5. Paµhamapav±raº±sikkh±padavaººan±

Pañcame bhutt±v²ti bhuttav±, yena pañcanna½ bhojan±na½ s±sapamattampi ajjhoharita½, so eva½ vuccati. Pav±ritoti “asana½ paññ±yati, bhojana½ paññ±yati, hatthap±se µhito abhiharati, paµikkhepo paññ±yat²”ti (p±ci. 239) eva½ p±¼iya½ vuttapañcaªgavasena katappav±raºo, katappaµikkhepoti attho. Tattha yasm± “asana½ paññ±yat²”ti imin± vippakatabhojano ‘pav±rito’ti vutto. Yo ca vippakatabhojano, tena kiñci bhutta½, kiñci abhutta½, yañca bhutta½, ta½ sandh±ya ‘bhutt±v²’tipi saªkha½ gacchati. Tasm± ‘bhutt±v²’tivacanena visu½ kiñci atthasiddhi½ na pass±ma, “dirattatirattan”ti-±d²su (p±ci. 52) pana diratt±divacana½ viya pav±ritapadassa pariv±rabh±vena byañjanasiliµµhat±ya ceta½ vuttanti veditabba½.
Pav±raºaªgesu pana asana½ paññ±yat²ti vippakatabhojana½ dissati, ta½ bhuñjam±no cesa puggalo hot²ti attho. Bhojana½ paññ±yat²ti pav±raºappahonaka½ bhojana½ dissati, odan±d²na½ ce aññatara½ paµikkhipitabba½ bhojana½ hot²ti attho. Hatthap±se µhitoti pav±raºappahonaka½ ce bhojana½ gaºhitv± d±yako a¹¹hateyyahatthappam±ºe ok±se µhito hot²ti attho Abhiharat²ti so ce d±yako tassa ta½ bhojana½ k±yena abhisa½harat²ti attho. Paµikkhepo paññ±yat²ti paµikkhepo dissati, ta½ ce abhihaµa½ so bhikkhu k±yena v± v±c±ya v± paµikkhipat²ti attho. Eva½ pañcanna½ aªg±na½ vasena pav±rito hoti.
Tatr±ya½ vinicchayo– ‘asanan’ti-±d²su t±va yañca asn±ti, yañca bhojana½ hatthap±se µhitena abhihaµa½ paµikkhipati, ta½ odano kumm±so sattu maccho ma½santi imesa½ aññatarameva veditabba½. Tattha odano n±ma s±li v²hi yavo godhumo kaªgu varako kudr³sakoti imesa½ sattanna½ dhaññ±na½ taº¹ule gahetv± “bhatta½ pac±m±”ti v± “y±gu½ pac±m±”ti v± ya½kiñci sandh±ya pacantu, sace uºha½ v± s²tala½ v± bhuñjant±na½ bhojanak±le gahitagahitaµµh±ne odhi paññ±yati, odano hoti, pav±raºa½ janeti. Yo pana p±y±so v± ambilay±gu v± uddhanato ot±ritamatt± abbhuºh± sakk± hoti ±vijjhitv± pivitu½, s± yassa hatthena gahitok±sepi odhi na paññ±yati, pav±raºa½ na janeti. Sace pana usum±ya vigat±ya ghanabh±va½ gacchati, odhi½ dasseti, puna pav±raºa½ janeti, pubbe tanukabh±vo na rakkhati. Sacepi bah³ paººaphalaka¼²re pakkhipitv± muµµhimatt±pi taº¹ul± pakkhitt± honti, bhojanak±le ce odhi paññ±yati, pav±raºa½ janeti. Ay±guke nimantane “y±gu½ dass±m±”ti bhatte udakakañjikakh²r±d²ni ±kiritv± “y±gu½ gaºhath±”ti denti, kiñc±pi tanuk± hoti, pav±raºa½ janetiyeva. Sace pana pakkuthitesu udak±d²su pakkhipitv± pacitv± denti, y±gusaªgahameva gacchati. Sace y±guy±pi s±sapamattampi macchama½sakkhaº¹a½ v± nh±ru v± pakkhitta½ hoti, pav±raºa½ janeti. Ýhapetv± s±nulom±na½ vuttadhaññ±na½ taº¹ule aññehi ve¼utaº¹ul±d²hi v± kandam³laphalehi v± yehi kehici katabhatta½ pav±raºa½ na janeti. Kumm±so n±ma yavehi kato. Aññehi pana mugg±d²hi katakumm±so pav±raºa½ na janeti. Sattu n±ma satta dhaññ±ni bhajjitv± kato. Antamaso kharap±kabhajjit±na½ v²h²na½ taº¹ule koµµetv± katacuººampi kuº¹akampi sattusaªgahameva gacchati. Samap±kabhajjit±na½ pana ±tapasukkh±na½ kuº¹aka½ v±, ye keci taº¹ul± v± l±j± v±, l±jehi katabhattasattu-±d²ni v± na pav±renti. Macchama½sesu sace y±gu½ pivantassa y±gusitthamatt±neva dve macchakkhaº¹±ni v± ma½sakkhaº¹±ni v± ekabh±jane v± n±n±bh±jane v± denti, t±ni ce akh±danto añña½ pav±raºappahonaka½ ya½kiñci paµikkhipati, na pav±reti. Tato eka½ kh±dita½, eka½ hatthe v± patte v± hoti, sace añña½ paµikkhipati pav±reti. Dvepi kh±dit±ni honti, mukhe s±sapamattampi avasiµµha½ natthi, sacepi añña½ paµikkhipati, na pav±reti. Yo pana akappiyama½sa½ kulad³sanavejjakamma-uttarimanussadhamm±rocanas±ditar³piy±d²hi nibbatta½ akappiyabhojanañca añña½ kappiya½ v± akappiya½ v± kh±danto paµikkhipati, na pav±reti.
Eva½ yañca asn±ti, yañca bhojana½ hatthap±se µhitena abhihaµa½ paµikkhipanto pav±raºa½ janeti, ta½ ñatv± id±ni yath± ±pajjati, tassa j±nanattha½ aya½ vinicchayo veditabbo– “asana½ bhojanan”ti ettha t±va yena ekasitthampi ajjhohaµa½ hoti, so sace pattamukhahatthesu yatthakatthaci bhojane sati s±pekkhova añña½ vuttalakkhaºa½ bhojana½ paµikkhipati, pav±reti. Sace pana nirapekkho hoti, ya½ patt±d²su avasiµµha½, ta½ na ca ajjhoharituk±mo, aññassa v± d±tuk±mo, aññatra v± gantv± bhuñjituk±mo, so paµikkhipantopi na pav±reti. “Hatthap±se µhito”ti ettha pana sace bhikkhu nisinno hoti, ±nisadassa pacchimantato paµµh±ya, sace µhito, paºh²na½ antato paµµh±ya, sace nipanno, yena passena nipanno, tassa p±rimantato paµµh±ya d±yakassa nisinnassa v± µhitassa v± nipannassa v± µhapetv± pas±ritahattha½ ya½ ±sannatara½ aªga½, tassa orimantena paricchinditv± a¹¹hateyyahattho ‘hatthap±so’ti veditabbo. Tasmi½ µhatv± abhihaµa½ paµikkhipantasseva pav±raº± hoti, na tato para½. ‘Abhiharat²’ti hatthap±sabbhantare µhito gahaºattha½ upan±meti. Sace pana anantaranisinnopi bhikkhu hatthe v± ±dh±rake v± µhita½ patta½ anabhiharitv±va “bhatta½ gaºhath±”ti vadati, ta½ paµikkhipato pav±raº± natthi. Bhattapacchi½ ±netv± purato bh³miya½ µhapetv± eva½ vuttepi eseva nayo. ¿saka½ pana uddharitv± v± apan±metv± v± ‘gaºhath±’ti vutte ta½ paµikkhipato pav±raº± hoti. Bhattapacchi½ gahetv± parivisantassa añño “aha½ dh±ress±m²”ti gahitamattameva karoti, parivesakoyeva pana ta½ dh±reti, tasm± s± abhihaµ±va hoti, tato d±tuk±mat±ya gaºhanta½ paµikkhipantassa pav±raº± hoti. Sace pana parivesakena phuµµhamatt±va hoti, itarova na½ dh±reti, tato d±tuk±mat±ya gaºhanta½ paµikkhipantassa pav±raº± na hoti. Kaµacchun± uddhaµe pana hoti, dvinna½ samabh±repi paµikkhipanto pav±retiyeva. Anantarassa diyyam±ne itaro patta½ pidahati, aññassa abhihaµa½ n±ma paµikkhitta½ hoti, tasm± pav±raº± natthi. ‘Paµikkhepo’ti ettha v±c±ya abhihaµe paµikkhepo na ruhati, k±yena abhihaµa½ pana aªgulicalan±din± k±yavik±rena v± “ala½, m± deh²”ti-±din± vac²vik±rena v± paµikkhipato pav±raº± hoti.
Eko sama½saka½ rasa½ abhiharati, “rasa½ paµiggaºhath±”ti vadati, ta½ sutv± paµikkhipato pav±raº± natthi. ‘Ma½sarasan’ti vutte pana paµikkhipato pav±raº± hoti. “Ima½ gaºhath±”ti vuttepi hotiyeva. Ma½sa½ visu½ katv± ‘ma½sarasan’ti vuttepi sace s±sapamattampi khaº¹a½ atthi, paµikkhipato pav±raº± hoti. Sace natthi, vaµµati. Ka¼²rapanas±d²hi missetv± macchama½sa½ pacanti, ta½ gahetv± “ka¼²ras³pa½ gaºhatha, panasabyañjana½ gaºhath±”ti vadati, evampi na pav±reti. Kasm±? Apav±raº±rahassa n±mena vuttatt±. “Macchama½sa½ byañjanan”ti v± “ima½ gaºhath±”ti v± vutte pana pav±reti, ayamettha saªkhepo, vitth±ro pana samantap±s±dik±ya½ vutto. Gaman±d²su pana yasmi½ iriy±pathe pav±reti, ta½ avikopenteneva bhuñjitabba½.
Anatirittanti na atiritta½, na adhikanti attho. Ta½ pana kappiyakat±d²hi sattahi vinayakamm±k±rehi akata½ v± gil±nassa anadhika½ v± hoti. Tasm± padabh±jane (p±ci. 239) ‘akappiyakatan’ti-±di vutta½, tattha ya½ phala½ v± kandam³l±di v± pañcahi samaºakappiyehi kappiya½ akata½, yañca akappiyama½sa½ v± akappiyabhojana½ v±, eta½ akappiya½ n±ma, ta½ akappiya½ “alameta½ sabban”ti eva½ atiritta½ kata½ akappiyakatanti veditabba½. Appaµiggahitakatanti bhikkhun± appaµiggahita½yeva purimanayena atiritta½ kata½. Anucc±ritakatanti kappiya½ k±retu½ ±gatena bhikkhun± ²sakampi anukkhitta½ v± anapan±mita½ v± kata½. Ahatthap±se katanti kappiya½ k±retu½ ±gatassa hatthap±sato bahi µhitena kata½. Abhutt±vin± katanti yo atiritta½ karoti, tena pav±raºappahonaka½ bhojana½ abhuttena kata½. Bhutt±vin± pav±ritena ±san± vuµµhitena katanti ida½ utt±nameva. “Alameta½ sabban”ti avuttanti vac²bheda½ katv± eva½ avutta½ hoti. Iti imehi sattahi vinayakamm±k±rehi ya½ atiritta½ kappiya½ akata½, yañca pana na gil±n±tiritta½, tadubhayampi anatiritta½. Atiritta½ pana tasseva paµipakkhanayena veditabba½.
Apicettha bhutt±vin± kata½ hot²ti (p±ci. 239) antamaso anantaranisinnassa pattato ekampi sittha½ v± ma½sah²ra½ v± kh±ditv± katampi bhutt±vin± kata½ hoti, yo p±tova eva½ bhutt±v² pav±rito nis²datiyeva, so upakaµµhepi k±le abhihaµa½ piº¹a½ bhikkhun± upan²ta½ kappiya½ k±tu½ labhati. Sace pana tasmi½ kappiye kate bhuñjantassa añña½ ±misa½ ±kiranti, ta½ so puna k±tu½ na labhati. Yañhi akata½, ta½ k±tabba½. Yena ca akata½, tena ca k±tabbanti (p±ci. aµµha. 238-9) vutta½, tasm± tasmi½ bh±jane kariyam±ne paµhamakatena saddhi½ kata½ hot²ti ta½ k±tu½ na vaµµati. Aññasmi½ pana bh±jane tena v± aññena v± k±tu½ vaµµati. Eva½ kata½ paµhamakatena missetv±pi bhuñjitu½ vaµµati, na kevalañca tassa yena pana kata½, ta½ µhapetv± aññesa½ pav±rit±nampi bhuñjitu½ vaµµati. Yath± pana akatena missa½ na hoti, eva½ mukhañca hatthañca suddha½ katv± bhuñjitabba½. Gil±n±tiritta½ pana na kevala½ gil±nassa bhutt±vasesameva, atha kho ya½kiñci gil±na½ uddissa “ajja v± sve v± yad± v± icchati, tad± kh±dissat²”ti ±haµa½, ta½ sabba½ ‘gil±n±tirittan’ti veditabba½. Kh±dan²ya½ v± bhojan²ya½ v±ti ya½kiñci y±vak±lika½. Kh±deyya v± bhuñjeyya v± p±cittiyanti ettha vuttanayena pav±ritassa anatiritta½ ya½kiñci ±misa½ ajjhoharaºatth±ya paµiggaºhato gahaºe dukkaµa½, ajjhoh±re ajjhoh±re p±cittiya½.
S±vatthiya½ sambahule bhikkh³ ±rabbha aññatra bhuñjanavatthusmi½ paññatta½, “anatirittan”ti ayamettha anupaññatti, as±dh±raºapaññatti, an±ºattika½, tikap±cittiya½, y±mak±lik±d²ni ±h±ratth±ya gaºhato, nir±mis±ni ajjhoharato ca dukkaµa½, tath± atiritte anatirittasaññino ceva vematikassa ca. Atirittasaññino pana, “atiritta½ k±r±petv± bhuñjiss±m²”ti gaºhantassa, aññassatth±ya gaºhantassa, y±mak±lik±d²ni tesa½ anuññ±taparibhogavasena nir±mis±ni paribhuñjantassa, ummattak±d²nañca an±patti. Pav±ritabh±vo, ±misassa anatirittat±, k±lena ajjhoharaºanti im±nettha t²ºi aªg±ni. Samuµµh±n±d²ni paµhamakathinasadis±neva, ida½ pana kiriy±kiriyanti.

Paµhamapav±raº±sikkh±padavaººan± niµµhit±.