G±mas²m±dikath±vaŗŗan±

147. P±¼iya½ “asammat±ya, bhikkhave, s²m±y±”ti-±din± g±mas²m± eva baddhas²m±ya khetta½,arańńanadi-±dayo viya sattabbhantara-udakukkhep±d²na½. S± ca g±mas²m± baddhas²m±virahitaµµh±nesayameva sam±nasa½v±s± hot²ti dasseti. Y± tassa v± g±massa g±mas²m±ti etthag±mas²m±paricchedassa anto ca bahi ca khettavatthu-arańńapabbat±dika½ sabba½ g±makhetta½ sandh±ya“g±mass±”ti vutta½, na antaragharameva. Tasm± tassa sakalassa g±makhettassa sambandhan²y±g±mas²m±ti evamattho veditabbo. Yo hi so antaragharakhett±d²su anekesu bh³mibh±gesu“g±mo”ti ekattena lokajanehi pańńatto g±mavoh±ro, sova idha “g±mas²m±”tipivuccat²ti adhipp±yo, g±mo eva hi g±mas²m±. Imin±va nayena upari arańńa½ nad²samuddo j±tassaroti eva½ tesu bh³mippadesesu ekattena lokajanapańńatt±nameva arańń±d²na½arańńas²m±dibh±vo veditabbo. Loke pana g±mas²m±divoh±ro g±m±d²na½ ariy±d±yameva vattu½ vaµµati, na g±makhett±d²su sabbattha. S±sane pana te g±m±dayo itaranivatti-atthenasayameva attano mariy±d±ti katv± g±mo eva g±mas²m±, arańńameva arańńas²m±…pe…samuddo eva samuddas²m±ti s²m±voh±rena vutt±ti veditabb±.
“Nigamassa v±”ti ida½ g±mas²mappabheda½ sabba½ upalakkhaŗavasena dassetu½ vutta½. Ten±ha“nagarampi gahitamev±”ti. “Bali½ labhant²”ti ida½ yebhuyyavasena vutta½, “aya½g±mo ettako kar²sabh±go”ti-±din± pana r±japaŗŗesu ±ropitesu bh³mibh±gesu yasmi½yasmi½ ta¼±kam±tik±sus±napabbat±dike padese bali½ na gaŗhanti, sopi g±mas²m± eva.R±j±d²hi paricchinnabh³mibh±go hi sabbova µhapetv± nadiloŗij±tassare g±mas²m±ti veditabbo.Ten±ha “paricchinditv± r±j± kassaci det²”ti. Sace pana tattha r±j± kańci padesa½g±mantarena yojeti, so paviµµhag±mas²mata½ eva bhajati, nadij±tassaresu vin±setv± ta¼±k±dibh±va½v± p³retv± khett±dibh±va½ v± p±pitesupi eseva nayo.
Ye pana g±m± r±jacor±dibhayap²¼itehi manussehi cha¹¹it± cirampi nimmanuss± tiµµhanti,samant± pana g±m± santi, tepi p±µekka½ g±mas²m±va. Tesu hi r±j±no samantag±mav±s²hikas±petv± v± yehi kehici kasitaµµh±na½ likhitv± v± bali½ gaŗhanti, ańńena v±g±mena ek²bh±va½ v± upanenti. Ye pana g±m± r±j³hipi pariccatt± g±makhett±nantarik±mah±rańńena ek²bh³t±, te ag±mak±rańńas²mata½ p±puŗanti, purim± g±mas²m± vinassati.R±j±no pana ekasmi½ arańń±dippadese mahanta½ g±ma½ katv± anekasahass±ni kul±niv±s±petv± tattha v±s²na½ bhogag±m±ti samant± bh³tag±me paricchinditv± denti. Pur±ŗan±ma½,pana paricchedańca na vin±senti, tepi pacceka½ g±mas²m± eva. Ett±vat± purimag±mas²matta½na vijahanti. S± ca itar± c±ti-±di “sam±nasa½v±s± ek³posath±”ti p±¼ipadassaadhipp±yavivaraŗa½. Tattha hi s± ca r±jicch±vasena parivattitv± samuppann± abhinav±,itar± ca aparivatt± pakatig±mas²m±, yath± baddhas²m±ya sabba½ saŖghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati,evamet±pi sabbakamm±rahat±sadisena baddhas²m±sadis±, s± sam±nasa½v±s± ek³posath±tiadhipp±yo. S±mańńato “baddhas²m±sadis±”ti vutte tic²var±vippav±sas²ma½baddhas²ma½ eva mańńant²ti ta½sadisat±nivattanamukhena upari sattabbhantaras²m±ya ta½sadisat±piatth²ti dassananayassa idheva pasaŖga½ dassetu½ “kevalan”ti-±di vutta½.
Vińjh±µavisadise arańńeti yattha “asukag±massa ida½ khettan”ti g±mavoh±ro natthi,yattha ca na kasanti na vapanti, t±dise arańńe. Macchabandh±na½ agamanapath± nimmanuss±v±s±samuddantarad²pak±pi ettheva saŖgayhanti. Ya½ yańhi ag±makhettabh³ta½ nadisamuddaj±tassaravirahita½padesa½, ta½ sabba½ arańńas²m±ti veditabba½. S± ca sattabbhantaras²ma½ vin±va sayamevasam±nasa½v±s± baddhas²m±sadis±. Nadi-±dis²m±su viya sabbamettha saŖghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati.Nadisamuddaj±tassar±na½ t±va aµµhakath±ya½ “attano sabh±veneva baddhas²m±sadis±”ti-±din±vuttatt± s²mat± siddh±. Arańńassa pana s²mat± kathanti? Sattabbhantaras²m±nuj±nanasutt±dis±matthiyato.Yath± hi g±mas²m±ya vaggakammaparih±rattha½ bah³ baddhas²m±yo anuńń±t±, t±sańca dvinnamantar±ańńamańńa½ asambhedattha½ s²mantarik± anuńń±t±, evamidh±rańńepi sattabbhantaras²m±.T±sańca dvinna½ antar± s²mantarik±ya p±¼i-aµµhakath±supi vidh±nas±matthiyato arańńassapisabh±veneva nadi-±d²na½ viya s²m±bh±vo tattha vaggakammaparih±ratthameva sattabbhantaras²m±yaanuńń±tatt±va siddhoti veditabbo. Tattha s²m±yameva hi µhit± s²maµµh±na½ vaggakamma½karonti, na as²m±ya½ ±k±se µhit± viya ±k±saµµh±na½. Evameva hi s±matthiya½ gahetv±“sabb±, bhikkhave, nad² as²m±”ti-±din± paµikkhittabaddhas²m±nampi nadisamuddaj±tassar±na½attano sabh±veneva s²m±bh±vo aµµhakath±ya½ vuttoti gahetabbo.
Athassa µhitok±satoti assa bhikkhussa µhitok±sato. Sacepi hi bhikkhusahassa½ tiµµhati,tassa µhitok±sassa b±hirantato paµµh±ya bhikkh³na½ vaggakammaparih±rattha½ s²m±pekkh±yauppann±ya t±ya saha sayameva sańj±t± sattabbhantaras²m± sam±nasa½v±s±ti adhipp±yo. Yatthapana khuddake arańńe mahantehi bhikkh³hi paripuŗŗat±ya vaggakammasaŖk±bh±vena sattabbhantaras²m±pekkh±natthi, tattha sattabbhantaras²m± na uppajjati, keval±rańńas²m±yameva, tattha saŖghena kamma½k±tabba½. Nadi-±d²supi eseva nayo. Vakkhati hi “sace nad² n±tid²gh± hoti, pabhavato paµµh±ya y±va mukhadv±r± sabbattha saŖgho nis²dati, udakukkhepas²m±kamma½ natth²”ti-±di(mah±va. aµµha. 147). Imin± eva ca vacanena vaggakammaparih±rattha½ s²m±pekkh±ya satieva udakukkhepasattabbhantaras²m± uppajjanti, n±sat²ti daµµhabba½.
Keci pana “samant± abbhantara½ minitv± paricchedakaraŗeneva s²m± sańj±yati, na sayamev±”tivadanti, ta½ na gahetabba½. Yadi hi abbhantaraparicchedakaraŗappak±rena s²m± uppajjeyya,abaddhas²m± ca na siy± bhikkh³na½ kiriy±pak±rasiddhito. Apica va¹¹hak²hatth±na½, pakatihatth±nańcaloke anekavidhatt±, vinaye ²disa½ hatthappam±ŗanti avuttatt± ca yena kenaci miniteca bhagavat± anuńń±tena nu kho hatthena minita½, na nu khoti s²m±ya vipattisaŖk± bhaveyya.Minantehi ca aŗumattampi ³namadhika½ akatv± minitu½ asakkuŗeyyat±ya vipatti evasiy±. Parisavasena c±ya½ va¹¹ham±n± tesa½ minanena va¹¹hati v± h±yati v±. SaŖghe ca kamma½katv± gate aya½ bhikkh³na½ payogena samuppannas²m± tesa½ payogena vigacchati na vigacchatica. Katha½ baddhas²m± viya y±va s±sanantaradh±n± na tiµµheyya, µhitiy± ca pur±ŗavih±resuviya sakalepi arańńe katha½ s²m±sambhedasaŖk± na bhaveyya. Tasm± s²m±pekkh±ya eva samuppajjati,tabbigamena vigacchat²ti gahetabba½. Yath± cettha, eva½ udakukkhepas²m±yampi nadi-±d²supi.
Tatth±pi hi majjhimapuriso na ń±yati. Tath± sabbath±mena khipana½ ubhayatth±pi ca yassa½dis±ya½ sattabbhantarassa, udakukkhepassa v± ok±so na pahoti, tattha katha½ minana½, khipana½v± bhaveyya? G±makhett±d²su pavisanato akhette s²m± paviµµh± n±m±ti s²m± vipajjeyya.Apekkh±ya s²muppattiya½ pana yato pahoti, tattha sattabbhantara-udakukkhepas²m± sayameva paripuŗŗ±j±yanti. Yato pana na pahoti, tattha attano khettappam±ŗeneva j±yanti, na bahi. Ya½panettha abbhantaraminanapam±ŗassa, v±luk±dikhipanakammassa ca dassana½, ta½ sańj±tas²m±na½ µhitaµµh±nassaparicchedanattha½ kata½ g±m³pac±raghar³pac±raj±nanattha½ le¹¹usupp±dikhipanavidh±nadassana½viya. Teneva m±tik±µµhakath±ya½ “s²ma½ v± sammannati udakukkhepa½ v± paricchindat²”tivutta½ (kaŖkh±. aµµha. ³nav²sativassasikkh±padavaŗŗan±). Eva½ katepi tassa paricchedassay±th±vato ń±tu½ asakkuŗeyyattena puthulato ńatv± anto tiµµhantehi nir±saŖkaµµh±neµh±tabba½, ańńa½ bahi karontehi atid³re nir±saŖkaµµh±ne pesetabba½.
Apare pana “s²m±pekkh±ya kicca½ natthi, maggagamananah±n±di-atthehi ekabhikkhusmimpiarańńe v± nadi-±d²su v± paviµµhe ta½ parikkhipitv± sattabbhantara-udakukkhepas²m± sayamevapabh± viya pad²passa samuppajjati, g±makhett±d²su tasmi½ otiŗŗamatte vigacchati. Tenevacettha dvinna½ saŖgh±na½ visu½ kamma½ karont±na½ s²m±dvayassa antar± s²mantarik± ańńa½sattabbhantara½, udakukkhepańca µhapetu½ anuńń±ta½, s²m±pariyante hi kenaci kammenapesitassa bhikkhuno samant± sańj±tas²m± itaresa½ s²m±ya phusitv± s²m±sambheda½kareyya, so m± hot³ti, itarath± hatthacaturaŖgulamatt±yapettha s²mantarik±ya anuj±nitabbato.Apica s²mantarik±ya µhitass±pi ubhayattha kammakopavacanatopi ceta½ sijjhati. Tampi parikkhipitv±sayameva sańj±t±ya s²m±ya ubhinnampi s²m±na½, ek±ya eva v± saŖkarato. Itarath± tassakammakopavacana½ na yujjeyya. Vuttańhi m±tik±µµhakath±ya½ ‘paricchedabbhantare hatthap±sa½vijahitv± µhitopi paricchedato bahi ańńa½ tattaka½yeva pariccheda½ anatikkamitv± µhitopikamma½ kopet²’ti (kaŖkh±. aµµha. nid±navaŗŗan±). Kińca ag±mak±rańńe µhitassakammakaraŗicch±virahitass±pi bhikkhuno sattabbhantaraparicchinne ajjhok±se c²varavippav±sobhagavat± anuńń±to, so ca paricchedo s²m±. Eva½ apekkha½ vin± samuppann±. Tenevettha‘aya½ s²m± tic²varavippav±saparih±rampi labhat²’ti (mah±va. aµµha. 147) vutta½. Tasm±kammakaraŗiccha½ vin±pi vuttanayena samuppatti gahetabb±”ti vadanti, ta½ na yutta½ pad²passapabh± viya sabbapuggal±nampi pacceka½ s²m±sambhavena saŖghe, gaŗe v± kamma½ karontetatraµµh±na½ bhikkh³na½ samant± pacceka½ samuppann±na½ anekas²m±na½ ańńamańńa½ saŖkaradosappasaŖgato.Parisavasena cass± va¹¹hi, h±ni ca sambhavati. Pacch± ±gat±na½ abhinavas²mantaruppatti eva,gat±na½ samant± µhitas²m±pi vin±so ca bhaveyya.
P±¼iya½ pana “samant± sattabbhantar±, aya½ tattha sam±nasa½v±s±”ti-±din± (mah±va. 147)ek± eva sattabbhantar±, udakukkhep± ca anuńń±t±, na ces± s²m± sabh±vena, k±raŗas±matthiyenav± pabh± viya pad²passa uppajjati. Kintu bhagavato anuj±naneneva, bhagav±ca im±yo anuj±nanto bhikkh³na½ vaggakammaparih±rena kammakaraŗasukhatthameva anuńń±s²tikatha½ nah±n±dikiccena paviµµh±nampi samant± t±sa½ s²m±na½ samuppatti payojan±bh±v±?Payojane ca eka½ eva payojananti katha½ pacceka½ bhikkhugaŗan±ya anekas²m±samuppatti “Ekas²m±ya½ hatthap±sa½ avijahitv± µhit±”ti (kaŖkh±. aµµha. nid±navaŗŗan±) vutta½.Ya½ pana dvinna½ s²m±na½ antar± tattakaparicchedeneva s²mantarikaµµhapanavacana½, tattha µhit±na½kammakopavacanańca, tampi im±sa½ s²m±na½ paricchedassa dubbodhat±ya s²m±ya sambhedasaŖka½,kammakopasaŖkańca d³rato pariharitu½ vutta½.
Yo ca c²var±vippav±sattha½ bhagavat± abbhok±se dassito sattabbhantaraparicchedo, so s²m±eva na hoti, khettata¼±k±diparicchedo viya ayamettha eko paricchedova. Tattha ca bah³subhikkh³su ekato µhitesu tesa½ visu½ visu½ attano µhitaµµh±nato paµµh±ya samant± sattabbhantaraparicchedabbhantareeva c²vara½ µhapetabba½. Na parisapariyantato paµµh±ya. Parisapariyantato paµµh±ya hi abbhantaregayham±ne abbhantarapariyos±ne µhapitac²vara½ majjhe µhitassa abbhantarato bahi hot²ti ta½ aruŗuggamanenissaggiya½ siy±. S²m± pana parisapariyantatova gahetabb±. C²varavippav±saparih±ropetthaabbhok±saparicchedassa vijjam±natt± vutto, na pana y±va s²m±pariccheda½ labbham±natt±mah±s²m±ya avippav±sas²m±voh±ro viya. Mah±s²m±yampi hi g±mag±m³pac±resu c²vara½nissaggiya½ hoti. Idh±pi majjhe µhitassa s²m±pariyante nissaggiya½ hoti. Tasm± yath±vuttas²m±pekkhavasenevet±sa½sattabbhantara-udakukkhepas²m±na½ uppatti, tabbigamena vin±so ca gahetabb±ti amh±ka½khanti. V²ma½sitv± gahetabba½. Ańńo v± pak±ro ito yuttataro gavesitabbo.