P±r±jikakaº¹o

Id±ni yadeta½ nid±n±nantara½ tatrime catt±roti-±di p±r±jikakaº¹a½, tattha tatr±ti tasmi½ “p±timokkha½ uddisiss±m²”ti eva½ vutte p±timokkhe. Imeti id±ni vattabb±na½ abhimukh²karaºa½. Catt±roti gaºanaparicchedo. P±r±jik±ti eva½n±mak±. Dhamm±ti ±pattiyo. Uddesa½ ±gacchant²ti sar³pena uddisitabbata½ ±gacchanti, na nid±ne viya “yassa siy± ±patt²”ti s±dh±raºavacanamattena.

1. Paµhamap±r±jikavaººan±

Yo pan±ti rassad²gh±din± liªg±dibhedena yo koci. Bhikkh³ti ehibhikkhu-upasampad±, saraºagaman³pasampad±, ov±dappaµiggahaº³pasampad±, pañh±by±karaº³pasampad±, aµµhagarudhammappaµiggahaº³pasampad±, d³ten³pasampad±, aµµhav±cik³pasampad±, ñatticatutthakamm³pasampad±ti im±su aµµhasu upasampad±su ñatticatutthena upasampad±kammena akuppena µh±n±rahena upasampanno. Tassa pana kammassa vatthuñatti-anuss±vana s²m± paris±sampattivasena akuppat± veditabb±.
Tattha vatth³ti upasampad±pekkho puggalo, so µhapetv± ³nav²sativassa½ antimavatthu-ajjh±pannapubba½, paº¹ak±dayo ca ek±dasa abhabbapuggale veditabbo. Tattha ³nav²sativasso n±ma paµisandhiggahaºato paµµh±ya aparipuººav²sativasso. Antimavatthu-ajjh±pannapubbo n±ma catunna½ p±r±jik±na½ aññatara½ ajjh±pannapubbo. Paº¹ak±dayo vajjan²yapuggalakath±ya½ vutt±. Tesu ±sittapaº¹akañca us³yapaº¹akañca µhapetv± opakkamikapaº¹ako napu½sakapaº¹ako paº¹akabh±vapakkhe µhito pakkhapaº¹ako ca idha adhippeto.
Theyyasa½v±sako pana tividho liªgatthenako sa½v±satthenako ubhayatthenakoti. Tattha yo saya½ pabbajitv± na bhikkhuvass±ni gaºeti, na yath±vu¹¹ha½ bhikkh³na½ v± s±maºer±na½ v± vandana½ s±diyati, na ±sanena paµib±hati, na uposath±d²su sandissati, aya½ asuddhacittat±ya liªgamattasseva thenitatt± liªgatthenako n±ma. Yo pana bhikkh³hi pabbajito s±maºero sam±no k±s±y±ni apanetv± tesu sa-uss±hova methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevitv± puna niv±setv± s±maºerabh±va½ paµij±n±ti, aya½ bhikkh³hi dinnaliªgassa apariccattatt± na liªgatthenako, na liªg±nur³passa sa½v±sassa s±ditatt± n±pi sa½v±satthenako. Antimavatthu-ajjh±pannakepi eseva nayo. Yo ca kho s±maºero sam±no videsa½ gantv± bhikkhuvass±ni gaºeti, yath±vu¹¹ha½ vandana½ s±diyati, ±sanena paµib±hati, uposath±d²su sandissati, aya½ sa½v±samattasseva thenitatt± sa½v±satthenako n±ma. Bhikkhuvassagaºan±diko hi sabbopi kiriyabhedo imasmi½ atthe “sa½v±so”ti veditabbo. Sikkha½ paccakkh±ya “na ma½ koci j±n±t²”ti puna eva½ paµipajjantepi eseva nayo. Yo pana saya½ pabbajitv± vih±ra½ gantv± yath±vu¹¹ha½ vandana½ s±diyati, ±sanena paµib±hati, bhikkhuvass±ni gaºeti, uposath±d²su sandissati, aya½ liªgassa ceva sa½v±sassa ca thenitatt± ubhayatthenako n±ma. Dhuranikkhepavasena k±s±y±ni apanetv± antimavatthu½ ajjh±pajjitv± puna t±ni acch±detv± eva½ paµipajjantepi eseva nayo, aya½ tividhopi theyyasa½v±sako idha adhippeto. Ýhapetv± pana ima½ tividha½.
“R±ja dubbhikkha kant±ra-roga ver² bhayena v±;
c²var±haraºattha½ v±, liªga½ ±diyat²dha yo.
“Sa½v±sa½ n±dhiv±seti, y±va so suddham±naso;
theyyasa½v±sako n±ma, t±va esa na vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 110).
Yo pana upasampanno titthiyabh±va½ patthayam±no saya½ v± kusac²r±dika½ titthiyaliªga½ ±diyati, tesa½ v± santike pabbajati, naggo v± hutv± ±j²vak±na½ santika½ gantv± tesa½ vat±ni ±diyati, aya½ titthiyapakkantako n±ma. Ýhapetv± pana manussaj±tika½ avaseso sabbopi tiracch±nagato n±ma. Yena manussaj±tik± janetti sayampi manussabh³teneva sañcicca j²vit± voropit±, aya½ m±tugh±tako n±ma. Pitugh±takepi eseva nayo. Yena antamaso gihiliªge µhitopi manussaj±tiko kh²º±savo sañcicca j²vit± voropito, aya½ arahantagh±tako n±ma. Yo pana pakatatta½ bhikkhuni½ tiººa½ magg±na½ aññatarasmi½ magge d³seti aya½ bhikkhunid³sako n±ma. Yo devadatto viya s±sana½ uddhamma½ ubbinaya½ katv± catunna½ kamm±na½ aññataravasena saªgha½ bhindati, aya½ saªghabhedako n±ma. Yo devadatto viya duµµhacittena vadhakacittena tath±gatassa j²vam±nakasar²re khuddakamakkhik±ya pivanamattampi lohita½ upp±deti, aya½ lohitupp±dako n±ma. Yassa itthinimittupp±danakammato ca purisanimittupp±danakammato ca ubhato duvidhampi byañjana½ atthi, aya½ ubhatobyañjanako n±ma. Iti ime terasa puggal± upasampad±ya avatth³, ime pana µhapetv± aññasmi½ upasampad±pekkhe sati upasampad±kamma½ vatthusampattivasena akuppa½ hoti.
Katha½ ñattisampattivasena akuppa½ hoti? Vatthusaªghapuggalañatt²na½ apar±masan±ni, pacch± ñattiµµhapanañc±ti ime t±va pañca ñattidos±. Tattha “aya½ itthann±mo”ti upasampad±pekkhassa akittana½ vatthu-apar±masana½ n±ma. “Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho”ti-ettha “suº±tu me, bhante”ti vatv± “saªgho”ti abhaºana½ saªgha-apar±masana½ n±ma. “Itthann±massa upasampad±pekkho”ti upajjh±yassa akittana½ puggala-apar±masana½ n±ma. Sabbena sabba½ ñattiy± anucc±raºa½ ñatti-apar±masana½ n±ma. Paµhama½ kammav±ca½ niµµh±petv± “es± ñatt²”ti vatv± “khamati saªghass±”ti eva½ ñattikittana½ pacch± ñattiµµhapana½ n±ma. Iti imehi dosehi vimutt±ya ñattiy± sampanna½ ñattisampattivasena akuppa½ hoti.
Anuss±vanavasena akuppat±yapi vatthusaªghapuggal±na½ apar±masan±ni, s±van±ya h±pana½, ak±le s±vananti ime pañca anuss±vanados±. Tattha vatth±d²na½ apar±masan±ni ñattiya½ vuttasadis±neva. T²su pana anuss±van±su yattha katthaci etesa½ apar±masana½ apar±masanameva. Sabbena sabba½ pana kammav±ca½ avatv± catukkhattu½ ñattikittanameva, atha v± pana kammav±c±bbhantare akkharassa v± padassa v± anucc±raºa½ v± durucc±raºa½ v± s±van±ya h±pana½ n±ma. S±van±ya anok±se paµhama½ ñatti½ aµµhapetv± anuss±vanakaraºa½ ak±le s±vana½ n±ma. Iti imehi dosehi vimutt±ya anuss±van±ya sampanna½ anuss±vanasampattivasena akuppa½ hoti.
Pubbe vutta½ vipattis²m±lakkhaºa½ samatikkant±ya pana s²m±ya kata½ s²m±sampattivasena akuppa½ hoti. Y±vatik± bhikkh³ kammappatt±, tesa½ an±gamana½, chand±rah±na½ chandassa an±haraºa½, sammukh²bh³t±na½ paµikkosananti ime pana tayo paris±dos±, tehi vimutt±ya paris±ya kata½ paris±sampattivasena akuppa½ hoti. K±raº±rahatt± pana satthu s±san±rahatt± µh±n±raha½ n±ma hoti. Iti yo imin± eva½ akuppena µh±n±rahena ñatticatutthena upasampad±kammena upasampanno, aya½ idha “bhikkh³”ti adhippeto. Paººattivajjesu pana aññepi saªgaha½ gacchanti.
Bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±pannoti y± bhikkh³na½ adhis²lasaªkh±t± sikkh±, tañca, yattha cete saha j²vanti, ekaj²vik± sabh±gavuttino honti, ta½ bhagavat± paññatta½ sikkh±padasaªkh±ta½ s±j²vañca, tattha sikkhanabh±vena sam±pannoti bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasama-±panno. Sam±pannoti sikkhañca parip³rento s±j²vañca av²tikkamanto hutv± tadubhaya½ upagatoti attho. Sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv±ti ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ apaµikkhipitv±, yañca s±j²va½ sam±panno, tasmi½ dubbalabh±va½ appak±setv±. Tattha cittakhettak±lapayogapuggalavij±nanavasena sikkh±ya paccakkh±na½ ñatv± tadabh±vena apaccakkh±na½ veditabba½. Katha½? Upasampannabh±vato cavituk±mat±citteneva hi sikkh±paccakkh±na½ hoti, na dav± v± rav± v± bhaºantassa. Eva½ cittavasena sikkh±paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena. Tath± “buddha½ paccakkh±mi, dhamma½ paccakkh±mi, saªgha½ paccakkh±mi, sikkha½, vinaya½, p±timokkha½, uddesa½, upajjh±ya½, ±cariya½, saddhivih±rika½, antev±sika½, sam±nupajjh±yaka½, sam±n±cariyaka½, sabrahmac±ri½ paccakkh±m²”ti eva½ vutt±na½ buddh±d²na½ cuddasanna½, “gih²ti ma½ dh±rehi, up±sako, ±r±miko, s±maºero, titthiyo, titthiyas±vako, asamaºo, ‘asakyaputtiyo’ti ma½ dh±reh²”ti eva½ vutt±na½ gihi-±d²na½ aµµhannañc±ti imesa½ dv±v²satiy± khettapad±na½ yassa kassaci savevacanassa vasena tesu ya½kiñci vattuk±massa ya½kiñci vadato sikkh±paccakkh±na½ hoti, na rukkh±d²na½ aññatarassa n±ma½ gahetv± pacc±cikkhantassa. Eva½ khettavasena paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena.
Tattha yadeta½ “paccakkh±m²”ti ca, “ma½ dh±reh²”ti (p±r±. 51) ca vutta½ vattam±nak±lavacana½, y±ni ca “ala½ me buddhena, ki½ nu me buddhena, na mamattho buddhena sumutt±ha½ buddhen±”ti-±din± (p±r±. 52) nayena ±khy±tavasena k±la½ an±masitv± purimehi cuddasahi padehi saddhi½ yojetv± vutt±ni “ala½ me”ti-±d²ni catt±ri pad±ni, tesa½yeva ca savevacan±na½ vasena paccakkh±na½ hoti, na “paccakkh±sin”ti v± “paccakkhissan”ti v± “ma½ dh±res²”ti v± “ma½ dh±ressat²”ti v± “ya½n³n±ha½ paccakkheyyan”ti (p±r±. 45) v±ti-±d²ni at²t±n±gataparikappavacan±ni bhaºantassa. Eva½ vattam±na k±lavasena ceva an±maµµhak±lavasena ca paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena.
Payogo pana duvidho k±yiko ca v±casiko ca. Tattha “buddha½ paccakkh±m²”ti-±din± (p±r±. 51) nayena y±ya k±yaci bh±s±ya vac²bheda½ katv± v±casikappayogeneva paccakkh±na½ hoti, na akkharalikhana½ v± hatthamudd±didassana½ v± k±yappayoga½ karontassa. Eva½ v±casikappayogeneva paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena.
Puggalo pana duvidho– yo ca paccakkh±ti, yassa ca paccakkh±ti. Tattha yo paccakkh±ti, so sace ummattakakhittacittavedan±µµ±na½ aññataro na hoti. Yassa pana paccakkh±ti, so sace manussaj±tiko hoti, na ca ummattak±d²na½ aññataro, sammukh²bh³to ca sikkh±paccakkh±na½ hoti. Na hi asammukh²bh³tassa d³tena v± paººena v± ±rocana½ ruhati. Eva½ yath±vuttapuggalavasena paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena.
Vij±nanampi niyamit±niyamitavasena duvidha½. Tattha yassa yesa½ v± niyametv± “imassa, imesa½ v± ±rocem²”ti vadati, sace te yath± pakatiy± loke manuss± vacana½ sutv± ±vajjanasamaye j±nanti, eva½ tassa vacan±nantarameva tassa “aya½ ukkaºµhito”ti v± “gihibh±va½ patthayat²”ti v± yena kenaci ±k±rena sikkh±paccakkh±nabh±va½ j±nanti, paccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Atha aparabh±ge “ki½ imin± vuttan”ti cintetv± j±nanti, aññe v± j±nanti, apaccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Aniyametv± ±rocentassa pana sace vuttanayena yo koci manussaj±tiko vacanattha½ j±n±ti, paccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Eva½ vij±nanavasena paccakkh±na½ hoti, na tadabh±vena. Yo pana antamaso dav±yapi paccakkh±ti, tena apaccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Iti imesa½ vuttappak±r±na½ citt±d²na½ v± vasena, sabbaso v± pana apaccakkh±nena sikkha½ apaccakkh±ya sikkh±paccakkh±nasseva ca atthabh³ta½ ekacca½ dubbalya½ an±vikatv±.