Vajjiputtakavatthuvaººan±

43-4. Vajj²su janapadesu vasant± vajjino n±ma, tesa½ putt±. Y±vadatthantiy±vat± attho adhipp±yoti vutta½ hoti, tattha ya½ vutta½ “sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½an±vikatv±”ti,ta½ k±ma½ sikkh±paccakkh±ne, tadekaµµhe ca dubbaly±vikaraºe paññatte sati yujjati,na aññath±. Tath±pi id±ni paññapetabba½ up±d±ya vutta½, kathañhi n±ma chabbaggiy± bhikkh³atirekac²vara½ dh±ressanti (p±r±. 459), ±¼avak± bhikkh³ kuµiyo k±r±pentiappam±ºik±yo (p±r±. 342), bhikkhuniyo dve vass±ni chasu dhammesu asikkhitasikkha½sikkham±na½ vuµµh±penti (p±ci. 1077), saªghena asammata½ vuµµh±pent²ti-±di (p±ci.1084) viya daµµhabba½. Na hi tato pubbe adhiµµh±na½ vikappana½ v± anuññ±ta½. Yadabh±v±atirekac²varanti vadeyya, pam±ºa½ v± na paññatta½, yadabh±v± appam±ºik±yoti vadeyya,eva½sampadamida½ daµµhabba½. “Ullumpatu ma½, bhante, saªgho anukampa½ up±d±y±”ti (mah±va.71, 126) upasampada½ y±citv± upasampannena upasampannasamanantarameva “upasampannena bhikkhun±methuno dhammo na paµisevitabbo, asakyaputtiyo”ti (mah±va. 129) ca paññattena assamaº±dibh±va½upagantuk±mena nanu paµhama½ ajjhupagat± sikkh± paccakkh±tabb±, tattha dubbalya½ v±±vik±tabba½ siy±, te pana “sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv± methuna½dhamma½ paµisevi½s³”ti anupaññattiy± ok±sakaraºattha½ v± ta½ vuttanti veditabba½.“So ±gato na upasamp±detabbo”ti kiñc±pi ettheva vutta½, tath±pi itaresupip±r±jikesu yath±sambhava½ veditabba½. Na hi sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv±yo p±r±jikavatthu½ adinna½ theyyasaªkh±ta½ ±diyati, manussaviggaha½ v± j²vit± voropeti,paµivij±nantassa uttarimanussadhamma½ v± ullapati, so ±gato na upasamp±detabbo.Anupaññatti hi da¼h²kammasithilakammakaraºappayojan±. S± hi yassa p±r±jika½ hotiaññ± v± ±patti, tassa niyamadassanappayojan±tilakkhaº±nupaññattikatt±. Evañhiante avatv± ±dimhi vutt± “g±m± v± araññ± v±”ti (p±r±. 91) anupaññattiviya. Paripuººe panetasmi½ sikkh±pade–
“Nid±n± m±tik±bhedo, vibhaªgo ta½niy±mako;
tato ±pattiy± bhedo, an±patti tadaññath±”ti.–

Aya½ nayo veditabbo. Tattha sudinnavatthu makkaµivatthu vajjiputtakavatthuc±ti tippabheda½ vatthu imassa sikkh±padassa nid±na½ n±ma, tato nid±n± “yo pana,bhikkhu, bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno…pe… asa½v±so”ti imiss± m±tik±yabhedo j±to. Tattha hi “antamaso tiracch±nagat±y±”ti itthiliªgavacanena “sacca½,±vuso, bhagavat± sikkh±pada½ paññatta½, tañca kho itthiy± no purise no paº¹ake noubhatobyañjanake c±”ti makkaµip±r±jiko viya aññopi lesa½ o¹¹etu½ sakkoti,tasm± t±disassa alesok±sassa dassanattha½ ida½ vuccati. Makkaµivatthusaªkh±t± nid±n±“antamaso tiracch±nagat±yap²”ti m±tik±vacanabhedo na itthiy± eva methunasiddhidassanatokato, tasm± vibhaªgo ta½niy±mako tass± m±tik±ya adhippetatthaniy±mako vibhaªgo.Vibhaªge hi “tisso itthiyo. Tayo ubhatobyañjanak±. Tayo paº¹ak±. Tayo puris±.Manussitthiy± tayo magge…pe… tiracch±nagatapurisassa dve magge”ti-±din± (p±r±.56) nayena sabbalesok±sa½ pidahitv± niyamo kato.

Etth±ha– yadi eva½ s±dh±raºasikkh±padavasena v± liªgaparivattanavasena v± na kevala½ bhikkh³na½,bhikkhun²nampi “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti vibhaªge vattabba½ siy±. Tadavacanena bhikkhun²purisaliªgap±tubh±vena bhikkhubh±ve µhit± eva½ vadeyya “n±ha½ upasampadak±le bhikkh³na½sikkh±s±j²vasam±pann±, tasm± na appaccakkh±tasikkh±pi methunadhammena p±r±jik± hom²”ti?Vuccate– tath± na vattabba½ aniµµhappasaªgato. Bhikkhun²nampi “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”tivutte bhikkhun²nampi sikkh±paccakkh±na½ atth²ti ±pajjati, tañc±niµµha½. Ida½ apara½ aniµµhappasaªgoti“sabbasikkh±pad±ni s±dh±raº±neva, n±s±dh±raº±n²”ti. Apic±ya½ bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±pannov±tidassanattha½ “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, ta½yeva upajjhan”ti-±di (p±r±. 69) vutta½,apica yo tath± lesa½ o¹¹etv± methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevanto vajjiputtak± viya p±r±jikohoti. Te hi “bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti vacan±bh±ve sati “±patti½tumhe, bhikkhave, ±pann± p±r±jikan”ti vutt± bhagavat±. Ettha pana “bhikkhave”tivuttatt± keci bhikkhuliªge µhit±, “id±ni cepi maya½, bhante ±nanda, labheyy±mabhagavato santike pabbajja½ labheyy±ma upasampadan”ti vuttatt± keci vibbhant±tiveditabb±. Tato ±pattiy± bhedoti tato vibhaªgato “akkh±yite sar²re p±r±jika½,yebhuyyena kh±yite thullaccayan”ti-±di ±pattiy± bhedo hoti. An±patti tadaññath±titato eva vibhaªgato yen±k±rena ±patti vutt±, tato aññen±k±rena an±pattibhedovahoti. “S±diyati ±patti p±r±jikassa, na s±diyati an±patt²”ti hi vibhaªgeasati na paññ±yati. Ett±vat± sam±sato g±th±ttho vutto hoti. Ettha ca pana–
“Nid±nam±tik±bhedo, vibhaªgassa payojana½;
an±pattipak±ro ca, paµhamo nippayojano”ti.–

Ima½ naya½ dassetv±va sabbasikkh±pad±na½ attho pak±sitabbo. Katha½? Bhagavat± pana yen±k±renaya½ sikkh±pada½ paññ±pita½, tassa ±k±rassa samattha½ v± asamattha½ v±ti duvidha½ nid±na½,aya½ nid±nabhedo. M±tik±pi nid±n±pekkh± nid±n±napekkh±ti duvidh±. Tatthacatutthap±r±jik±disikkh±pad±ni nid±n±pekkh±ni. Na hi vaggumud±t²riy± bhikkh³sayameva attano attano asanta½ uttarimanussadhamma½ mus±v±dalakkhaºa½ p±petv± bh±si½su.Aññamaññassa hi te uttarimanussadhammassa gih²na½ vaººa½ bh±si½su, na ca t±vat± p±r±jikavatthuhoti. Tattha tena lesena bhagav± ta½ vatthu½ nid±na½ katv± p±r±jika½ paññapesi,tena vutta½ “nid±n±pekkhan”ti. Imin± nayena nid±n±pekkh±ni ñatv± tabbipar²t±nisikkh±pad±ni nid±n±napekkh±n²ti veditabb±ni, aya½ m±tik±bhedo.

N±nappak±rato m³l±pattippahonakavatthupayogacittaniy±madassanavasena m±tik±ya vibhajanabh±vad²panattha½tesa½ appahonakat±ya v± tadaññataravekallat±ya v± v²tikkame sati ±pattibhedadassanattha½,asati an±pattidassanatthañc±ti sabbattha tayo atthavase paµicca m±tik±ya vibhajana½ vibhaªgo±rabh²yat²ti veditabbo. Ettha pana “bhikkhakoti bhikkhu, bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagatoti bhikkhu, bhinnapaµadharoti bhikkh³”ti kevala½ byañjanatthad²panavasena pavatto v±, “samaññ±yabhikkh³”ti bhikkhubh±vasambhava½ anapekkhitv±pi kevala½ bhikkhu n±ma pavattiµµh±nad²panavasenapavatto v±, “ehi bhikkh³ti bhikkhu, saraºagamanehi upasampannoti bhikkhu, ñatticatutthenakammena upasampannoti bhikkh³”ti upasampad±nantaren±pi bhikkhubh±vasiddhid²panavasena pavatto v±, “bhadro bhikkhu, s±ro bhikkhu, sekkho bhikkhu, asekkhobhikkh³”ti bhikkhukaraºehi dhammehi samann±gatabhikkhud²panavasena pavatto v± vibhaªgo ajjhupekkhitosabbas±maññapadatt±, tath± aññabh±giyasikkh±pad±d²su sadv±ravasena, adhikaraºadassan±divasenapavatto ca ajjhupekkhito itarattha tadabh±vatoti veditabbo.
Tattha tisso itthiyoti-±di vatthuniyamadassanavasena pavatto, manussitthiy± tayo magge methuna½dhamma½ paµisevantassa ±patti p±r±jikass±ti-±di payoganiyamadassanavasena pavatto,bhikkhussa sevanacitta½ upaµµhiteti-±di cittaniyamadassanavasena pavatto, s±diyati ±pattip±r±jikassa, na s±diyati an±patt²ti-±di vatthupayoganiyame sati cittaniyamabh±v±bh±vavasena±patt±n±pattidassanattha½ pavatto, mata½ yebhuyyena kh±yita½ ±patti thullaccayass±ti-±divatthussa appahonakat±ya v²tikkame ±pattibhedadassanattha½ pavatto, na s±diyati an±patt²ticittaniyamavekalyena v²tikkam±bh±v± an±pattidassanattha½ pavattoti. Eva½ itaresupisikkh±padesu yath±sambhavanayo ayanti payojano vibhaªgo.
An±pattiv±ro pana m³l±pattito, tadaññekadesato, sabb±pattito ca an±pattid²panavasenatividho. Tattha yo paµhamo, so vibhaªgo viya tayo atthavase paµicca pavatto. Katametayo? M±tik±pad±na½ s±tthakaniratthak±na½ tadaññath± uddharaº±nuddharaºavasena sappayojananippayojanabh±vad²panattha½,tadaññath± paµipattikkamadassanattha½, ±pattippahonakaµµh±nepi vissajjanatthañc±ti. Katha½?E¼akalomasikkh±pade “bhikkhuno paneva addh±namaggappaµipannassa e¼akalom±ni uppajjeyyu½,±kaªkham±nena bhikkhun± paµiggahetabb±n²”ti (p±r±. 572) et±ni kevala½ vatthumattad²panapad±n²tiniratthak±ni n±ma, tesa½ an±patti. “Addh±namagga½ appaµipannassa uppanne e¼akalomean±patti, ±kaªkham±nena paµiggahite”ti-±din± nayena tadaññath± anuddharaºena nippayojanabh±vod²pito hoti, yadida½ m±tik±ya½ “methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyy±”ti, ida½s±tthaka½. Tassa sappayojanabh±vad²panattha½ “an±patti aj±nantassa as±diyantass±”tivutta½. Yasm± j±nanas±diyanabh±vena ±patti, asevantassa an±patti, tasm± vutta½m±tik±ya½ “yo pana bhikkhu methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyya, p±r±jiko hotiasa½v±so”ti adhipp±yo. “Parapariggahita½ parapariggahitasaññit± garuparikkh±ro theyyacitta½avaharaºan”ti vutt±na½ pañcannampi aªg±na½ p±rip³riy± petatiracch±nagatapariggahite ±pattippahonakaµµh±nepivissajjanattha½ “an±patti petapariggahite”ti-±di (kaªkh±. aµµha. dutiyap±r±jikavaººan±)vutta½. An±patti ima½ j±na, ima½ dehi, ima½ ±hara, imin± attho, ima½ kappiya½karoh²ti bhaºat²ti-±di pana tadaññath± paµipattikkamadassanattha½ vuttanti veditabba½. Ett±vat±“nid±nam±tik±bhedo”ti-±din± vuttag±th±ya attho pak±sito hoti.
Ettha paµhamapaññatti t±va paµhamabodhi½ atikkamitv± paññattatt±, ±yasmato sudinnassa aµµhavassikak±lepaññattatt± ca rattaññumahatta½ pattak±le paññatt±. Dutiya-anupaññatti b±husaccamahatta½pattak±le uppann±. So h±yasm± makkaµip±r±jiko yath± m±tug±mapaµisa½yuttesusikkh±padesu tiracch±nagatitth² anadhippet±, tath± idh±p²ti saññ±ya “sacca½, ±vuso,bhagavat± sikkh±pada½ paññatta½, tañca kho manussitthiy±, no tiracch±nagatitthiy±”ti ±ha.Tatiy±nupaññatti l±bhaggamahatta½ pattak±le uppann±. Te hi vajjiputtak± l±bhaggamahatta½patt± hutv± y±vadattha½ bhuñjitv± nh±yitv± varasayanesu sayitv± tatiy±nupaññattiy±vatthu½ upp±desu½, te ca vepullamahatta½ patte saªghe uppann±, sayañca vepullamahatta½patt±ti “vepullamahattampettha labbhat²”ti vutta½. Ida½ paµhamap±r±jikasikkh±pada½tividhampi vatthu½ up±d±ya catubbidhampi ta½ k±la½ patv± paññattanti veditabba½.
Tattha yo pan±ti anavasesapariy±d±napada½. Bhikkh³ti tassa atippasaªganiyamapada½. Bhikkh³na½sikkh±s±j²vasam±pannoti tassa visesanavacana½. Na hi sabbopi bhikkhun±mako y± bhagavat±y±ya k±yaci upasampad±ya upasampannabhikkh³na½ heµµhimaparicchedena sikkhitabbasikkh± vihit±,“ettha saha j²vant²”ti yo ca ±j²vo vutto, ta½ ubhaya½ sam±pannova hoti. Kad±pana sam±panno ahosi? Y±ya k±yaci upasampad±ya upasampannasamanantarameva tadubhaya½j±nantopi aj±nantopi tadajjhupagatatt± sam±panno n±ma hoti. Saha j²vant²ti y±vasikkha½ na paccakkh±ti, p±r±jikabh±vañca na p±puº±ti, ya½ pana vutta½ andhakaµµhakath±ya½“sikkha½ parip³rento sikkh±sam±panno s±j²va½ av²tikkamanto s±j²vasam±pannohot²”ti, ta½ ukkaµµhaparicchedavasena vutta½. Na hi sikkha½ aparip³rento k±mavitakk±dibahulov± ekacca½ s±vasesa½ s±j²va½ v²tikkamanto v± sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno n±ma na hoti.Ukkaµµhaparicchedena pana catukka½ labbhati atthi bhikkhu sikkh±sam±panno s²l±ni paccavekkhantona s±j²vasam±panno acittaka½ sikkh±pada½ v²tikkamanto, atthi na sikkh±sam±panno k±mavitakk±dibahulo s±j²vasam±panno nir±pattiko, atthi na sikkh±sam±panno naca s±j²vasam±panno anavasesa½ ±patti½ ±panno, atthi sikkh±sam±panno ca s±j²vasam±pannoca sikkha½ parip³rento s±j²vañca av²tikkamanto, ayameva catuttho bhikkhu ukkaµµhoidha adhippeto siy±. Na hi bhagav± anukkaµµha½ vattu½ yuttoti ce? Na, “tatra y±ya½adhis²lasikkh±, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± sikkh±”tivacanavirodhato. Ukkaµµhaggahaº±dhipp±yesati “sikkh±ti tisso sikkh±”ti ettakameva vattabbanti adhipp±yo. Sikkhattayasam±pannohi sabbukkaµµhoti.
“Methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyy±”ti parato vacana½ apekkhitv± adhis²lasikkh±va vutt±tice? Na, tass±pi abhabbatt±. Na hi adhis²lasikkha½ parip³rento s±j²vañca av²tikkamantomethuna½ dhamma½ paµisevitu½ bhabbo, ta½ sikkha½ aparip³rento s±j²vañca v²tikkamantoeva hi paµiseveyy±ti adhipp±yo, tasm± evamettha attho gahetabbo. Yasm± sikkh±padasaªkh±tos±j²vo adhis²lasikkhameva saªgaºh±ti, netara½ adhicittasikkha½ adhipaññ±sikkha½ v±,tasm± “tatra y±ya½ adhis²lasikkh±, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± sikkh±”ti vutta½,tasm± adhis²lasikkh±ya saªg±hako s±j²vo sikkh±s±j²voti vutto. Iti s±j²vavisesanattha½sikkh±ggahaºa½ kata½. Tadatthad²panatthameva vibhaªge sikkha½ apar±masitv± “tasmi½ sikkhati,tena vuccati s±j²vasam±panno”ti vutta½ tena ekamevida½ atthapadantid²pita½ hoti. Tañca upasampad³pagamanantarato paµµh±ya sikkhan±dhik±ratt± “sikkhat²”tica “sam±panno”ti ca vuccati. Yo eva½ “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti saªkhya½ gato,t±disa½ paccaya½ paµicca aparabh±ge s±j²vasaªkh±tameva sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya, tasmi½yevaca dubbalya½ an±vikatv± methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyy±ti ayamattho yujjati. Kintuaµµhakath±nayo paµikkhitto hoti. So ca na paµikkhep±rahoti tena tadanus±rena bhavitabba½.
Adhipp±yo panettha pariyesitabbo, so d±ni vuccati– sabbesupi sikkh±padesu idamevabhikkhulakkhaºa½ s±dh±raºa½, yadida½ “bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti. Kh²º±savopis±vako ±patti½ ±pajjati acittaka½, tath± sekkho. Puthujjano pana sacittakampi,tasm± sekkh±sekkhaputhujjanabhikkh³na½ s±maññamida½ bhikkhulakkhaºanti katv± kevala½ sikkh±sam±panno,kevala½ s±j²vasam±panno ca ubhayasam±panno c±ti sar³pekadesekasesanayena “sikkh±s±j²vasama-±panno”tvevasampiº¹etv± ukkaµµhaggahaºena anukkaµµh±na½ gahaºasiddhito aµµhakath±ya½ ukkaµµhova vutto.Tameva samp±detu½ “tasmi½ sikkhati, tena vuccati s±j²vasam±panno”ti ettha sikkh±padassa avacane parih±ra½ vatv± yasm± pana so asikkhampi sam±panno, tasm± sikkh±sam±pannotipiatthato veditabboti ca vatv± “ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno ta½ appaccakkh±ya yañca s±j²va½sam±panno tattha dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti vuttanti ayamaµµhakath±ya½ adhipp±yo veditabbo.Etasmi½ pana adhipp±ye adhis²lasikkh±ya eva gahaºa½ sabbatthikatt±, s²l±dhik±rato cavinayass±ti veditabba½. Yath± ca sikkh±pada½ sam±diyanto s²la½ sam±diyat²ti vuccati,eva½ sikkh±pada½ paccakkhanto s²lasaªkh±ta½ sikkha½ paccakkh±t²ti vattu½ yujjati, tasm±tattha vutta½ “ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ appaccakkh±y±”ti. Sikkha½ paccakkh±ya paµisevitamethunassaupasampada½ anuj±nanto na sam³hanati n±ma. Na hi so bhikkhu hutv± paµisevi, “yopana bhikkh³”ti ca paññatta½. Ett±vat± sam±sato “sikkh±s±j²vasam±nno”ti etthavattabba½ vutta½.
Ki½ imin± visesavacanena payojana½, nanu “yo pana bhikkhu sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½an±vikatv±…pe… asa½v±so”ti ettakameva vattabbanti ce Na vattabba½aniµµhappasaªgato. Yo pana sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno theyyasa½v±s±diko kevalena samaññ±mattena,paµiññ±mattena v± bhikkhu, tass±pi sikkh±paccakkh±na½ atthi. Sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya camethuna½ dhamma½ paµisevantassa p±r±jik±patti. Yo v± pacch± p±r±jika½ ±patti½±pajjitv± na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno tassa ca, yo v± pakkhapaº¹akatt± paº¹akabh±v³pagamanenana sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno tassa ca tadubhaya½ atth²ti ±pajjati. “Paº¹akabh±vapakkhe capakkhapaº¹ako upasampad±ya na vatth³”ti vutta½, tasm± itarasmi½ pakkhe vatth³ti siddha½,tasmi½ pakkhe upasampanno paº¹akabh±vapakkhe paº¹akatt± na sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, so pariccajitabbasikkh±yaabh±vena sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya mukhena parassa aªgaj±taggahaº±dayo methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseveyya,tassa kuto p±r±jik±patt²ti adhipp±yo. Aya½ nayo apaº¹akapakkha½ alabham±nasseva paratoyujjati, labhantassa pana ar³pasatt±na½ kusal±na½ sam±pattikkhaºe bhavaªgavicchede satipi amaraºa½viya paº¹akabh±vapakkhepi bhikkhubh±vo atthi. Sa½v±sa½ v± s±diyantassa na theyyasa½v±sakabh±voatthi antimavatthu½ ajjh±pannassa viya. Na ca sahaseyy±dika½ janeti. Gaºap³rako panana hoti antimavatthu½ ajjh±panno viya, na so sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno, itarasmi½ panapakkhe hoti, aya½ imassa tato viseso. Kimaya½ sahetuko, ud±hu ahetukoti?Na ahetuko. Yato upasampad± tassa apaº¹akapakkhe anuññ±t± sahetukapaµisandhikatt±.Paº¹akabh±vapakkhepi kissa n±nuññ±t±ti ce? Paº¹akabh³tatt± opakkamikapaº¹akassaviya.
Apica sikkh±s±j²vasam±pannoti imin± tassa sikkh±sam±d±na½ d²petv± ta½ sam±dinnasikkha½appaccakkh±ya tattha ca dubbalya½ an±vikatv±ti vattu½ yujjati, na aññath±ti imin±k±raºena yath±vutt±niµµhappasaªgato “yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno sikkha½appaccakkh±y±”ti-±di vutta½. Yath± cettha, tath± “yo pana bhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±pannosikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv± g±m± v± araññ± v± adinna½ theyyasaªkh±ta½±diyeyya (p±r±. 89), sugatac²varappam±ºa½ c²vara½ k±r±peyya atireka½ v±, chedanaka½p±cittiyan”ti-±din± (p±ci. 548) nayena sabbattha yojetabba½ Antamasotiracch±nagat±yap²ti manussitthi½ up±d±ya vutta½. Na hi “pageva paº¹ake purisev±”ti vattu½ yujjati. Sesa½ tattha tattha vuttanayameva.

Aya½ paµhamap±r±jikassa m±tik±ya t±va vinicchayo.