5. Paµhamapav±raº±sikkh±padavaººan±

236. Pañcame bhutt±v²ti bhutt±vino bhuttavanto, katabhattakicc±ti vutta½hoti. Pav±rit±ti ettha cat³su pav±raº±su y±vadatthapav±raº± paµikkhepapav±raº± ca labbhat²ti±ha “br±hmaºena…pe… paµikkhepapav±raº±ya pav±rit±”ti. Catubbidh± hi pav±raº±vassa½vutthapav±raº±, paccayapav±raº± paµikkhepapav±raº±, y±vadatthapav±raº±ti.Tattha “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, vassa½vutth±na½ bhikkh³na½ t²hi µh±nehi pav±retun”ti(mah±va. 209) aya½ vassa½vutthapav±raº±. Pak±rehi diµµh±d²hi v±reti saªgh±dikebhaj±peti bhatte karoti et±y±ti pav±raº±, ±pattivisodhan±ya attavossaggok±sad±na½.S± pana yasm± yebhuyyena vassa½vutthehi k±tabb± vutt±, tasm± “vassa½vutthapav±raº±”tivuccati. “Icch±maha½, bhante, saªgha½ c±tum±sa½ bhesajjena pav±retun”ti (p±ci.303) ca, “aññatra puna pav±raº±ya aññatra niccapav±raº±y±”ti (p±ci. 306) ca aya½paccayapav±raº± pav±reti paccaye icch±peti et±y±ti katv±, c²var±d²hi upanimantan±yeta½adhivacana½. “Pav±rito n±ma asana½ paññ±yati, bhojana½ paññ±yati, hatthap±se µhito abhiharati,paµikkhepo paññ±yati, eso pav±rito n±m±”ti (p±ci. 239) aya½ paµikkhepapav±raº±.Vippakatabhojanat±dipañcaªgasahito bhojanapaµikkhepoyeva hettha pak±rayutt± v±raº±ti pav±raº±.“Paº²tena kh±dan²yena bhojan²yena sahatth± santappesi sampav±res²”ti (ma. ni. 1.363)aya½ y±vadatthapav±raº±. Y±vadattha½ bhojanassa pav±raº± y±vadatthapav±raº±.
237. Ti-k±ra½ avatv±…pe… vattu½ vaµµat²ti ida½ vattabb±k±radassanattha½ vutta½.“Ti-k±re pana vuttepi akata½ n±ma na hot²”ti t²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½.
238-239. Pav±ritoti paµikkhepito. Yo hi bhuñjanto parivesakena upan²ta½ bhojana½anicchanto paµikkhipati, so tena pav±rito paµikkhepito n±ma hoti. Byañjana½ panaan±diyitv± atthamattameva dassetu½ “katapav±raºo katapaµikkhepo”ti vutta½.Yasm± “asanan”ti imin±va padena “bhutt±v²”ti imassa attho vutto, tasm± natassa kiñci payojana½ visu½ upalabbhati. Yadi hi upalabbheyya, pav±raº± cha¼aªgasamann±gat±±pajjeyy±ti manasi katv± pañcasamann±gatatta½yeva dassetu½ “vuttampi cetan”ti-±din±p±¼i½ ±harati. Keci pana “hatthap±se µhito abhiharat²”ti ekameva aªga½ katv±“caturaªgasamann±gat± pav±raº±”tipi vadanti.
Ambilap±y±s±d²s³ti ±di-saddena kh²rap±y±s±di½ saªgaºh±ti. Tatthaambilap±y±saggahaºena takk±di-ambilasa½yutt± ghanay±gu vutt±. Kh²rap±y±saggahaºenakh²rasa½yutt± y±gu saªgayhati. Pav±raºa½ na janet²ti anatirittabhojan±pattinibandhana½paµikkhepa½ na s±dheti. Katopi paµikkhepo anatirittabhojan±pattinibandhano na hot²tiakataµµh±neyeva tiµµhat²ti ±ha “pav±raºa½ na janet²”ti. “Y±gu-saddassa pav±raºajanakay±guy±pis±dh±raºatt± ‘y±gu½ gaºhath±’ti vuttepi pav±raº± hot²ti pav±raºa½ janetiyev±ti vuttan”tit²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½, ta½ parato tattheva “bhattamissaka½ y±gu½ ±haritv±”tiettha vuttak±raºena na sameti. Vuttañhi tattha “heµµh± ay±guke nimantane udakakañjikakh²r±d²hisaddhi½ maddita½ bhattameva sandh±ya ‘y±gu½ gaºhath±’ti vuttatt± pav±raº± hoti, ‘bhattamissaka½y±gu½ ±haritv±’ti ettha pana visu½ y±guy± vijjam±natt± pav±raº± na hot²”ti.Tasm± tattha vuttanayeneva kh²r±d²hi sa½maddita½ bhattameva sandh±ya “y±gu½ gaºhath±”tivuttatt± y±guy± ca tattha abh±vato pav±raº± hot²ti evamettha k±raºa½ vattabba½. Evañhisati parato “yen±pucchito, tassa atthit±y±”ti aµµhakath±ya½ vuttak±raºenapi sa½sandati,aññath± gaºµhipadesuyeva pubb±paravirodho ±pajjati. Aµµhakath±vacanena ca na sameti.Sace…pe… paññ±yat²ti imin± vuttappam±ºassa macchama½sakhaº¹assa nah±runo v± sabbh±vamatta½dasseti. T±h²ti puthuk±hi.
S±liv²hiyavehi katasatt³ti yebhuyyanayena vutta½, satta dhaññ±ni pana bhajjitv±katopi sattuyeva. Tenev±ha “kaªguvaraka…pe… sattusaªgahameva gacchat²”ti.Sattumodakoti sattuyo piº¹etv± kato apakko sattugu¼o. Pañcanna½ bhojan±na½aññataravasena vippakatabhojanabh±vassa upacchinnatt± “mukhe s±sapamattampi…pe… napav±ret²”ti vutta½. “Akappiyama½sa½ paµikkhipati, na pav±ret²”ti vacanatosace saªghika½ l±bha½ attano ap±puºanta½ j±nitv± v± aj±nitv± v± paµikkhipati, napav±reti paµikkhipitabbasseva paµikkhittatt±. Alajjisantaka½ paµikkhipantopi na pav±reti.Avatthut±y±ti anatiritt±pattis±dhik±ya pav±raº±ya avatthubh±vato. Etena paµikkhipitabbassevapaµikkhittabh±va½ d²peti Yañhi paµikkhipitabba½ hoti, tassa paµikkhepo±patti-aªga½ na hot²ti ta½ “pav±raº±ya avatth³”ti vuccati.
Upan±met²ti imin± k±y±bhih±ra½ dasseti. Hatthap±sato bahi µhitassa satipi d±tuk±m±bhih±repaµikkhipantassa d³rabh±veneva pav±raº±ya abh±vato therassapi d³rabh±vamatta½ gahetv± pav±raº±yaabh±va½ dassento “therassa d³rabh±vato”ti ±ha, na pana therassa abhih±rasabbh±vato.Sacepi gahetv± gato hatthap±se µhito hoti, kiñci pana avatv± ±dh±rakaµµh±ne µhitatt±abhih±ro n±ma na hot²ti “d³tassa ca anabhiharaºato”ti vutta½. “Gahetv± gatena‘bhatta½ gaºhath±’ti vutte abhih±ro n±ma hot²ti ‘sace pana gahetv± ±gato bhikkhu…pe…pav±raº± hot²’ti vuttan”ti t²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½. Keci pana “patta½kiñci upan±metv± ‘ima½ bhatta½ gaºhath±’ti vuttanti gahetabban”ti vadanti, ta½ yutta½viya dissati v±c±bhih±rassa idha anadhippetatt±.
Parivesan±y±ti bhattagge. Abhihaµ±va hot²ti parivesakeneva abhihaµ± hoti.Tato d±tuk±mat±ya gaºhanta½ paµikkhipantassa pav±raº± hot²ti ettha agaºhantampi paµikkhipatopav±raº± hotiyeva. Kasm±? D±tuk±mat±ya abhihaµatt±. “Tasm± s± abhihaµ±va hot²”tihi vutta½. Teneva t²supi gaºµhipadesu “d±tuk±m±bhih±re sati kevala½ ‘dass±m²’tigahaºameva abhih±ro n±ma na hoti, ‘dass±m²’ti gaºhantepi agaºhantepi d±tuk±m±bhih±rovaabhih±ro n±ma hoti, tasm± gahaºasamaye v± aggahaºasamaye v± ta½ paµikkhipato pav±raº±hot²”ti vutta½. Id±ni asati tassa d±tuk±m±bhih±re gahaºasamayepi paµikkhipatopav±raº± na hot²ti dassetu½ “sace pan±”ti-±di vutta½.
“Rasa½ gaºhath±”ti apav±raºajanakassa n±ma½ gahetv± vuttatt± “ta½ sutv± paµikkhipatopav±raº± natth²”ti vutta½. Maccharasa½ ma½sarasanti ettha pana na kevala½ macchassarasa½ maccharasamicceva viññ±yati, atha kho maccho ca maccharasañca maccharasanti eva½ pav±raºajanakas±dh±raºan±mavasenapiviññ±yam±natt± ta½ paµikkhipato pav±raº±va hoti. Parato macchas³pantietth±pi eseva nayo. “Ida½ gaºhath±”ti vuttep²ti ettha eva½ avatv±pi pav±raºapahonaka½ya½kiñci abhihaµa½ paµikkhipato pav±raº± hotiyev±ti daµµhabba½. Karambakoti missak±dhivacanameta½.Yañhi aññenaññena missetv± karonti, so “karambako”ti vuccati. So sacepima½sena missetv± katova hoti, “karambaka½ gaºhath±”ti apav±raº±rahassa n±mena vuttatt± paµikkhipato pav±raº± na hoti. “Ma½sakarambaka½ gaºhath±”ti vutte pana ma½samissaka½gaºhath±ti vutta½ hoti, tasm± pav±raº±va hoti.
“Uddissakatan”ti maññam±noti ettha “vatthuno kappiyatt± akappiyasaññ±ya paµikkhipatopiacittakatt± imassa sikkh±padassa pav±raº± hot²”ti vadanti. “Heµµh± ay±guke nimantaneudakakañjikakh²r±d²hi saddhi½ maddita½ bhattameva sandh±ya ‘y±gu½ gaºhath±’ti vuttatt±pav±raº± hoti, ‘bhattamissaka½ y±gu½ ±haritv±’ti ettha pana visu½ y±guy± vijjam±natt±pav±raº± na hot²”ti vadanti. Ayamettha adhipp±yoti “yen±pucchito”ti-±din±vuttamevattha½ sandh±ya vadati. K±raºa½ panettha duddasanti ettha eke t±va vadanti “yasm±y±gumissaka½ n±ma bhattameva na hoti, kh²r±dikampi hotiyeva, tasm± karambake viyapav±raº±ya na bhavitabba½. Evañca sati y±gu bahutar± v± hoti samasam± v±, na pav±reti.‘Y±gu mand±, bhatta½ bahutara½, pav±ret²’ti ettha k±raºa½ duddasan”ti. Keci panavadanti “y±gumissaka½ n±ma bhatta½, tasm± ta½ paµikkhipato pav±raº±ya eva bhavitabba½.Evañca sati ‘idha pav±raº± hoti na hot²’ti ettha k±raºa½ duddasan”ti.
Yath± cettha k±raºa½ duddasa½, eva½ parato “missaka½ gaºhath±”ti etth±pi k±raºa½ duddasamev±tiveditabba½. Na hi pav±raºappahonakassa appabahubh±vo pav±raº±ya bh±v±bh±vanimitta½,kiñcarahi pav±raºajanakassa n±maggahaºamevettha pam±ºa½, tasm± “idañca karambakena na sam±netabban”ti-±din±yampi k±raºa½ vutta½, tampi pubbe vuttena sa½sandiyam±na½ na sameti. Yadi hi “missakan”tibhattamissakeyeva ru¼ha½ siy±, eva½ sati yath± “bhattamissaka½ gaºhath±”ti vutte bhatta½bahutara½ v± sama½ v± appatara½ v± hoti, pav±retiyeva, eva½ “missaka½ gaºhath±”tivuttepi appatarepi bhatte pav±raº±ya bhavitabba½ missakanti bhattamissakeyevaru¼hatt±. Tath± hi “missakanti bhattamissakeyeva ru¼havoh±ratt± ida½ pana ‘bhattamissakamev±’tivuttan”ti t²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½. Atha “missakan”ti bhattamissakeru¼ha½ na hoti, missakabhatta½ pana sandh±ya “missaka½ gaºhath±”ti vuttanti. Evampiyath± ay±guke nimantane kh²r±d²hi saddhi½ maddita½ bhattameva sandh±ya “y±gu½ gaºhath±”tivutte pav±raº± hoti, evamidh±pi missakabhattameva sandh±ya “missaka½ gaºhath±”ti vuttebhatta½ appa½ v± hotu bahu v±, pav±raº± eva siy±. Tasm± “missakan”ti bhattamissakeru¼ha½ v± hotu sandh±yabh±sita½ v±, ubhayatth±pi pubben±para½ na samet²ti kimetthak±raºacint±ya, ²disesu pana µh±nesu aµµhakath±pam±ºeneva gantabbanti aya½ amh±ka½ khanti.
“Visu½ katv± det²ti bhattassa upari µhita½ ras±di½ visu½ gahetv± det²”ti t²supigaºµhipadesu vutta½. Kenaci pana “yath± bhattasittha½ na patati, tath± g±¼ha½ hatthenap²¼etv± pariss±vetv± det²”ti vutta½. Tath±pi k±raºa½ na dissati. Yath± hibhattamissaka½ y±gu½ ±haritv± “y±gu½ gaºhath±”ti vatv± y±gumissaka½ bhattampi denta½paµikkhipato pav±raº± na hoti, evamidh±pi bahukh²raras±d²su bhattesu “kh²ra½ gaºhath±”ti-±d²nivatv± kh²r±d²ni v± detu kh²r±dimissakabhatta½ v±, ubhayath±pi pav±raº±ya na bhavitabba½,tasm± “visu½ katv± det²”ti ten±k±rena denta½ sandh±ya vutta½, na pana bhattamissaka½katv± diyyam±na½ paµikkhipato pav±raº± hot²ti dassanatthanti gahetabba½. Yadi pana bhattamissaka½katv± diyyam±ne pav±raº± hot²ti adhipp±yena aµµhakath±ya½ “visu½ katv± det²”tivutta½, eva½ sati aµµhakath±yevettha pam±ºanti gahetabba½, na pana k±raºantara½ gavesitabba½.
Sace ukkuµika½ nisinno p±de amuñcitv±pi bh³miya½ nis²dati, iriy±patha½ vikopenton±ma hot²ti ukkuµik±sana½ avikopetv±va sukhena nis²ditu½ “tassa pana heµµh±…pe…nis²danaka½ d±tabban”ti vutta½. “¾sana½ ac±letv±ti p²µhe phuµµhok±sato±nisadama½sa½ amocetv±, anuµµhahitv±ti vutta½ hoti, adinn±d±ne viya µh±n±c±vana½na gahetabban”ti t²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½.
Akappiyakatanti ettha akappiyakatasseva anatirittabh±vato kappiya½ak±r±petv± tasmi½ patte pakkhittam³laphal±diyeva atiritta½ na hoti, sesa½ pana pattapariy±panna½atirittameva hoti, paribhuñjitu½ vaµµati. Ta½ pana m³laphal±di½ paribhuñjituk±menatato n²haritv± kappiya½ k±r±petv± aññasmi½ bh±jane µhapetv± atiritta½ k±r±petv±bhuñjitabba½.
So puna k±tu½ na labhat²ti tasmi½yeva bh±jane kariyam±na½ paµhama½ katena saddhi½ kata½hot²ti puna soyeva k±tu½ na labhati, añño labhati. Aññasmi½ pana bh±jane tena v±aññena v± k±tu½ vaµµati. Ten±ha “yena akata½, tena k±tabba½. Yañca akata½, ta½k±tabban”ti. Tenap²ti ettha pi-saddo na kevala½ aññena v±ti imamattha½ d²peti.Eva½ katanti aññasmi½ bh±jane kata½. Pesetv±ti anupasampannassa hatthe pesetv±.Imassa vinayakammabh±vato “anupasampannassa hatthe µhita½ na k±retabban”ti vutta½.
Sace pana ±misasa½saµµh±n²ti ettha sace mukhagatenapi anatirittena ±misena sa½saµµh±nihonti p±cittiyamev±ti veditabba½. Tasm± pav±ritena bhojana½ atiritta½ k±r±petv±bhuñjantenapi yath± akatena missa½ na hoti, eva½ mukhañca hatthañca suddha½ katv± bhuñjitabba½.Kiñc±pi appav±ritassa purebhatta½ y±mak±lik±d²ni ±h±ratth±ya paribhuñjatopi an±patti,pav±ritassa pana pav±raºam³laka½ dukkaµa½ hotiyev±ti “y±mak±lika½…pe… ajjhoh±re±patti dukkaµass±”ti p±¼iya½ vutta½.
241. K±yena bhuñjanato v±c±ya ±º±petv± atiritta½ ak±r±panato ca ±pajjat²ti“k±yav±cato”ti vutta½. Sesamettha utt±nameva. Pav±ritabh±vo, ±misassa anatirittat±,k±le ajjhoharaºanti im±ni panettha t²ºi aªg±ni.

Paµhamapav±raº±sikkh±padavaººan± niµµhit±.