ma.

Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan± niµµhit±.