Upasampad±vidhikath±vaººan±

126. Upajjh±ti upajjh±ya-saddasam±nattho ±k±ranto upajjh±saddoti dasseti. Upajjh±ya-saddoeva v± upajjh± upayogapaccattavacanesu ya-k±ralopa½ katv± eva½ vutto karaºavacan±d²suupajjh±-saddassa payog±bh±v±ti daµµhabba½. P±¼iya½ attan±va att±na½ sammannitabbantiattan±va kattubh³tena karaºabh³tena att±nameva kammabh³ta½ pati sammananakicca½ k±tabba½.Att±nanti v± paccatte upayogavacana½, attan±va att± sammannitabboti attho. Nakevalañca ettheva, aññatr±pi terasasammuti-±d²su imin±va lakkhaºena attan±va att± sammannitabbova.Apica saya½ kamm±rahatt± att±na½ muñcitv± catuvagg±diko gaºo sabbattha icchitabbo.
Saccak±loti “nig³hiss±m²”ti vañcana½ pah±ya saccasseva te icchitabbak±lo.Bh³tak±loti vañcan±ya abh±vepi manussatt±divatthuno bh³tat±ya avassa½ icchitabbak±lo,itarath± kammakop±di-antar±yo hot²ti adhipp±yo. Maªk³ti adhomukho. Uddharat³tianupasampannabh±vato upasampattiya½ patiµµhapet³ti attho.
Sabbakammav±c±su atthakosallattha½ panettha upasampad±kammav±c±ya evamattho daµµhabbo– suº±t³tisavan±ºattiya½ paµhamapurisekavacana½. Tañca kiñc±pi yo saªgho savanakiriy±yaniyoj²yati, tassa sammukhatt± “suº±h²”ti majjhimapurisekavacanena vattabba½, tath±piyasm± saªgha-saddasannidh±ne paµhamapurisapayogova saddavidh³hi sam±ciººo bhagavanta-±yasmant±disaddasannidh±nesuviya “adhiv±setu me bhava½ gotamo (p±r±. 22). Etassa sugata k±lo, ya½ bhagav±s±vak±na½ sikkh±pada½ paññapeyya (p±r±. 21). Pakkamat±yasm± (p±r±. 436). Suºantume ±yasmanto”ti-±d²su viya. Tasm± idha paµhamapurisapayogo kato. Atha v± g±ravavaseneveta½vutta½. Garuµµh±n²yesu hi g±ravavasena majjhimapurisapayoguppattiyampi paµhamapurisapayoga½payujjanti “desetu sugato dhamman”ti-±d²su (d². ni. 2.66; ma. ni. 2.338;sa½. ni. 1.172; mah±va. 8) viy±ti daµµhabba½. Keci pana “bhante, ±vusoti saddeapekkhitv± idha paµhamapurisapayogo”ti vadanti, ta½ na yutta½ “±cariyo me bhante hohi,(mah±va. 77) iªgh±vuso up±li, ima½ pabbajita½ anuyuñj±h²”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 517)tappayogepi majjhimapurisapayogasseva dassanato.
Meti yo s±veti, tassa attaniddese s±mivacana½. Bhanteti ±lapanatthe vu¹¹hesu sag±ravavacana½.“¾vuso”ti pada½ pana navakesu. Tadubhayampi nip±to “tumhe bhante, tumhe ±vuso”tibah³supi sam±nar³patt±. Saªghoti avisesato catuvagg±dike pakatattapuggalasam³hevattati. Idha pana paccantimesu janapadesu pañcavaggato paµµh±ya, majjhimesu janapadesu dasavaggatopaµµh±ya saªghoti gahetabbo. Tatr±ya½ piº¹attho– bhante, saªgho mama vacana½ suº±t³ti. Idañcanavakatarena vattabbavacana½. Sace pana anuss±vako sabbehi bhikkh³hi vu¹¹hataro hoti,“suº±tu me, ±vuso, saªgho”ti vattabba½. Sopi ce “bhante”ti vadeyya, navakatarov± “±vuso”ti, kammakopo natthi. Keci pana “ekattha ‘±vuso’ti vatv±aññattha ‘bhante’ti vuttepi natthi doso ubhayen±pi ±lapanassa sijjhanato”ti vadanti.
Id±ni yamattha½ ñ±petuk±mo “suº±t³”ti saªgha½ savane niyojeti, ta½ ñ±pento “aya½itthann±mo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha ayanti upasampad±pekkhassa hatthap±sesannihitabh±vadassana½. Tena ca hatthap±se µhitasseva upasampad± ruhat²ti sijjhati hatthap±satobahi µhitassa “ayan”ti na vattabbato. Teneva anus±sakasammutiya½ so hatthap±satobahi µhitatt± “ayan”ti na vutto. Tasm± upasampad±pekkho anupasampanno hatthap±seµhapetabbo. Aya½ itthann±moti aya½-saddo ca avassa½ payujjitabbo. So ca imasmi½paµhaman±mapayoge ev±ti gahetabba½ “Itthann±mo”ti ida½ aniyamato tassa n±madassana½.Ubhayenapi aya½ buddharakkhitoti-±din±ma½ dasseti. “Upasampad±pekkho”ti bhinn±dhikaraºavisayebahubb²hisama-±so, upasampada½ me saªgho apekkham±noti attho. Tassa ca upajjh±yata½samaªgibh±vena dassetu½ “itthannamassa ±yasmato”ti vutta½. Etena “aya½ buddharakkhito±yasmato dhammarakkhitassa saddhivih±rikabh³to upasampad±pekkho”ti evam±din± nayena n±mayojan±yasaha attho dassitoti. Ettha ca “±yasmato”ti pada½ avatv±pi “aya½ buddharakkhitodhammarakkhitassa upasampad±pekkho”ti vattu½ vaµµati. Teneva p±¼iya½ “itthann±mena upajjh±yen±”tiettha “±yasmato”ti pada½ na vutta½. Yañcettha vattabba½, ta½ heµµh± vuttameva.
Nanu cettha upajjh±yopi upasampad±pekkho viya hatthap±se µhito eva icchitabbo, atha kasm±“aya½ itthann±mo imassa itthann±massa upasampad±pekkho”ti eva½ upajjh±yapar±masanepiima-saddassa payogo na katoti? N±ya½ virodho upajjh±yassa abh±vepi kammakop±bh±vato.Kevalañhi kammanipphattiy± santapadavasena avijjam±nassapi upajjh±yassa n±makittana½anupajjh±yassa upasampad±d²supi kar²yati. Tasm± upajjh±yassa asannihitat±yapi tappar±masanamattenevakammasiddhito “imass±”ti niddisitu½ na vaµµati.
Parisuddho antar±yikehi dhammeh²ti abhabbat±dikehi upasampad±ya avatthukarehi cevapañc±b±dhahatthacchinn±d²hi ca ±pattimattakarehi antar±yikehi sabh±vehi parimutto.Eva½ vutto eva ca ±pattimattakarehi pañc±b±dh±d²hi aparimuttassapi upasampad± ruhati,n±ññath±. Paripuººassa pattac²varanti paripuººamassa upasampad±pekkhassa pattac²vara½.Eva½ vutte eva apattac²varass±pi upasampad± ruhati, n±ññath±. Upasampada½ y±cat²ti “saªgha½, bhante, upasampada½ y±c±m²”ti-±din± (mah±va. 71, 126) y±citabh±va½sandh±ya vutta½. Eva½ tena saªghe ay±citepi “itthann±mo saªgha½ upasampada½ y±cat²”tivutte eva kamma½ avipanna½ hoti, n±ññath±. Upajjh±yen±ti upajjh±yena karaºabh³tenaitthann±ma½ upajjh±ya½ katv± kammabh³ta½ upasampada½ d±tu½ nipph±detu½ kattubh³ta½saªgha½ y±cat²ti attho. Y±cadh±tuno pana dvikammakatt± “saªgha½, upasampadan”ti dvekammapad±ni vutt±ni.
Yadi saªghassa pattakallanti ettha patto k±lo imass±ti pattak±la½, apalokan±dicatubbidhasaªghakamma½,tadeva sakatthe ya-paccayena “pattakallan”ti vuccati. Idha pana ñatticatuttha-upasampad±kamma½adhippeta½, ta½ k±tu½ saªghassa pattakalla½ j±ta½. Yad²ti anumatigahaºavasena kammassa pattakallata½ ñ±peti. Yo hi koci tattha apattakallata½ maññissati, so vakkhati.Imameva hi attha½ sandh±ya anuss±van±su “yass±yasmato khamati…pe… so bh±seyy±”ti(mah±va. 127) vutta½. Ta½ paneta½ pattakalla½ vatthusampad±, antar±yikehi dhammehicassa parisuddhat±, s²m±sampad±, parisasampad±, pubbakiccaniµµh±pananti imehi pañcahiaªgehi saªgahita½.
Tattha vatthusampad± n±ma yath±vuttehi ek±dasahi abhabbapuggalehi ceva antimavatthu-ajjh±pannehica añño paripuººav²sativasso anupasampannabh³to manussapuriso, etasmi½ puggale satieva ida½ saªghassa upasampad±kamma½ pattakalla½ n±ma hoti, n±sati. Katañca kuppameva hoti.
Antar±yikehi dhammehi cassa parisuddhat± n±ma yath±vuttasseva upasampad±vatthubh³tassa puggalassaye ime bhagavat± paµikkhitt± pañc±b±dhaphuµµhat±dayo m±t±pit³hi ananuññ±tat±pariyos±n±ceva hatthacchinnat±dayo ca dosadhamm± k±rakasaªghassa ±patt±di-antar±yahetut±ya “antar±yik±”tivuccanti tehi antar±yikehi dosadhammehi parimuttatt±, imiss± ca sati eva ida½kamma½ pattakalla½ n±ma hoti, n±sati. Kata½ pana kamma½ sukatameva hoti µhapetv±³nav²sativassapuggala½.
S²m±sampad± pana uposathakkhandhake (mah±va. 147-148) vakkham±nanayena sabbadosavirahit±yabaddh±baddhavasena duvidh±ya s²m±ya vaseneva veditabb±. T±dis±ya hi s²m±ya sati eva ida½kamma½ pattakalla½ n±ma hoti, n±sati. Katañca kamma½ vipajjati.
Parisasampad± pana ye ime upasampad±kammassa sabbantimena paricchedena kammappatt± dasahiv± pañcahi v± an³n± p±r±jika½ an±pann±, anukkhitt± ca sam±nasa½v±sak± bhikkh³,tesa½ ekas²m±ya½ hatthap±sa½ avijahitv± µh±na½, chand±rah±nañca chandassa ±nayana½, sammukh²bh³t±nañcaappaµikkosana½, upasampad±pekkharahit±na½ uposathakkhandhake paµikkhitt±na½ gahaµµh±di-ana-upasampann±nañcevap±r±jikukkhittakan±n±sa½v±sakabhikkhun²nañca vajjan²yapuggal±na½ saªghassa hatthap±se abh±voc±ti imehi cat³hi aªgehi saªgahit±. Evar³p±ya ca parisasampad±ya sati eva ida½ pattakalla½n±ma hoti, n±sati. Tattha purim±na½ tiººa½ aªg±na½ aññatarassapi abh±ve kata½ kamma½vipajjati, na pacchimassa.
Pubbakiccaniµµh±pana½ n±ma y±nim±ni “paµhama½ upajjha½ g±h±petabbo”ti-±din± p±¼iya½vutt±ni “upajjha½ g±h±pana½, pattac²var±cikkhana½, tato ta½ hatthap±sato bahi µhapetv±anus±sakasammutikammakaraºa½, sammatena ca gantv± anus±sana½, tena ca paµhamatara½ ±gantv±saªghassa ñ±petv± upasampad±pekkha½ ‘±gacch±h²’ti hatthap±se eva abbh±na½, tena ca bhikkh³na½p±de vand±petv± upasampad±y±c±pana½, tato antar±yikadhammapucchakasammutikaraºa½, sammatenaca pucchanan”ti im±ni aµµha pubbakicc±ni, tesa½ sabbesa½ y±th±vato karaºena niµµh±pana½.Etasmiñca pubbakammaniµµh±pane sati eva ida½ saªghassa upasampad±kamma½ pattakalla½ n±ma hoti,n±sati. Etesu pana pubbakammesu akatesupi kata½ kamma½ yath±vuttavatthusampatti-±d²suvijjam±nesu akuppameva hoti. Tadevamettha pattakalla½ imehi pañcahi aªgehi saªgahitantiveditabba½. Imin±va nayena heµµh± vuttesu, vakkham±nesu ca sabbesu kammesu pattakallat±yath±raha½ yojetv± ñ±tabb±.
Itthann±ma½ upasamp±deyy±ti upasampad±nipph±danena ta½samaªgi½ kareyyakarot³ti patthan±ya½, vidhimhi v± ida½ daµµhabba½. Yath± hi “devadatta½ sukh±peyy±”tivutte sukhamassa nipph±detv± ta½ sukhasamaªgina½ kareyy±ti attho hoti, evamidh±piupasampadamassa nipph±detv± ta½ upasampad±samaªgina½ kareyy±ti attho. Payojakaby±p±receta½ yath± sukhayanta½ kañci suddhakatt±ra½ koci hetukatt± sukhahetunipph±danenasukh±peyy±ti vuccati, evamidh±pi upasampajjanta½ suddhakatt±ra½ puggala½ hetukattubh³tosaªgho upasampad±hetunipph±danena upasamp±deyy±ti vutto. Etena ca sukha½ viya sukhad±yakenasaªghena puggalassa diyyam±n± tath±pavattaparamatthadhamme up±d±ya ariyajanapaññatt± upasampad±n±ma sammutisaccat± atth²ti samatthita½ hoti. Ettha ca “itthann±mo saªgha½ upasampada½y±cat²”ti vuttatt± pariv±s±d²su viya y±can±nuguºa½ “itthann±massa upasampada½ dadeyy±”tiavatv± “itthann±ma½ upasamp±deyy±”ti vuttatt± ida½ upasampad±kamma½ d±ne asaªgahetv±kammalakkhaºe eva saªgahitanti daµµhabba½. Imin± nayena “itthann±ma½ upasamp±deti, upasampannosaªghen±”ti etth±pi attho veditabbo. Kevalañhi tattha vattam±nak±la-at²tak±lavasena,idha pana an±maµµhak±lavasen±ti ettakameva viseso.
Es± ñatt²ti “saªgho ñ±petabbo”ti vuttañ±pan± es±. Idañca anuss±van±nampi sabbh±vas³canattha½vuccati. Avassañceta½ vattabbameva, ñattikamme eva ta½ na vattabba½. Tattha pana yya-k±revuttamatte eva ñattikamma½ niµµhita½ hot²ti daµµhabba½. Khamat²ti ruccati. Upasampad±tisaªghena diyyam±n± nipph±diyam±n± upasampad± yassa khamati. So tuºhass±ti yojan±.Tuºh²ti ca akathanatthe nip±to, akathanako assa bhaveyy±ti attho. Khamati saªghassaitthann±massa upasampad±ti pakatena sambandho. Tattha k±raºam±ha “tasm± tuºh²”ti.Tattha “±s²”ti seso. Yasm± “yassa nakkhamati, so bh±seyy±”ti tikkhattu½ vuccam±nopisaªgho tuºh² niravo ahosi, tasm± khamati saªghass±ti attho. Evanti imin± pak±rena.Tuºh²bh±veneveta½ saªghassa ruccanabh±va½ dh±ray±mi bujjh±mi paj±n±m²ti attho.Iti-saddo parisam±panatthe kato, so ca kammav±c±ya anaªga½. Tasm± anuss±vakena“dh±ray±m²”ti ettha mi-k±rapariyos±nameva vatv± niµµh±petabba½,iti-saddo na payujjitabboti daµµhabba½. Imin± nayena sabbattha kammav±c±namattho veditabbo.

Upasampad±vidhikath±vaººan± niµµhit±.