Padabh±jan²yavaŗŗan±

Sikkh±padavibhaŖge pana kińc±pi yo pan±ti anavasesapariy±d±napada½, tath±pi bhikkh³tiimin± parapadena sam±n±dhikaraŗatt± tadanur³p±nevassa vibhaŖgapad±ni vutt±ni. Bhikkhunibbacanapad±nit²ŗi kińc±pi sabhikkhubh±vassa, abhikkhubh±vassa c±ti yassa kassaci pabbajitassa s±dh±raŗ±ni,tath±pi “asuddho hoti puggalo ańńatara½ p±r±jika½ dhamma½ ajjh±panno, tańce suddhadiµµhisam±no anok±sa½ k±r±petv± c±van±dhipp±yo vadeti, ±patti saŖgh±disesenadukkaµass±”ti evam±disutta½ nibbacanatthayuttova puggalo “±patti saŖgh±disesena dukkaµass±”ti (p±r±. 389) ettha vatthu, na itaro gihibh³toti dassanattha½ vutta½.Sabbassapi vinayapiµakassa s±dh±raŗa½ bhikkhulakkhaŗa½ vatthuńhi bhagav± ±rabhi. Yo panasuddho eva sam±no kenaci k±raŗena gihiliŖge µhito, so attano sabhikkhubh±vatt± evavatthu hoti, asuddhopi bhikkhuliŖge µhitatt±ti ayamattho dassito hoti. Asuddhopi ń±takehi,paccatthikehi v± r±jabhay±dik±raŗena v± k±s±vesu sa-uss±hova apan²tak±s±vovatthu eva puna k±s±vaggahaŗena theyyasa½v±sakabh±v±nupagamanato, bhikkhunibbacanattheanikkhittadhuratt±ti vutta½ hoti. Yo pana liŖgatthenako bhikkhunibbacanattha½ sayańcaajjhupagato, sa½v±sa½ thenento, tańce suddhadiµµhi sam±no anok±sa½ k±r±petv± c±van±dhipp±yovadeti, ±patti saŖgh±disesena dukkaµass±ti ayampi attho dassito hoti.
“Samańń±ya bhikkhu paµińń±ya bhikkh³”ti vacanadvaya½ yath±vuttańca attha½ upabr³heti,antar± uppann±ya niyat±ya micch±diµµhiy± upacchinnakusalam³lo keval±ya samańń±ya, paµińń±yaca “bhikkh³”ti vuccati, na paramatthatoti ima½ atirekattha½ d²peti. Ki½ vutta½ hoti?“N±ha½, bhikkhave, ańńa½ ekadhammampi samanupass±mi, ya½ eva½ mah±s±vajja½ yathayida½,bhikkhave, micch±diµµhi. Micch±diµµhiparam±ni, bhikkhave, mah±vajj±n²”ti ±haccabh±sita½saŖg²tittay±ru¼ha½ sutta½, aµµhakath±yampissa “micch±diµµhiparam± etesanti micch±diµµhiparam±n²”ti(a. ni. 1.310) vutta½. Pańca ±nantariyakamm±ni mah±s±vajj±ni, micch±diµµhipana mah±s±vajjatar±ti adhipp±yoti. Kasm±? Tesańhi paricchedo atthi, sabbabalavampikappaµµhitikameva hoti, niyatamicch±diµµhiy± pana paricchedo natthi, t±ya samann±gatassabhavato vuµµh±na½ natthi, tasm± “imassa bhikkhukaraŗ± kusal± dhamm± sa½vijjant²”tiv± “suddhov±yan”ti v± na sakk± vattu½. “Diµµhivipattipaccay± dve ±pattiyo±pajjat²”ti vuttatt± na sakk± “asuddho”ti v± “ańńatara½ p±r±jika½ dhamma½ajjh±panno”ti v± vattu½. Esa hi ubhopi pakkhe na bhajati, tena vutta½ “samańń±ya,paµińń±ya ca bhikkhu, na paramatthato”ti.
Kimattha½ paneva½ mah±s±vajj±ya niyatamicch±diµµhiy± p±r±jika½ bhagav± na pańńapes²ti?Dubbij±natt±. Pakatiy±pes± diµµhi n±ma “samm±”ti v± “micch±”ti v± duvińńeyy±,pageva “niyat±”ti v± “aniyat±”ti v±ti. Tattha p±r±jik±pattiy± pańńatt±yabhikkh³ ańńamańńa½ asamadiµµhika½ p±r±jika½ mańńam±n± uposath±d²ni akatv± acireneva s±sana½ vin±seyyu½, sayańca apuńńa½ pasaveyyu½ suddhesupi bhikkh³su vippaµipattiy±paµipajjanena. Tasm± up±yakusalat±ya p±r±jika½ apańń±petv± tassa ukkhepan²yakamma½,samm±vattańca pańń±petv± ta½ saŖghena asambhoga½, asa½v±sańca ak±si. Bhagav± hi tassace es± diµµhi aniyat±, samm±vatta½ p³retv± os±raŗa½ labhitv± pakatatto bhaveyya.Niyat± ce, aµµh±nameta½ anavak±so, ya½ so niyatamicch±diµµhiko samm±vatta½ p³retv±os±raŗa½ labhitv± pakatatto bhaveyya. Kevala½ “samańń±yabhikkhu paµińń±yabhikkh³”tin±mamattadh±rako hutv± para½ maraŗ± ariµµho viya sa½s±rakh±ŗukova bhavissat²ti ima½ naya½addasa.
Aµµhasu upasampad±su tissovettha vutt±, na itar± p±µipuggalatt±, bhikkh³na½ asantakatt±ca. Tattha hi ov±dapaµiggahaŗapańhaby±karaŗ³pasampad± dvinna½ ther±na½ eva, ses± tissobhikkhun²na½ santak±ti idha n±dhippet±, tissannampi upasampad±na½ majjhe “bhadro bhikkh³”ti-±d²nicatt±ri pad±ni vutt±ni tissanna½ s±dh±raŗatt±. Ehibhikkhubh±vena v± saraŗagamanańatticatutthenav± upasampanno hi bhadro ca s±ro ca sekkho ca asekkho ca hoti, upasampadavacana½ pana nesa½s±vakabh±vad²panattha½. Ime eva hi ±patti½ ±pajjanti, na samm±sambuddh±, paccekabuddh±ca.
Aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippetoti ettha ca ±patti½ ±pajjitu½ bhabb± ńatticatutthenevakammena upasampann±. Na hi ańńe ehibhikkhusaraŗagamana-ov±dapaµiggahaŗapańhaby±karaŗ±hi upasampann±±patti½ ±pajjitu½ bhabb±, tenete paµikkhipitv± “aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippetobhikkh³”ti antimova vuttoti kira dhammasiritthero, ta½ ayutta½. “Dve puggal±abhabb± ±patti½ ±pajjitu½ buddh± ca paccekabuddh± c±”ti (pari. 322) ettakamevavuttanti. Ańńath± ehibhikkhu-±dayopi vattabb± siyu½. Kińca bhiyyo “dve puggal±bhabb± ±patti½ ±pajjitu½ bhikkh³ ca bhikkhuniyo c±”ti s±mańńena vuttatt± ca,apica ±pattibhayaµµh±nadassanato ca. Katha½? ¾yasm± s±riputto ±vasathapiŗ¹a½ kukkucc±yantona paµiggahesi, c²varavippav±sabhay± ca sabba½ tic²vara½ gahetv± nadi½ taranto mana½ vu¼hoahosi mah±kassapo. Kińca saraŗagaman³pasampad±ya upasampanne ±rabbha saddhivih±rikavatt±d²niasamm±vattant±na½ nesa½ dukkaµ±ni ca pańńatt±ni dissanti, tasm± dubbic±ritameta½.Aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippeto bhikkh³ti paµikkhitt±ya saraŗagaman³pasampad±ya anuńń±tappasaŖgabhay±tiupatissatthero, ±pattiy± bhabbata½ sandh±ya tasmimpi vutte pubbe paµikkhitt±pi s±puna eva½ vadantena anuńń±t±ti bhikkh³na½ micch±g±ho v± vimati v± uppajjati tasm±na vutt±ti vutta½ hoti, ta½ “bhikkhun² n±ma ubhatosaŖghe upasampann±”ti (p±ci.161) imin± sameti. Idańhi s±kiy±d²na½ anuńń±ta-upasampad±ya anuppabandhabhay±vutta½.
Aya½ panettha amh±ka½ khanti– bhikkhu-padaniddesatt± yattak±ni tena padenasaŖgaha½ gacchanti, ye ca vinayapiµake tattha tattha sandissanti saya½ ±patt±pajjanaµµhena v±duµµhull±rocanapaµicch±dan±d²su paresa½ ±pattikaraŗaµµhena v±, te sabbepi dassetv± id±niyadida½ tassa bhikkhu-padassa visesanattha½ vutta½ parapada½ “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti, tassavasena ida½ vutta½ “aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippeto bhikkh³”ti. So eva hi kammav±c±nantaramevasikkh±s±j²vasam±panno hoti tato paµµh±ya sa-uddesasikkh±pad±na½ uppattidassanato, tassevaca sikkh±paccakkh±na½ dissati, netarassa. Tasseva ca sikkh±paccakkh±na½ sambhavati “ullumpatuma½, bhante, saŖgho anukampa½ up±d±y±”ti (mah±va. 71, 126) vatv± sam±dinnatt±,tasseva ca upasampannasamanantarameva akaraŗ²yanissay±cikkhanadassanato, vinaya½ p±timokkha½uddesa½ paccakkh±m²ti-±disikkh±paccakkh±nalakkhaŗap±rip³rito c±ti sikkh±paccakkh±na½ up±d±yaso eva idh±dhippetoti vutta½ hoti.
Yasm± panassa sikkh±paccakkh±na½ sabbath± yujjati, tasm± “sikkha½ paccakkh±ya ta½ ta½ vatthu½v²tikkamantassa tato tato ±pattito an±patti, itarassa ±patt²”ti vattu½ yujjati,tasm± “yattha yattha s±vajjapańńatti, anavajjapańńatti v±, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippetobhikkh³ti vuccati, tattha tattha tadajjh±c±ratthen±yameva ńatticatutthena upasampanno adhippeton±m±”ti vattu½ yujjat²ti veditabba½. Eva½ sante ya½ vutta½ “y±ya k±yaci upasampad±yaaya½ imasmi½ ‘methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevitv± p±r±jiko hot²’ti atthe bhikkh³tiadhippeto”ti, tampi na vattabbameva. Katha½ hoti? Virodhadosopi parihato hoti.Katha½? Sace ńatticatutthena upasampanno eva idh±dhippeto “bhikkh³”ti ca “upasampanno”tica, tena na upasampanno anupasampanno n±m±ti katv± ńatticatutthakammato ańńath± upasampann±n±ma mah±kassapatther±dayo itaresa½ anupasampannaµµh±ne µhatv± sahaseyyapadasodhamm±patti½janeyyu½, omasan±dik±le ca dukkaµameva janeyyunti evam±diko virodhadoso parihatohot²ti sabba½ ±cariyo vadati. MaŖguracchavi n±ma s±mo.
Yasm± te atimahanto j±timado citta½ pariyuµµh±ti, tasm± tumhehi mamas±sane eva½ sikkhitabba½ “S±tasahagat± paµhamajjh±nasukhasahagat± asubhe ca ±n±p±nec±”ti gaŗµhipade vutta½. Uddhum±takasańń±ti uddhum±takanimitte paµiladdhapaµhamajjh±nasańń±.R³pasańń±ti pathav²kasiŗ±dir³p±vacarajjh±nasańń±. So ta½ by±k±si “avibh³t±, bhante,uddhum±takasańń± ava¹¹hitabbatt± asubh±na½, vibh³t±, bhante, r³pasańń± va¹¹hitabbatt± kasiŗ±nan”ti.Pańca-upasampadakkamo mah±vagg± gahito. Ńatticatutthen±ti ettha kińc±pi ńattisabbapaµhama½ vuccati, tissanna½ pana anuss±van±na½ atthabyańjanabhed±bh±vato atthabyańjanabhinn±ńattit±sa½ catutth±ti katv± “ńatticatutthan”ti vuccati. Byańjan±nur³pameva aµµhakath±ya“t²hi anuss±van±hi ek±ya ca ńattiy±”ti vutta½, atthapavattikkamena padena pana“ek±ya ńattiy± t²hi anuss±van±h²”ti vattabba½. Yasm± panettha “catt±rim±ni,bhikkhave, kamm±ni (mah±va. 384), cha im±ni, bhikkhave, kamm±ni adhammakamma½ vaggakamman”ti(mah±va. 387) vacanato kuppakammampi katthaci “kamman”ti vuccati tasm± “akuppen±”tivutta½.
Yasm± akuppampi ekacca½ na µh±n±raha½, yena appatto os±raŗa½ “sos±rito”ti campeyyakkhandhake(mah±va. 395 ±dayo) vuccati, tasm± “µh±n±rahen±”ti vutta½. Yadi eva½ “µh±n±rahen±”tiidameva pada½ vattabba½, na pubbapada½ imin± akuppasiddhitoti ce? Ta½ na, aµµh±n±rahenaakuppena upasampanno imasmi½ atthe anadhippetoti aniµµhappasaŖgato. Dv²hi panetehiekato vuttehi ayamattho pańń±yati “kevala½ tena akuppena upasampanno ayampiimasmi½ atthe adhippeto ‘bhikkh³’ti, µh±n±rahena ca upasampanno ayampi imasmi½ attheadhippeto ‘bhikkh³’ti, kuppena upasampanno n±dhippeto”ti. Ten±yampi attho s±dhitohoti “yo pana, bhikkhu, j±na½ ³nav²sativassa½ puggala½ upasamp±deyya, so ca puggaloanupasampanno”ti (p±ci. 403) vacanato y±va na ń±yati, t±va samańń±yabhikkhupaµińń±yabhikkhubh±va½upagatopi na pubbe dassitasamańń±yabhikkhupaµińń±yabhikkhu viya ańńesa½ bhikkh³na½ upasampannaµµh±neµhatv± omasanap±cittiy±divatthu hoti, kevala½ anupasampannaµµh±ne µhatv± “anupasampanneupasampannasańń² padaso dhamma½ v±ceti, ±patti p±cittiyass±”ti-±di (p±ci.47) ±pattivatthumeva hutv± tiµµhati. Akuppena upasampanno pana pacch± p±r±jikopij±tito upasampannaµµh±ne tiµµhat²ti “paŗ¹ako, bhikkhave, anupasampanno na upasamp±detabbo,upasampanno n±setabbo”ti-±din± (mah±va. 109) nayena vuttesu pana vajjan²yapuggalesukoci puggalo “upasampanno”ti vuccati, nopi upasampannaµµh±ne tiµµhati, koci tiµµhat²tiveditabba½.
Ettha pana atthi kamma½ akuppa½ µh±n±raha½, atthi µh±n±raha½ n±kuppa½, atthi akuppańcevana µh±n±rahańca, atthi n±kuppa½ na ca µh±n±rahanti ida½ catukka½ veditabba½. Tatthapaµhama½ t±va vutta½, tatiyacatutth±ni p±kaµ±ni. Dutiya½ pariy±yena bhikkhunisaŖghatoekato-upasampann±ya liŖgaparivatte sati labbhati. Tassa hi puggalassa pubbe sikkham±nak±leladdha½ ńatticatuttha-upasampad±kamma½ kińc±pi akuppańceva µh±n±rahańca, purisaliŖge panap±tubh³te “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, ta½yeva upajjha½ tameva upasampadan”ti (p±r±. 69)ettha apariy±pannatt± tassa puggalassa kevala½ s±maŗerabh±v±pattito kamma½ d±ni kuppa½j±tanti vuccati. LiŖgaparivattena c²varassa adhiµµh±navijahana½ viya tassa puggalassa bhikkhunisaŖghenakat±ya upasampad±ya vijahana½ hot²ti veditabba½, ańńath± so puggalo upasampanno bhikkh³ti±pajjati. Atha v± liŖgaparivatte asatipita½ ekato-upasampad±kamma½ kuppati, yath±µh±nena tiµµhati. Tasm± na t±va s± “bhikkhun²”ti saŖkhya½ gacchati. Yasm± ańńatara½ p±r±jika½dhamma½ ±pajjitv±pi an±pajjitv±pi uppabbajituk±mat±ya gihiliŖga½ s±diyantiy±punapi upasampad± ubhatosaŖghe labbhati, tasm± tena pariy±yena “kuppat²ti kuppan”tivuccati, yath±vuttakammados±bh±vato pana “µh±n±rahan”ti. Bhikkhun² pana gihiliŖga½ s±diyantik±lena purisaliŖgap±tubh±ve sati bhikkh³su upasampada½ labbhat²ti s±dhaka½ k±raŗa½ na dissati,sikkha½ paccakkh±ya uppabbajit± ce, labhat²ti eke, ta½ pan±yutta½ bhikkhuniy± sikkh±paccakkhan±bh±vatotiamh±ka½ khant²ti ±cariyo. “Yath± ‘kattabban’ti vutta½, tath± akate kuppat²tikatv± karaŗa½ satthus±sanan”ti gaŗµhipade vutta½. Yattha yattha “gaŗµhipade”tivuccati, tattha tattha “dhammasirittherassa gaŗµhipade”ti gahetabba½.