Nid±navaººan±

Tattha p±timokkhanti pa-atimokkha½ atipamokkha½ atiseµµha½ ati-uttamantiattho. Iti imin± vacanatthena ekavidhampi s²laganthabhedato duvidha½ hoti. Tath±hi “p±timokkhasa½varasa½vuto viharat²”ti (ma. ni. 1.69; 3.75; vibha. 508) ca “±dimeta½mukhameta½ pamukhameta½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½, tena vuccati p±timokkhan”ti (mah±va.135) ca ±d²su s²la½ p±timokkhanti vuccati, “ubhay±ni kho panassa p±timokkh±nivitth±rena sv±gat±ni hont²”ti-±d²su (p±ci. 147; a. ni. 8.52; 10.33)gantho p±timokkhanti vuccati. Tattha s²la½ yo na½ p±ti rakkhati, ta½ mokkhetimocayati ±p±yik±d²hi dukkhehi, att±nuv±d±d²hi v± bhayeh²ti p±timokkha½.Gantho pana tassa p±timokkhassa jotakatt± p±timokkhanti vuccati. ¾dimhi panavutto vacanattho ubhinnampi s±dh±raºo hoti.
Tatth±ya½ vaººan± s²lap±timokkhass±pi yujjati ganthap±timokkhass±pi, ganthe hi vaººitetassa attho vaººitova hoti. Ta½ paneta½ ganthap±timokkha½ bhikkhup±timokkha½ bhikkhunip±timokkhantiduvidha½ hoti Tattha “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho”ti-±dika½ (mah±va.134) pañcahi uddesaparicchedehi vavatthita½ bhikkhup±timokkha½, “suº±tu me, ayye,saªgho”ti-±dika½ cat³hi uddesaparicchedehi vavatthita½ bhikkhunip±timokkha½. Tatthabhikkhup±timokkhe pañca uddes± n±ma nid±nuddeso, p±r±jikuddeso, saªgh±disesuddeso,aniyatuddeso vitth±ruddesoti. Tattha nid±nuddeso t±va “suº±tu me, bhante,saªgho…pe… ±vikat± hissa ph±su hoti, tatth±yasmante pucch±mi, kaccitthaparisuddh±, dutiyampi pucch±mi, kaccittha parisuddh±, tatiyampi pucch±mi, kaccitthaparisuddh±, parisuddhetth±yasmanto, tasm± tuºh², evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti vatv± “uddiµµha½kho ±yasmanto nid±nan”ti-±din± nayena avasese sutena s±vite uddiµµho hoti. P±r±jikuddes±d²na½paricched± nid±nassa ±dito paµµh±ya p±r±jik±d²ni os±petv± yojetabb±. Vitth±rovitth±royeva “Avasesa½ sutena s±vetabban”ti (mah±va. 150; pari.325) vacanato pana p±r±jikuddes±d²su yasmi½ vippakate antar±yo uppajjati, tenasaddhi½ avasesa½ sutena s±vetabba½. Nid±nuddese pana aniµµhite sutena s±vetabba½ n±manatthi. Bhikkhunip±timokkhe pana aniyatuddeso parih±yati, sesa½ vuttanayameva. Evametesa½pañcahi ceva cat³hi ca uddesaparicchedehi vavatthit±na½ dvinnampi p±timokkh±na½ aya½ vaººan±bhavissati. Yasm± panettha bhikkhup±timokkha½ paµhama½, tasm± tassa t±va vaººanatthamida½ vuccati.
“Suº±tu me”ti-±d²na½, pad±na½ atthanicchaya½;
bhikkhavo s²lasampann±, sikkh±k±m± suºantu meti.
Ettha hi suº±t³ti-ida½ savan±ºattivacana½. Meti yo s±veti, tassa attaniddesavacana½.Bhanteti sag±ravasappatissavacana½. Saªghoti puggalasam³havacana½. Sabbameva ceta½ p±timokkhuddesakenapaµhama½ vattabbavacana½. Bhagavat± hi p±timokkhuddesa½ anuj±nantena r±jagahe vutta½,tasm± yo p±timokkha½ uddisati, tena sace saªghatthero hoti, “±vuso”ti vattabba½.Sace navakataro hoti, p±¼iya½ (mah±va. 134) ±gatanayeneva “bhante”ti vattabba½. Saªghattherov± hi p±timokkha½ uddiseyya “ther±dhika½ p±timokkhan”tivacanato (mah±va. 154),navakataro v± “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, yo tattha bhikkhu byatto paµibalo, tass±dheyya½p±timokkhan”tivacanato (mah±va. 155).
“Saªgho”ti-imin± pana padena kiñc±pi avisesato puggalasam³ho vutto, atha kho so dakkhiºeyyasaªgho,sammutisaªgho c±ti duvidho hoti. Tattha dakkhiºeyyasaªghoti aµµha ariyapuggalasam³hovuccati. Sammutisaªghoti avisesena bhikkhusam³ho, so idha adhippeto. So panesa kammavasena pañcavidho (mah±va. 388) hoti– catuvaggo pañcavaggo dasavaggov²sativaggo atirekav²sativaggoti. Tattha catuvaggena µhapetv± upasampadapav±raºa-abbh±n±nisabba½ saªghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati. Pañcavaggena µhapetv± majjhimesu janapadesu upasampadañcaabbh±nakammañca sabba½ saªghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati. Dasavaggena abbh±nakammamatta½µhapetv± sabba½ saªghakamma½ k±tu½ vaµµati. V²sativaggena na kiñci saªghakamma½ k±tu½na vaµµati, tath± atirekav²sativaggena.So pana catuvagg±din± saªghena kattabba½ kamma½³nakatarena k±tu½ na vaµµati, atirekena pana vaµµat²ti dassanattha½ vutto. Imasmi½panatthe catuvagga½ up±d±ya sabbopi sammutisaªgho adhippeto.
Ajjuposathoti ajja uposathadivaso, etena anuposathadivasa½ paµikkhipati. Pannarasotiimin± añña½ uposathadivasa½ paµikkhipati. Divasavasena hi tayo uposath± c±tuddasikopannarasiko s±maggi-uposathoti, eva½ tayo uposath± vutt±. Tattha hemantagimhavass±n±na½tiººa½ ut³na½ tatiyasattamapakkhesu dve dve katv± cha c±tuddasik±, avases± aµµh±rasapannarasik±ti eva½ ekasa½vacchare catuv²sati uposath±, ida½ t±va pakatic±ritta½.“Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, saki½ pakkhassa c±tuddase v± pannarase v± p±timokkha½ uddisitun”ti(mah±va. 136) vacanato pana “±gantukehi ±v±sik±na½ anuvattitabban”ti-±divacanato(mah±va. 178) ca tath±r³papaccaye sati aññasmimpi c±tuddase uposatha½ k±tu½ vaµµati.Purimavassa½vuµµh±na½ pana pubbakattikapuººam± v±, tesa½yeva sace bhaº¹anak±rakehiupaddut± pav±raºa½ paccukka¹¹hanti, atha pubbakattikam±sassa k±¼apakkhac±tuddaso v±,pacchimakattikapuººam± v±, pacchimavassa½vuµµh±nañca pacchimakattikapuººam± ev±tiime tayo pav±raº±divas±pi honti, idampi pakatic±rittameva. Tath±r³papaccaye pana satidvinna½ kattikapuººam±na½ purimesu c±tuddasesupi pav±raºa½ k±tu½ vaµµati. Yad±pana kosambakakkhandhake (mah±va. 451) ±gatanayena bhinne saªghe os±rite tasmi½ bhikkhusmi½saªgho tassa vatthussa v³pasam±ya saªghassa s±maggi½ karoti, tad± “t±vadeva uposathok±tabbo, p±timokkha½ uddisitabban”ti (mah±va. 475) vacanato µhapetv± c±tuddasapannarase,aññopi yo koci divaso s±maggi-uposathadivaso n±ma hoti, purimavassa½vuµµh±na½ panakattikam±sabbhantare ayameva s±maggipav±raº±divaso n±ma hoti. Iti imesu t²su divasesu“pannaraso”ti-imin± añña½ uposathadivasa½ paµikkhipati. Tasm± yv±ya½ “ajjuposatho”tivacanena anuposathadivaso paµikkhitto, tasmi½ uposatho na k±tabboyeva.Yo pan±ya½ añño uposathadivaso, tasmi½ uposatho k±tabbo. Karontena pana sace c±tuddasikohoti, “ajjuposatho c±tuddaso”ti vattabba½. Sace pannarasiko hoti, “ajjuposathopannaraso”ti vattabba½. Sace s±maggi-uposatho hoti, “ajjuposatho s±magg²”tivattabba½.
Yadi saªghassa pattakallanti ettha patto k±lo imassa kammass±ti pattak±la½, pattak±lameva pattakalla½. Tadeta½ idha cat³hi aªgehi saªgahita½. Yath±hu aµµhakath±cariy±–
“Uposatho y±vatik± ca bhikkh³ kammappatt±,
sabh±g±pattiyo ca na vijjanti;
vajjan²y± ca puggal± tasmi½ na honti,
‘pattakallan’ti vuccat²”ti. (Mah±va. aµµha. 168).
Tattha uposathoti t²su uposathadivasesu aññatara-uposathadivaso. Tasmiñhi sati ida½saªghassa uposathakamma½ pattakalla½ n±ma hoti, n±sati. Yath±ha “na ca, bhikkhave, anuposatheuposatho k±tabbo, yo kareyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (mah±va. 183).
Y±vatik± ca bhikkh³ kammappatt±ti yattak± bhikkh³ tassa uposathakammassa patt±yutt± anur³p±, sabbantimena paricchedena catt±ro pakatatt±, te ca kho hatthap±sa½ avijahitv±ekas²m±ya½ µhit±.
S²m± ca n±mes± baddhas²m± abaddhas²m±ti duvidh± hoti. Tattha ek±dasa vipattis²m±yoatikkamitv± tividhasampattiyutt± nimittena nimitta½ sambandhitv± sammat± s²m±baddhas²m± n±ma, “atikhuddak±, atimahat², khaº¹animitt±, ch±y±nimitt±, animitt±,bahis²me µhit± sammat±, nadiy± sammat±, samudde sammat±, j±tassare sammat±,s²m±ya s²ma½ sambhindantena sammat±, s²m±ya s²ma½ ajjhottharantena sammat±”tiim± hi “ek±dasahi ±k±rehi s²mato kamm±ni vipajjant²”ti (pari. 486)vacanato ek±dasa vipattis²m±yo n±ma. Tattha atikhuddak± n±ma yattha ekav²sati bhikkh³nis²ditu½ na sakkonti Atimahat² n±ma y± antamaso kesaggamatten±pitiyojana½ atikkamitv± sammat±. Khaº¹animitt± n±ma aghaµitanimitt± vuccati,puratthim±ya dis±ya nimitta½ kittetv± anukkameneva dakkhiº±ya pacchim±ya uttar±yadis±ya kittetv± puna puratthim±ya dis±ya pubbakittita½ paµikittetv±µhapetu½ vaµµati, eva½ akkhaº¹animitt± hoti. Sace pana anukkamena ±haritv± uttar±yadis±ya nimitta½ kittetv± tattheva µhapeti, khaº¹animitt± n±ma hoti. Apar±pikhaº¹animitt± n±ma y± animittupaga½ tacas±rarukkha½ v± kh±ºuka½ v± pa½supuñjav±lukapuñj±na½ v± aññatara½ antar± eka½ nimitta½ katv± sammat±. Ch±y±nimitt± n±ma pabbatacch±y±d²na½ya½ kiñci ch±ya½ nimitta½ katv± sammat±. Animitt± n±ma sabbena sabba½nimitt±ni akittetv± sammat±. Bahis²me µhitasammat± n±ma nimitt±ni kittetv±nimitt±na½ bahiµhitena sammat±. Nadiy± samudde j±tassare sammat± n±ma etesunadi-±d²su sammat±. S± hi eva½ sammat±pi “sabb±, bhikkhave, nad² as²m±, sabbosamuddo as²mo, sabbo j±tassaro as²mo”ti (mah±va. 147) vacanato asammat±va hoti.S²m±ya s²ma½ sambhindantena sammat± n±ma attano s²m±ya paresa½ s²ma½ sambhindantenasammat±. Sace hi por±ºakassa vih±rassa puratthim±ya dis±ya ambo ceva jamb³ c±tidve rukkh± aññamañña½ sa½saµµhaviµap± honti, tesu ambassa pacchimadis±bh±ge jamb³, vih±ras²m±ca jambu½ anto katv± amba½ kittetv± baddh± hoti, atha pacch± tassa vih±rassa puratthim±yadis±ya vih±re kate s²ma½ bandhant± bhikkh³ ta½ amba½ anto katv± jambu½ kittetv±bandhanti, s²m±ya s²ma½ sambhinn± hoti. S²m±ya s²ma½ ajjhottharantena sammat±n±ma attano s²m±ya paresa½ s²ma½ ajjhottharantena sammat±. Sace hi paresa½ baddhas²ma½sakala½ v± tass± padesa½ v± anto katv± attano s²ma½ sammannati, s²m±ya s²ma½ajjhottharit± n±ma hoti. Iti im± ek±dasa vipattis²m±yo atikkamitv± sammat±.
Tividhasampattiyutt±ti nimittasampattiy± paris±sampattiy± kammav±c±sampattiy± cayutt±. Tattha nimittasampattiy± yutt± n±ma pabbatanimitta½, p±s±ºanimitta½, vananimitta½,rukkhanimitta½, magganimitta½, vammikanimitta½, nadinimitta½, udakanimittanti eva½vuttesu aµµhasu nimittesu tasmi½ tasmi½ dis±bh±ge yath±laddh±ni nimittupag±ninimitt±ni “puratthim±ya dis±ya ki½ nimitta½, pabbato, bhante, eso pabbato nimittan”ti-±din±nayena samm± kittetv± sammat±. Tatreva½ saªkhepato nimittupagat± veditabb±– suddhapa½susuddhap±s±ºa-ubhayamissakavasenahi tividhopi pabbato hatthippam±ºato paµµh±ya uddha½ nimittupago, tato omakatarona vaµµati. P±s±ºanimitte ayogu¼ampi p±s±ºasaªkhameva gacchati, tasm± yo koci p±s±ºoukka½savasena hatthippam±ºato omakatara½ ±di½ katv± heµµhimaparicchedena vatti½sapalagu¼apiº¹aparim±ºo nimittupago, na tato khuddakataro. Piµµhip±s±ºo pana atimahantopivaµµati. Vananimitte antos±rehi v± antos±ramissakehi v± rukkhehi catupañcarukkhamattampivana½ nimittupaga½, tato ³nakatara½ na vaµµati. Rukkho j²vantoyeva antos±ro bh³miya½patiµµhito, antamaso ubbedhato aµµhaªgulo, pariº±hato s³cidaº¹akappam±ºopi nimittupago,tato omakataro na vaµµati. Maggo jaªghamaggo v± hotu sakaµamaggo v±, yo vinivijjhitv±dve t²ºi g±makhett±ni gacchati, t±diso jaªghasatthasakaµasatthehi valañjiyam±noyeva nimittupago,avalañjito na vaµµati. Vammiko pana heµµhimaparicchedena ta½divasa½j±to aµµhaªgulubbedhogovis±ºamattopi vammiko nimittupago, tato omakataro na vaµµati. Ya½ pana abaddhas²m±lakkhaºenadi½ vakkh±ma, s± nimittupag±, aññ± na vaµµati. Udaka½ ya½ asandam±na½ ±v±µapokkharaº²ta¼±kaj±tassaraloºisamudd±d²suµhita½, ta½ ±di½ katv± antamaso taªkhaºeyeva pathaviya½ khaºite ±v±µake ghaµehi ±haritv±p³ritampi y±va kammav±c±pariyos±n± saºµham±naka½ nimittupaga½, itara½ sandam±na½v± vuttaparicchedak±la½ atiµµhanta½ v± bh±janagata½ v± na vaµµat²ti.