Ki½ saªghassa pubbakiccanti “saªgho uposatha½ kareyy±”ti eva½ posathakaraºasambandheneva vuttassa saªghassa uposathe kattabbe ya½ ta½ “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave,uposath±g±ra½ sammajjitun”ti-±din± (mah±va. 159) nayena p±¼iya½ ±gata½, aµµhakath±suca–
“Sammajjan² pad²po ca, udaka½ ±sanena ca;
uposathassa et±ni, ‘pubbakaraºan’ti vuccati.
“Chandap±risuddhi-utukkh±na½, bhikkhugaºan± ca ov±do;
uposathassa et±ni, ‘pubbakiccan’ti vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 168).
Eva½ dv²hi n±mehi navavidha½ pubbakicca½ dassita½, ki½ ta½ katanti pucchati.Na hi ta½ akatv± uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµati, tasm± therena ±ºattena agil±nena bhikkhun±uposath±g±ra½ sammajjitabba½, p±n²ya½ paribhojan²ya½ upaµµh±petabba½, ±sana½ paññ±petabba½,pad²po k±tabbo, akaronto dukkaµa½ ±pajjati, theren±pi patir³pa½ ñatv± ±º±petabba½.
Chandap±risuddh²ti ettha uposathakaraºattha½ sannipatite saªghe bahi uposatha½ katv± ±gatenasannipatitaµµh±na½ gantv± k±yas±maggi½ adentena chando d±tabbo. Yopigil±no v± hoti kiccappasuto v±, ten±pi p±risuddhi½ dentena chandopi d±tabbo.Katha½ d±tabbo? Ekassa bhikkhuno santike “chanda½ dammi, chanda½ me hara, chanda½me ±roceh²”ti (mah±va. 165) aya½ attho k±yena v± v±c±ya v± ubhayena v±viññ±petabbo, eva½ dinno hoti chando. Akat³posathena pana gil±nena v± kiccappasutenav± p±risuddhi d±tabb±. Katha½ d±tabb±? Ekassa bhikkhuno santike “p±risuddhi½dammi, p±risuddhi½ me hara, p±risuddhi½ me ±roceh²”ti (mah±va. 164) aya½attho k±yena v± v±c±ya v± ubhayena v± viññ±petabbo, eva½ dinn± hoti p±risuddhi,ta½ pana dentena chandopi d±tabbo. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat± “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, tadahuposathep±risuddhi½ dentena chandampi d±tu½, santi saªghassa karaº²yan”ti (mah±va. 165).Tattha p±risuddhid±na½ saªghassapi attanopi uposathakaraºa½ samp±deti, na avasesa½ saªghakicca½.Chandad±na½ saªghasseva uposathakaraºañca sesakiccañca samp±deti, attano pana uposatho akatoyevahoti. Tasm± p±risuddhi½ dentena chandopi d±tabbo. Pubbe vutta½ pana suddhikacchanda½v± ima½ v± chandap±risuddhi½ ekena bah³nampi ±haritu½ vaµµati. Sace pana so antar±maggeañña½ bhikkhu½ passitv± yesa½ tena chando v± p±risuddhi v± gahit±, tesañca attanoca chandap±risuddhi½ deti, tasseva s± ±gacchati, itar± pana bi¼±lasaªkhalik± chandap±risuddhin±ma hoti, s± n±gacchati, tasm± sayameva sannipatitaµµh±na½ gantv± ±rocetabba½. Sacepana sañcicca n±roceti, dukkaµa½ ±pajjati. Chandap±risuddhi pana tasmi½ hatthap±sa½upagatamatteyeva ±gat± hoti.
Utukkh±nanti “hemant±d²na½ ut³na½ ettaka½ atikkanta½, ettaka½avasiµµhan”ti eva½ ut³na½ ±cikkhana½. Bhikkhugaºan±ti “ettak± bhikkh³ uposathaggesannipatit±”ti bhikkh³na½ gaºan±. Idampi hi ubhaya½ katv±va uposatho k±tabbo.Ov±doti bhikkhunov±do. Na hi bhikkhun²hi y±cita½ ov±da½ an±rocetv± uposatha½k±tu½ vaµµati. Bhikkhuniyo hi “sve uposatho”ti ±gantv± “aya½ uposatho c±tuddasopannaraso”ti pucchitv± puna uposathadivase ±gantv± “bhikkhunisaªgho, ayya, bhikkhusaªghassa p±de vandati, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±cati, labhatu kira, ayya, bhikkhunisaªghoov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti (c³¼ava. 413) eva½ ov±da½ y±canti. Ta½ µhapetv± b±lagil±nagamiyeañño sacepi ±raññiko hoti, apaµiggahetu½ na labhati, tasm± yena so paµiggahito,tena bhikkhun± uposathagge p±timokkhuddesako bhikkhu eva½ vattabbo “bhikkhunisaªgho,bhante, bhikkhusaªghassa p±de vandati, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±cati, labhatu kira, bhante, bhikkhunisaªghoov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti. P±timokkhuddesakena vattabba½ “atthi koci bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dakosammato”ti. Sace hoti koci bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dako sammato, tato tenaso vattabbo “itthann±mo bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dako sammato, ta½ bhikkhunisaªgho upasaªkamat³”ti(c³¼ava. 413). Sace natthi, tato tena pucchitabba½ “ko ±yasm± ussahati bhikkhuniyoovaditun”ti. Sace koci ussahati, sopi ca aµµhahi aªgehi samann±gato, ta½ tatthevasammannitv± ov±dapaµigg±hako vattabbo “itthann±mo bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dako sammato,ta½ bhikkhunisaªgho upasaªkamat³”ti (cu¼ava. 413). Sace pana koci na ussahati, p±timokkhuddesakenavattabba½ “natthi koci bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dako sammato, p±s±dikena bhikkhunisaªghosamp±det³”ti. Ett±vat± hi sikkhattayasaªgahita½ sakala½ s±sana½ ±rocita½ hoti.Tena bhikkhun± “s±dh³”ti sampaµicchitv± p±µipadadivase bhikkhun²na½ ±rocetabba½.
Bhikkhunisaªghen±pi t± bhikkhuniyo pesetabb±, gacchatha, ayy±, pucchatha “ki½, ayya,labhati bhikkhunisaªgho ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, t±hi “s±dhu, ayye”ti sampaµicchitv±ta½ bhikkhu½ upasaªkamitv± eva½ vattabba½ “ki½, ayya, labhati bhikkhunisaªgho ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti.Tena vattabba½ “natthi koci bhikkhu bhikkhunov±dako sammato, p±s±dikena bhikkhunisaªghosamp±det³”ti, t±hi “s±dhu ayy±”ti sampaµicchitabba½. Idañca ekato ±gat±na½dvinna½ tiººa½ v± vasena vutta½. T±su pana ek±ya bhikkhuniy± vattabbañceva sampaµicchitabbañca,itar± tass± sah±yik±. Sace pana bhikkhusaªgho v± bhikkhunisaªgho v± na p³rati ubhayatopi v± gaºamattameva puggalamatta½ v± hoti.
Tatr±ya½ vacanakkamo– “bhikkhuniyo, ayya, bhikkhusaªghassa p±devandanti,ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±canti, labhantu kira, ayya, bhikkhuniyo ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti,“aha½, ayya, bhikkhusaªghassa p±de vand±mi, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±c±mi, labh±maha½, ayya,ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, “bhikkhunisaªgho, ayy±, ayy±na½ p±de vandati, ov±d³pasaªkamanañcay±cati, labhatu kira, ayy±, bhikkhunisaªgho ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti. “Bhikkhuniyo,ayy±, ayy±na½ p±de vandanti, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±canti, labhantu kira, ayy±, bhikkhuniyoov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, “aha½, ayy±, ayy±na½ p±de vand±mi, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±c±mi,labh±maha½, ayy±, ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, “bhikkhunisaªgho, ayya, ayyassa p±de vandati,ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±cati, labhatu kira, ayya, bhikkhunisaªgho ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti.“Bhikkhuniyo, ayya, ayyassa p±de vandanti, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±canti, labhantu kira,ayya, bhikkhuniyo ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, “aha½, ayya, ayyassa p±de vand±mi, ov±d³pasaªkamanañcay±c±mi, labh±maha½, ayya, ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti. Ten±pi bhikkhun± uposathak±leeva½ vattabba½ “bhikkhuniyo, bhante, bhikkhusaªghassa p±de vandanti, ov±d³pasaªkamanañcay±canti, labhantu kira, bhante, bhikkhuniyo ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti, “bhikkhun², bhante,bhikkhusaªghassa p±de vandati, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±cati, labhatu kira, bhante, bhikkhun²ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti. “Bhikkhunisaªgho, bhante, bhikkhuniyo, bhante, bhikkhun² bhante±yasmant±na½ p±de vandati, vandanti, vandati, ov±d³pasaªkamanañca y±cati, y±canti, y±cati,labhatu kira, bhante, bhikkhunisaªgho, labhantu kira, bhante, bhikkhuniyo, labhatu kira,bhante, bhikkhun² ov±d³pasaªkamanan”ti. Uposathaggepi p±timokkhuddesakena v± ñattiµµhapakenav± itarena v± bhikkhun± sace sammato bhikkhu atthi, purimanayeneva “ta½ bhikkhunisaªgho,ta½ bhikkhuniyo, ta½ bhikkhun² upasaªkamatu, upasaªkamantu, upasaªkamat³”ti vattabba½. Sacenatthi, “p±s±dikena bhikkhunisaªgho, bhikkhuniyo, bhikkhun² samp±detu, samp±dentu,samp±det³”ti vattabba½. Ov±dappaµigg±hakena p±µipade ta½ pacc±haritv± tathevavattabba½, ayamettha saªkhepavinicchayo. Eva½ bhikkhun²hi y±cita½ ov±da½ ±rocetv±vauposatho k±tabbo. Tena vutta½–
“Chandap±risuddhi-utukkh±na½ bhikkhugaºan± ca ov±do;
uposathassa et±ni, ‘pubbakiccan’ti vuccat²”ti.
P±risuddhi½ ±yasmanto ±roceth±ti attano parisuddhabh±va½ ±rocetha, “p±timokkha½uddisiss±m²”ti-ida½ p±risuddhi-±rocanassa k±raºavacana½. “Na ca, bhikkhave, s±pattikenap±timokkha½ sotabba½, yo suºeyya ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (c³¼ava. 386) hivacanato aparisuddhehi p±timokkha½ sotu½ na vaµµati. Tena vutta½– p±risuddhi½ ±yasmanto±rocetha, p±timokkha½ uddisiss±m²ti. Ettha siy± “saªgho uposatha½ kareyya,p±timokkha½ uddiseyy±”ti (mah±va. 134) vuttatt± idh±pi “p±timokkha½ uddisissat²”tivattabba½, evañhi sati pubben±para½ sandhiyat²ti. Vuccate, vacanamattameveta½ na sandhiyati,lakkhaºato pana sameti, saªghassa s±maggiy±, gaºassa s±maggiy±, puggalassa uddes± saªghassauddiµµha½ hoti p±timokkhanti idañhettha lakkhaºa½, tasm± “p±timokkha½ uddisiss±m²”tiidamevettha vattabba½.
Ta½ sabbeva sant± s±dhuka½ suºoma manasi karom±ti nti p±timokkha½.Sabbeva sant±ti y±vatik± tass± paris±ya ther± ca nav± ca majjhim± ca. S±dhuka½suºom±ti aµµhi½ katv± manasi karitv± sotadv±ravasena sabbacetas± samann±har±ma.Manasi karom±ti ekaggacitt± hutv± citte µhapeyy±ma. Ettha ca kiñc±pi “p±timokkha½uddisiss±m²”ti vuttatt± “suºotha manasi karoth±”ti vattu½ yutta½ viya dissati,“saªgho uposatha½ kareyy±”ti-imin± pana na sameti. Samaggassa hi saªghasseta½ uposathakaraºa½,p±timokkhuddesako ca saªghapariy±pannova, iccassa saªghapariy±pannatt± “suºoma manasikarom±”ti idameva vattu½ yutta½.
Id±ni ya½ vutta½ “p±risuddhi½ ±yasmanto ±roceth±”ti, tattha yath± p±risuddhi-±rocana½hoti, ta½ dassetu½ yassa siy± ±patti, so ±vikareyy±ti ±ha.Tattha yassa siy±ti yassa channa½ ±k±r±na½ aññatarena ±pann±patti bhaveyya. ¾pattiñhi ±pajjanto alajjit±, aññ±ºat±, kukkuccappakatat±, akappiyekappiyasaññit±, kappiye akappiyasaññit±, satisammos±ti imehi chah±k±rehi (pari.295) ±pajjati.
Katha½ alajjit±ya ±pajjati? Akappiyabh±va½ j±nantoyeva madditv± v²tikkama½ karoti.

Vuttampi ceta½–

“Sañcicca ±patti½ ±pajjati, ±patti½ parig³hati;
agatigamanañca gacchati, ediso vuccati alajjipuggalo”ti. (Pari. 359).
Katha½ aññ±ºat±ya ±pajjati? Aññ±ºapuggalo hi mando mom³ho kattabb±kattabba½ aj±nantoakattabba½ karoti, kattabba½ vir±dheti, eva½ aññ±ºat±ya ±pajjati.
Katha½ kukkuccappakatat±ya ±pajjati? Kappiy±kappiya½ niss±yakukkucce uppanne vinayadhara½ pucchitv± kappiya½ ce, kattabba½ siy±, akappiya½ce, na kattabba½, aya½ pana “vaµµat²”ti madditv± v²tikkamatiyeva, eva½ kukkuccappakatat±ya±pajjati.
Katha½ akappiye kappiyasaññit±ya ±pajjati? Acchama½sa½ “s³karama½san”ti kh±dati,vik±le k±lasaññ±ya bhuñjati, eva½ akappiye kappiyasaññit±ya ±pajjati.
Katha½ kappiye akappiyasaññit±ya ±pajjati? S³karama½sa½ “acchama½san”ti kh±dati,k±le vik±lasaññ±ya bhuñjati, eva½ kappiye akappiyasaññit±ya ±pajjati.
Katha½ satisammos± ±pajjati? Sahaseyyac²varavippav±s±d²ni satisammos± ±pajjati, itiimesa½ channa½ ±k±r±na½ aññatarena ±k±rena ±pann± yassa siy± sattanna½ ±pattikkhandh±na½aññatar± ±patti therassa v± navassa v± majjhimassa v±ti attho.
So ±vikareyy±ti so ta½ ±patti½ desetu v± pak±setu v±ti vutta½ hoti.Asantiy± ±pattiy±ti yassa pana eva½ an±pann± v± ±patti½ ±pajjitv±ca pana vuµµhit± v± desit± v± ±rocit± v± ±patti, tassa s± ±patti asant²n±ma hoti, eva½ asantiy± ±pattiy± tuºh² bhavitabba½. Tuºh²bh±vena kho pan±yasmante“parisuddh±”ti vediss±m²ti tuºh²bh±ven±pi hi k±raºena aha½ ±yasmante“parisuddh±”icceva j±niss±m²ti. Yath± kho pana paccekapuµµhassa veyy±karaºa½hot²ti yath± ekeneko puµµho by±kareyya, yath± ekeneko paccekapuµµho “ma½esa pucchat²”ti ñatv± by±kareyy±ti vutta½ hoti.
Evameva½ evar³p±ya paris±ya y±vatatiya½ anus±vita½ hot²ti ettha ekacce t±va ±cariy± eva½ vadanti “evameva½ imiss±ya bhikkhuparis±ya yadeta½ ‘yassa siy± ±patti,so ±vikareyya, asantiy± ±pattiy± tuºh² bhavitabba½, tuºh²bh±vena kho pan±yasmanteparisuddh±ti vediss±m²’ti tikkhattu½ anus±vita½, ta½ ekamekena ‘ma½ esa pucchat²’tieva½ j±nitabba½ hot²ti attho”ti. Ta½ na yujjati, kasm±? Atthabyañjanabhedato.Anuss±vanañhi n±ma atthato ca byañjanato ca abhinna½ hoti “dutiyampi etamattha½ vad±m²”ti-±d²su(mah±va. 72; c³¼ava. 3) viya, “yassa siy±”ti-±divacanattaya½ pana atthatopi byañjanatopibhinna½, tenassa anuss±vanattaya½ na yujjati. Yadi ceta½ y±vatatiy±nuss±vana½ siy±,nid±nuddese aniµµhitepi ±patti siy±. Na ca yutta½ an±pattikkhette ±patti½±pajjitu½.
Apare “anus±vitan”tipadassa anus±vetabbanti attha½ vikappetv± “y±vatatiyan”ti-ida½upari uddes±vas±ne “kaccittha parisuddh±…pe… tatiyampi pucch±m²”ti eta½sandh±ya vuttanti ±hu. Tampi na yujjati, kasm±? Atthayutt²na½ abh±vato. Idañhipada½ keci “anus±vetan”ti sajjh±yanti, keci “anus±vetan”ti, ta½ ubhaya½v±pi at²tak±lameva d²peti, na an±gata½. Yadi cassa aya½ attho siy±, “anus±vita½hessat²”ti vadeyya eva½ t±va atth±bh±vato na yujjati. Yadi ceta½uddes±vas±ne vacana½ sandh±ya vutta½ siy±, “na ±vikariss±m²”ti citta½ upp±dentassanid±ne samattepi vuttamus±v±do na siy±, kasm±? “Y±vatatiya½ anuss±viyam±ne”tivacanato(mah±va. 134) “y±vatatiyan”ti ida½ vacanameva niratthaka½ siy±, kasm±?Nid±nuddese y±vatatiy±nuss±vanassa abh±vatoti eva½ yutti-abh±vato tampi na yujjati.“Y±vatatiya½ anus±vita½ hot²”ti ida½ pana lakkhaºavacanamatta½, tena imamattha½ dasseti–ida½ p±timokkha½ n±ma y±vatatiya½ anuss±viyati, tasmi½ y±vatatiya½ anuss±viyam±neyo saram±no santi½ ±patti½ n±vikaroti, tassa y±vatatiy±nuss±van±vas±ne sampaj±namus±v±dohot²ti.
Tadeta½ yath± anus±vita½ y±vatatiya½ anus±vita½ n±ma hoti, ta½ dassetu½ tatth±yasmantepucch±m²ti-±di vutta½. Ta½ paneta½ p±r±jik±d²na½ avas±ne dissati, na nid±n±vas±ne.Kiñc±pi na dissati, atha kho uddesak±le “±vikat± hissa ph±su hot²”ti vatv±“uddiµµha½ kho ±yasmanto nid±na½, tatth±yasmante pucch±m²”ti-±din± nayena vattabbameva.Evañhi nid±na½ su-uddiµµha½ hoti, aññath± du-uddiµµha½. Imameva ca attha½ sandh±ya uposathakkhandhakevutta½ “y±vatatiya½ anus±vita½ hot²ti sakimpi anus±vita½ hoti, dutiyampianus±vita½ hoti, tatiyampi anus±vita½ hot²”ti (mah±va. 134). Ayamettha ±cariyaparampar±bhatovinicchayo.
Yo pana bhikkhu…pe… sampaj±namus±v±dassa hot²ti sampaj±namus±v±do assahoti, tenassa dukkaµ±patti hoti, s± ca kho pana na mus±v±dalakkhaºena, “sampaj±namus±v±deki½ hoti, dukkaµa½ hot²”ti (mah±va. 135) imin± pana bhagavato vacanena vac²dv±reakiriyasamuµµh±n±patti hot²ti veditabb±.

Vuttampi ceta½–

“An±lapanto manujena kenaci,
v±c±gira½ no ca pare bhaºeyya;
±pajjeyya v±casika½, na k±yika½,
pañh±mes± kusalehi cintit±”ti. (Pari. 479).
Antar±yikoti vippaµis±ravatthut±ya p±mojj±disambhava½ niv±retv±paµhamajjh±n±d²na½ adhigam±ya antar±ya½ karoti. Tasm±ti yasm± aya½ an±vikaraºasaªkh±tosampaj±namus±v±do antar±yiko hoti, tasm±. Saram±nen±ti attani santi½ ±patti½j±nantena. Visuddh±pekkhen±ti vuµµh±tuk±mena visujjhituk±mena. Sant² ±patt²ti±pajjitv± avuµµhit± ±patti. ¾vik±tabb±ti saªghamajjhe v± gaºamajjhe v± ekapuggalev± pak±setabb±, antamaso anantarass±pi bhikkhuno “aha½, ±vuso, itthann±ma½ ±patti½±panno, ito vuµµhahitv± ta½ ±patti½ paµikariss±m²”ti (mah±va.170) vattabba½. Sacepi vematiko hoti, “aha½, ±vuso, itthann±m±ya ±pattiy±vematiko, yad± nibbematiko bhaviss±mi, tad± ta½ ±patti½ paµikariss±m²”ti(mah±va. 169) vattabba½. ¾vikat± hissa ph±su hot²ti-ettha ±vikat±ti±vikat±ya, pak±sit±y±ti attho. Alajjit±ti-±d²su (pari. 295) viya hi idampikaraºatthe paccattavacana½. ti nip±tamatta½. Ass±ti etassa bhikkhuno. Ph±suhot²ti paµhamajjh±n±d²na½ adhigam±ya ph±su hoti, avippaµis±ram³lak±na½ p±mojj±d²na½vasena sukhappaµipad± sampajjat²ti attho.

Iti kaªkh±vitaraºiy± p±timokkhavaººan±ya

Nid±navaººan± niµµhit±.