4. Nissaggiyakaŗ¹o

1. C²varavaggo

1. Paµhamakathinasikkh±padavaŗŗan±

459. Samit±vin±ti samitap±pena. Gotamakacetiya½ n±ma gotamayakkhassacetiyaµµh±ne katavih±ro vuccati.
461. Navama½ v± dasama½ v±ti bhummatthe upayogavacana½. Sace bhaveyy±ti sace kassacikaŖkh± bhaveyya. Vuttasadisanti dasama½ v±ti vuttasadisa½ paricchedasadisa½, “vuttasadisamev±”tipilikhanti. Dh±retunti ettha ±h±ti p±µhaseso daµµhabbo.
463. S³ciy± paµis±mananti s³cighare sa½gopana½, idańca s³cikammassa sabbassapariniµµhitabh±vadassanattha½ vutta½. Etanti naµµhac²vara½. Etesamp²ti naµµhac²var±d²nipar±masati, tena c²varapalibodh±bh±va½ dasseti. Dutiyassa palibodhass±ti ±v±sapalibodhassa.Ettha ca niµµhitac²varasmi½, ubbhatasmi½ kathineti dv²hi padehi dvinna½ palibodh±na½ abh±vadassanenaatthatakathinassa pańcam±sabbhantare y±va c²varapalibodha-±v±sapalibodhesu ańńatara½ na upacchijjati,t±va atirekac²vara½ dh±retu½ vaµµat²ti d²peti. Pakkamana½ anto ass±ti pakkamanantik±,eva½ ses±pi veditabb±. Vitth±ro panettha ±gataµµh±ne ±vi bhavissati.
Das±haparama½ k±lanti accantasa½yogavacana½. Idańhi vutta½ hoti…pe… das±haparamabh±votiida½ das±haparamat±padassa atthamattadassana½, das±haparamabh±voti idańhi vutta½ hot²ti evametthayojan± veditabb±. Ayamatthoti-±di das±haparamapadasseva adhippetatthadassanavasena vutta½.Tattha ettako k±loti “das±haparamat±”ti vutto yo k±lo, so ettako k±lotiattho.
Khomanti khomasuttehi v±yita½ khomapaµac²vara½, ta½ v±kamayanti vadanti. Kapp±sasuttehiv±yita½ kapp±sika½, eva½ ses±nipi. Kambalanti e¼ak±d²na½ lomamayasuttenav±yitapaµa½. BhaŖganti khomasutt±d²ni sabb±ni, ekacc±ni v± missetv± v±yita½c²vara½. BhaŖgampi v±kamayamev±ti keci. Duk³la½ pattuŗŗa½ som±rapaµa½ c²napaµa½iddhija½ devadinnanti im±ni pana cha c²var±ni etesańńeva anulom±n²tivisu½ na vutt±ni. Duk³lańhi s±ŗassa anuloma½ v±kamayatt±. “Pattuŗŗa½koseyyaviseso”ti abhidh±nakose vutta½. Som±radese, c²nadese ca j±tavatth±nisom±rac²napaµ±ni. Pattuŗŗ±d²ni t²ŗi koseyyassa anulom±ni p±ŗakehi katasuttamayatt±.Iddhijanti ehibhikkh³na½ puńńiddhiy± nibbattac²vara½. Kapparukkhe nibbatta½, devadinnańcakhom±d²na½ ańńatara½ hot²ti tesa½ sabbesa½ anulom±ni. Manuss±na½ pakatividatthi½sandh±ya “dve vidatthiyo”ti-±di vutta½. Imin± d²ghato va¹¹hak²hatthappam±ŗa½ vitth±ratotato upa¹¹happam±ŗa½ vikappanupaganti dasseti. Tath± hi “sugatavidatthi n±ma id±nimajjhimassa purisassa tisso vidatthiyo, va¹¹hak²hatthena diya¹¹ho hattho hot²”ti (p±r±.aµµha. 2.348-349) kuµik±rasikkh±padaµµhakath±ya½ vutta½, tasm± sugataŖgulena dv±dasaŖgul±sugatavidatthi va¹¹hak²hatthena diya¹¹ho hatthoti siddha½. Evańca katv± “sugataŖgulena aµµhaŖgula½va¹¹hak²hatthappam±ŗan”ti ±gataµµh±nehi ca sameti.
Ta½ atikk±mayatoti ettha tanti c²vara½, k±la½ v± par±masati. Tassa yo aruŗotic²varupp±dadivasassa yo atikkanto aruŗo. C²varupp±dadivasena saddhinti c²varupp±dadivasassa±dibh³tena atikkanta-aruŗena saddhinti attho, idańca bhagavat± “das±haparaman”ti vatv±puna “ek±dase aruŗuggamane”ti vuttatt± pubb±parasa½sandanattha½ saddato gammam±nampi“c²varupp±dadivasena saddhin”ti eva½ vutta½. “Dasame aruŗe”ti vutte evahi das±haparamena saddhi½ sameti. Divasapariyos±nassa avadhibh³ta-an±gat±ruŗavasena hi divasa½atikkanta½ n±ma hoti, na pana divasassa ±dibh³t±ruŗavasena pariv±s±d²su tath± aggahaŗato,idha pana bhagavat± divasassa ±di-antaparicchedadassanavasena “ek±dase aruŗuggamane”tivutta½, tasm± aµµhakath±ya½ divasassa ±dibh³ta½ ta½divasanissitampi aruŗa½ gahetv±“ek±dase aruŗuggamane nissaggiya½ hot²”ti vutta½. Aruŗoti cettha s³riyuggamanassapurecaro va¹¹hanaghanaratto pabh±visesoti daµµhabbo.
Vacan²yoti saŖgh±pekkho. Vacanabhedoti “ńattiya½ dve ±pattiyo sarat²”ti-±din±vattabbanti adhipp±yo.
468. “Na idha sańń± rakkhat²”ti ida½ vematikańca anatikkantasańńańcasandh±ya vutta½. Yopi eva½sańń² tassap²ti yo anatikkantasańń², vematiko v±,tassap²ti attho. Anaµµhato aviluttassa visesam±ha “pasayh±vah±ravasen±”ti. Theyy±vah±ravasenagahitampi idha naµµha½.
An±patti ańńena kata½ paµilabhitv±ti-±di nis²danasanthata½ sandh±ya vutta½. Yena hipur±ŗasanthatassa s±mant± sugatavidatthi½ an±diyitv± nava½ nis²danasanthata½ kata½, tassata½ nissaggiyampi tato ańńassa paµilabhitv± paribhuńjantassa an±pattikaranti sijjhanatoayamattho sabbanissaggiyesupi sijjhati.
469. Tic²vara½ adhiµµh±tunti saŖgh±µi-±din±mena adhiµµh±tu½. “Na vikappetun”tiimin± n±mena na vikappetu½, etena vikappitatic²varo tec²variko na hoti.Tassa tasmi½ adhiµµhitatic²vare viya avippav±s±din± kattabbavidhi na k±tabboti dasseti,na pana vikappane dosoti. Tato paranti catum±sato para½ vikappetv± paribhuńjitu½anuńń±tanti keci vadanti, ańńe pana “vikappetv± y±va ±g±mivass±na½, t±vaµhapetumeva vaµµat²”ti vadanti, apare pana “vikappane na doso, tath± vikappita½ parikkh±r±din±menaadhiµµhahitv± paribhuńjitabban”ti vadanti.
Muµµhipańcakanti muµµhiy± upalakkhita½ pańcaka½, catuhatthe minitv± pańcama½ hattha½muµµhi½ katv± minitabbanti adhipp±yo. Keci pana “muµµhihatth±na½ pańcaka½ muµµhipańcaka½,tasm± pańcapi hatthe muµµhi½ katv±va minitabb±”ti vadanti. Muµµhittikanti etth±pieseva nayo. Dvihatthena antarav±sakena timaŗ¹ala½ paµicch±detu½ sakk±ti ±ha “p±rupanen±”ti-±di.Atirekanti sugatac²varappam±ŗato adhika½. Šnakanti muµµhipańcak±dito ³naka½,tena ca tesu tic²var±dhiµµh±na½ na ruhat²ti dasseti.
Ima½ saŖgh±µi½ paccuddhar±m²ti ima½ saŖgh±µi-adhiµµh±na½ ukkhip±mi pariccaj±m²ti attho.K±yavik±ra½ karonten±ti hatthena c²vara½ par±masantena, c±lentena v±. V±c±yaadhiµµh±tabb±ti ettha k±yenapi c±letv± v±campi bhinditv± k±yav±c±hi adhiµµh±nampisaŖgahitanti veditabba½ “k±yena aphusitv±”ti vuttatt±. Duvidhanti ahatthap±sahatthap±savasenaduvidha½. Tattha hatthap±so n±ma a¹¹hateyyahattho vuccati. Dv±dasahatthanti keci vadanti ta½ idha na sameti. “S±mantavih±re”ti ida½ µhapitaµµh±nasallakkhaŗayoggeµhita½ sandh±ya vutta½. Tato d³re µhitampi µhapitaµµh±na½ sallakkhentena adhiµµh±tabbameva.Tatthapi c²varassa µhapitabh±vasallakkhaŗameva pam±ŗa½. Na hi sakk± sabbath± µh±na½ sallakkhetu½.Ekasmi½ vih±re µhapetv± tato ańńasmi½ µhapitanti adhiµµh±tu½ na vaµµati. Keci pana“tath±pi adhiµµhite na doso”ti vadanti, ta½ aµµhakath±ya na sameti, v²ma½sitabba½. Adhiµµhahitv±µhapitavattheh²ti parikkh±raco¼an±mena adhiµµhahitv± µhapitavatthehi, teneva “ima½ paccuddhar±m²”tiparikkh±raco¼assa paccuddh±ra½ dasseti. Etena ca tec²varadhutaŖga½ pariharantena pa½suk³l±divasenaladdha½ vattha½ das±habbhantare katv± rajitv± p±rupitu½ asakkontena parikkh±raco¼avasenaadhiµµhahitv±va das±ha½ atikkametabba½, itarath± nissaggiya½ hot²ti dasseti. Teneva“rajitak±lato pana paµµh±ya nikkhipitu½ na vaµµati, dhutaŖgacoro n±ma hot²”ti (visuddhi.1.25) visuddhimagge vutta½. “Puna adhiµµh±tabb±n²”ti idańca saŖgh±µi-±ditic²varan±menaadhiµµhahitv± paribhuńjituk±massa vasena vutta½, itarassa pana purim±dhiµµh±nameva alantiveditabba½. “Puna adhiµµh±tabban”ti imin± kappabindupi d±tabbanti dasseti.
Baddhas²m±ya½ avippav±sas²m±sammutisambhavato na tattha dupparih±rat±ti ±ha “abaddhas²m±ya½dupparih±ran”ti.
Atirittappam±ŗ±ya chedanaka½ p±cittiyanti ±ha “anatirittappam±ŗ±”ti. Tatopara½ paccuddharitv± vikappetabb±ti vassikam±sato para½ adhiµµh±na½ paccuddharitv± vikappetabb±,imin± catunna½ vassikam±s±na½ upari adhiµµh±na½ tiµµhat²ti vińń±yati tato paccuddhar±yog±.Yańca m±tik±µµhakath±ya½ “vassikas±µik± vass±nam±s±tikkamen±pi, kaŗ¹upaµicch±di±b±dhav³pasamen±pi adhiµµh±na½ vijahat²”ti (kaŖkh±. aµµha. kathinasikkh±padavaŗŗan±) vutta½,ta½ samantap±s±dik±ya½ natthi. Pariv±raµµhakath±yańca “atth±patti hemante ±pajjati,no gimhe”ti ettha ida½ vutta½ “kattikapuŗŗam±siy± pacchime p±µipadadivasevikappetv± µhapita½ vassikas±µika½ niv±sento hemante ±pajjati, kurundiya½pana ‘kattikapuŗŗamadivase apaccuddharitv± hemante ±pajjat²’ti vutta½, tampi suvutta½,‘catum±sa½ adhiµµh±tu½ tato para½ vikappetun’ti hi vuttan”ti (pari.aµµha. 323). Tattha mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ niv±sanapaccay± dukkaµa½ vutta½, kurundaµµhakath±ya½pana apaccuddh±rapaccay±, tasm± kurundiya½ vuttanayen±pi vassikas±µik± vass±nam±s±tikkamepiadhiµµh±na½ na vijahat²ti pańń±yati. Adhiµµh±navijahanesu ca vass±nam±sa-±b±dh±na½ vigamenavijahana½ m±tik±µµhakath±yampi na uddhaµa½, tasm± samantap±s±dik±ya½ ±gatanayena y±vapaccuddh±r± adhiµµh±na½ tiµµhat²ti gahetabba½. Nah±natth±ya anuńń±tatt± “vaŗŗabhedamattaratt±pices± vaµµat²”ti vutta½. “Dve pana na vaµµant²”ti imin± saŖgh±µi-±d²su viyadutiye adhiµµh±na½ na ruhati, atirekac²vara½ hot²ti dasseti. Mah±paccariya½ c²varavasenaparibhogakiccassa abh±va½ sandh±ya an±patti vutt± sen±sanaparikkh±ratth±ya dinnapaccattharaŗeviya. Ya½ pana “paccattharaŗampi adhiµµh±tabban”ti vutta½, ta½ sen±sanatth±yev±ti niyamita½na hoti navasu c²varesu gahitatt±, tasm± attano n±mena adhiµµhahitv± nidahitv± parikkh±raco¼a½viya yath± tath± viniyujjitabbamev±ti gahetabba½. P±v±ro kojavoti imesampipaccattharaŗ±d²na½ lokepi voharaŗato sen±sanaparikkh±ratth±ya dinnapaccattharaŗato visu½gahaŗa½ kata½.
“H²n±y±vattanen±”ti ida½ antimavatthu½ ajjh±pajjitv± bhikkhupaµińń±ya µhitassaceva titthiyapakkantassa ca bhikkhuniy± ca bhikkhunibh±ve nirapekkhat±ya gihiliŖgatitthiyaliŖgaggahaŗa½sandh±ya vutta½. Sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya gihibh±v³pagamana½ sandh±ya vuttanti keci vadanti,ta½ na yutta½ tad±pissa upasampannatt±, c²varassa ca tassa santakatt±vijahanato. Pam±ŗac²varass±tipacchimappam±ŗa½ sandh±ya vutta½. Dve c²var±ni p±rupantass±ti g±mappavese diguŗa½katv± saŖgh±µiyo p±rupana½ sandh±ya vutta½. “Esa nayo”ti imin± pam±ŗayuttesuyattha katthaci chidda½ adhiµµh±na½ vijahat²ti-±di-attha½ saŖgaŗh±ti.
Ańńa½ pacchimappam±ŗa½ n±ma natth²ti sutte ±gata½ natth²ti adhipp±yo. Id±ni tamevavibh±vetu½ “yańh²”ti-±di vutta½, ta½ na sameti, saŖgh±µi-±d²na½ muµµhipańcak±diheµµhimappam±ŗassasutte an±gatatt±ti adhipp±yo.
Mahanta½ v± khuddaka½ karot²ti ettha atimahanta½ c²vara½ muµµhipańcak±dipacchimappam±ŗayutta½katv± samantato chindanen±pi vicchindanak±le chijjam±naµµh±na½ chiddasaŖkhya½ a gacchati adhiµµh±na½ na vijahati ev±ti sijjhati, “ghaµetv± chindati, na bhijjat²”tivacanena ca sameti. Parikkh±raco¼a½ pana vikappanupagapacchimappam±ŗato ³na½ katv± chinna½adhiµµh±na½ vijahati adhiµµh±nassa anissayatt±. T±ni puna baddh±ni ghaµit±ni adhiµµh±tabbamev±tiveditabba½ Keci pana “vassikas±µikac²vare dvidh± chinne yadipi ekeka½ khaŗ¹a½pacchimapacchimappam±ŗa½ pahoti, ekasmi½yeva khaŗ¹e adhiµµh±na½ tiµµhati, na itare, “dvepana na vaµµant²”ti vuttatt±. Nis²danakaŗ¹uppaµicch±d²supi eseva nayoti vadanti.
Sammukhe pavatt± sammukh±ti paccattavacana½, tańca vikappanavisesana½, tasm± “sammukhe”tibhummatthe nissakkavacana½ katv±pi attha½ vadanti, abhimukheti attho. Atha v± sammukhenaattano v±c±ya eva vikappan± sammukh±vikappan±. Parammukhena vikappan± parammukh±vikappan±tikaraŗatthen±pi attho daµµhabbo, ayameva p±¼iy± sameti. Sannihit±sannihitabh±vanti±sannad³rabh±va½. Ett±vat± nidhetu½ vaµµat²ti ettakeneva vikappan±kiccassa niµµhitatt±,atirekac²vara½ na hot²ti das±h±tikkame na nissaggiya½ janet²ti adhipp±yo. Paribhuńjitu½…pe…na vaµµat²ti saya½ apaccuddharaŗa½ paribhuńjane p±cittiya½, adhiµµh±ne paresa½ vissajjanedukkaµańca sandh±ya vutta½.
Paribhog±dayopi vaµµant²ti paribhogavissajjana-adhiµµh±n±nipi. Api-saddena nidhetumpivaµµat²ti attho, etena ca paccuddh±repi kate c²varampi vikappitac²varameva hoti, naatirekac²vara½. Ta½ pana tic²var±din±mena adhiµµh±tuk±mena adhiµµhahitabba½, itarena vikappitac²varamevakatv± paribhuńjitabbanti dasseti. Keci pana “ya½ vikappitac²vara½, ta½ y±va aparibhogak±l±apaccuddhar±petv±va nidahitabba½, paribhogak±le pana sampatte paccuddhar±petv± adhiµµhahitv±paribhuńjitabba½. Yadi hi tato purepi paccuddhar±peyya, paccuddh±reneva vikappan±ya vigatatt±atirekac²vara½ n±ma hoti, das±h±tikkame ca nissaggiya½ p±cittiya½. Tasm± ya½aparibhuńjitv±va µhapetabba½, tadeva vikappetabba½, paccuddh±re ca kate antodas±heyevaadhiµµh±tabba½. Yańca aµµhakath±ya½ ‘tato pabhuti paribhog±dayopi vaµµant²’ti-±di vutta½,ta½ p±¼iy± virujjhat²”ti vadanti, ta½ tesa½ matimattameva. P±¼iyańhi antodas±ha½ adhiµµheti, vikappet²”ti (p±r±. 469) ca “s±ma½ c²vara½ vikappetv±apaccuddh±raŗa½ paribhuńjeyya p±cittiyan”ti (p±ci. 373) ca “an±patti so v± deti,tassa v± viss±santo paribhuńjat²”ti (p±ci. 374) ca s±mańńato vuttatt±, aµµhakath±yańca“ima½ c²vara½ v± vikappana½ v± paccuddhar±m²”ti-±din± paccuddh±ra½ adassetv± “mayha½santaka½ paribhuńja v± vissajjehi v±”ti eva½ attano santakatta½ amocetv±va paribhog±divasenevapaccuddh±rassa vuttatt±, “tato pabhuti paribhog±dayopi vaµµant²”ti adhiµµh±na½ vin±pivisu½ paribhogassa, nidahanassa ca vuttatt± vikappan±nantarameva paccuddhar±petv± anadhiµµhahitv±eva tic²varavirahita½ vikappan±raha½ c²vara½ paribhuńjitu½, nidahituńca ida½ p±µekka½vinayakammanti kh±yati. Apica bah³na½ patt±na½ vikappetu½, paccuddh±retuńca vuttatt±paccuddh±rena tesa½ atirekapattat± dassit±ti sijjhati tesu ekasseva adhiµµh±tabbato.Tasm± aµµhakath±ya½ ±gatanayeneva gahetabba½.
Pańńattikovido na hot²ti eva½ vikappite “anantarameva eva½ paccuddharitabban”tivinayakamma½ na j±n±ti. Ten±ha “na j±n±ti paccuddharitun”ti, imin±pi ceta½veditabba½ “vikappan±nantarameva paccuddh±ro k±tabbo”ti.
Avisesena vuttavacananti tic²var±d²na½ s±dh±raŗavacanena vuttavacana½. Ya½ panettha “viruddha½viya dissat²”ti vatv± ta½ virodh±saŖka½ nivattetu½ “tic²varasaŖkhepena…pe…vikappan±ya ok±so dinno hot²”ti vutta½, ta½ “adhiµµheti vikappet²”tis±mańńato vuttepi tic²varampi vikappet²ti ayamattho na sijjhati, “tic²vara½ adhiµµh±tu½na vikappetun”ti (mah±va. 358) visesetv± vuttatt±. Ya½ pana adhiµµh±tabba½, ta½adhiµµh±ti. Ya½ tic²varavirahita½, ta½ vikappetabba½, ta½ vikappet²ti evamattho sijjhat²ti.Tasm± ettha pubb±paravirodho na dissati s±mańńavacanassa vutt±vaseseyeva avatiµµhanato.Ya½ panettha tic²varass±pi vikappanavidhi½ dassetu½ “tic²vara½ tic²varasaŖkhepen±”ti-±divutta½. Tattha tic²varasaŖkhepena parihariyam±nesu ekampi paccuddharitv± vikappetu½na vaµµati, tic²varato pana eka½ v± sakalameva v± apanetv± apara½ tic²vara½ tic²varasaŖkhepenapariharituk±massa v± tic²var±dhiµµh±na½ muńcitv± parikkh±raco¼avaseneva sabbac²vara½paribhuńjituk±massa v± purima½ adhiµµhitac²vara½ paccuddharitv± vikappetu½vaµµat²ti evamadhipp±yena “tic²vare ekena c²varena vippavasituk±mo hot²”ti-±divutta½ siy±, icceta½ p±¼iy± saddhi½ sameti. Atha punapi tadeva tic²var±dhiµµh±nenaadhiµµh±tuk±mo hutv± vippav±sasukhattha½ paccuddharitv± vikappet²ti imin± adhipp±yenavutta½ siy±, ta½ “tic²vara½ adhiµµh±tu½ na vikappetun”ti (mah±va. 358) imin±vacanena na sameti. Yadi hi sesac²var±ni viya tic²varampi paccuddharitv± vikappetabba½siy±, “tic²vara½ adhiµµh±tu½ na vikappetun”ti ida½ vacanameva niratthaka½ siy±sesac²varehi tic²varassa vises±bh±v±. Tasm± “vikappet²”ti ida½ tic²varavirahitamevasandh±ya vutta½. Tic²vara½ pana vikappetu½ na vaµµat²ti vińń±yati, teneva dutiyakathinasikkh±padassaan±pattiv±re “vikappet²”ti ida½ na vutta½, v²ma½sitv± yath± p±¼iy± saddhi½na virujjhati, tath± ettha adhipp±yo gahetabbo.
Tuyha½ dem²ti-±d²su pariccattatt± manas± asampaµicchantepi sampad±nabh³tasseva santaka½hoti, so icchitakkhaŗe gahetu½ labhati. Itthann±mass±ti parammukhe µhita½ sandh±yavadati. Yassa pana ruccat²ti-±di ubhohipi pariccattat±ya ass±mikata½ sandh±ya vutta½.
“Ta½ na yujjat²”ti ida½ antodas±he eva viss±saggahaŗa½ sandh±ya an±pattiv±rassa±gatatt±, idha nissaggiyac²varassa kappiyabh±vakaraŗattha½ lesena gahitatt± ca vutta½,keci pana “parehi sabh±gena acchinne, viss±saggahite ca puna laddhe doso na dissat²”tivadanti. Anadhiµµh±nen±ti k±yav±c±hi kattabbassa akaraŗen±ti adhipp±yo. C²varassaattano santakat±, j±tipam±ŗayuttat±, chinnapalibodhabh±vo, atirekac²varat±, das±h±tikkamotiim±nettha pańca aŖg±ni.

Paµhamakathinasikkh±padavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.