2. Bh³tag±mavaggo

1. Bh³tag±masikkh±padavaººan±

89. Sen±sanavaggassa paµhame niggahetu½ asakkontoti sandh±retu½ asakkonto.Imin± pana vacanena d±rakassa tattha upan²tabh±vo tena ca diµµhabh±vo vuttoyev±ti daµµhabba½.Tena hi bhikkhun± ta½ rukkha½ chinditu½ ±raddhe tattha nibbatt± ek± taruºaputt± devadh²t±putta½ aªken±d±ya µhit± ta½ y±ci “m± me s±mi vim±na½ chindi, na sakkhiss±miputtaka½ ±d±ya an±v±s± vicaritun”ti. So “aha½ aññattha ²disa½ rukkha½ nalabhiss±m²”ti tass± vacana½ n±diyi. S± “imampi t±va d±raka½ oloketv± oramissat²”tiputta½ rukkhas±kh±ya µhapesi. So bhikkhu ukkhitta½ pharasu½ sandh±retu½ asakkontod±rakassa b±ha½ chindi. Evañca sayito vim±ne sayito n±ma hot²ti katv± vutta½“rukkhaµµhakadibbavim±ne nipannass±”ti.
Rukkhaµµhakadibbavim±neti ca s±khaµµhakavim±na½ sandh±ya vutta½. Rukkhassa upari nibbattañhivim±na½ rukkhapaµibaddhatt± “rukkhaµµhakavim±nan”ti vuccati. S±khaµµhakavim±na½ panasabbas±kh±sannissita½ hutv± tiµµhati. Tattha ya½ rukkhaµµhakavim±na½ hoti, ta½ y±va rukkhassam³lamattampi tiµµhati, t±va na nassati. S±khaµµhakavim±na½ pana s±kh±su bhijjam±n±su tatthatattheva bhijjitv± sabbas±kh±su bhinn±su sabba½ bhijjati, idampi ca vim±na½ s±khaµµhaka½,tasm± rukkhe chinne ta½ vim±na½ sabbaso vinaµµha½, teneva s± devat± bhagavato santik±laddhe aññasmi½ vim±ne vasi. B±hu½ thanam³leyeva chind²ti a½sena saddhi½ ±ha½ chindi. Imin± ca rukkhadevat±na½ gatt±ni chijjanti, na c±tumah±r±jik±d²na½viya acchejj±n²ti daµµhabba½. Rukkhadhammeti rukkhapakatiya½, rukkhasabh±veti attho.Rukkh±na½ viya chedan±d²su akuppanañhi rukkhadhammo n±ma.
Uppatitanti uppanna½. Bhantanti dh±vanta½. V±rayeti niggaºheyya. Ida½ vutta½hoti– yath± n±ma cheko s±rathi ativegena dh±vanta½ ratha½ niggahetv± yathicchaka½ peseti,eva½ yo puggalo uppanna½ kodha½ v±raye niggaºhitu½ sakkoti, tamaha½ s±rathi½ br³mi.Itaro pana r±ja-upar±j±d²na½ rathas±rathijano rasmigg±ho n±ma hoti, na uttamas±rath²ti.
Dutiyag±th±ya pana ayamattho– yoti (su. ni. aµµha. 1.1) yo y±diso khattiyakul±v± pabbajito br±hmaºakul± v± pabbajito navo v± majjhimo v± thero v±. Uppatitantiuddhamuddha½ patita½, gata½ pavattanti attho, uppannanti vutta½ hoti. Kodhanti “anattha½me carat²ti ±gh±to j±yat²”ti-±din± (d². ni. 3.340; a. ni. 9.29) nayenasutte vutt±na½ navanna½, “attha½ me na carat²”ti-±d²nañca tappaµipakkhato siddh±na½ navannamev±tiaµµh±rasanna½ kh±ºukaºµak±din± aµµh±nena saddhi½ ek³nav²satiy± ±gh±tavatth³na½ aññatar±gh±tavatthusambhava½±gh±ta½. Visaµanti vitthata½. Sappavisanti sappassa visa½. Iv±ti opammavacana½.I-k±ralopa½ katv± va-icceva vutta½. Osadheh²ti agadehi. Ida½ vutta½hoti– yath± visatikicchako vejjo sappena daµµho sabba½ k±ya½ pharitv± µhita½ visaµa½sappavisa½ m³lakhandhatacapattapupph±d²na½ aññatarehi, n±n±bhesajjehi payojetv± katehiv± osadhehi khippameva vineyya, evameva yo yath±vuttena ±gh±tavatthun± uppatita½ cittasant±na½by±petv± µhita½ kodha½ vinayanup±yesu tadaªgavinay±d²su yena kenaci up±yena vinetin±dhiv±seti pajahati vinodeti byanti½ karoti, so bhikkhu jah±ti orap±ra½.So eva½ kodha½ vinento bhikkhu yasm± kodho tatiyamaggena sabbaso pah²yati, tasm± orap±rasaññit±nipañcorambh±giyasa½yojan±ni jah±t²ti. Avisesena hi p±ranti t²rassa n±ma½, tasm±or±ni ca t±ni sa½s±ras±garassa p±rabh³t±ni c±ti katv± “orap±ran”ti vuccati.
Atha v± yo uppatita½ vineti kodha½ visaµa½ sappavisa½va osadhehi, sotatiyamaggena sabbaso kodha½ vinetv± an±g±miphale µhito bhikkhu jah±ti orap±ra½.Tattha oranti sakattabh±vo. P±ranti parattabh±vo. Ora½ v± cha ajjhattik±ni±yatan±ni, p±ra½ cha b±hir±yatan±ni. Tath± ora½ manussaloko, p±ra½ devaloko.Ora½ k±madh±tu, p±ra½ r³p±r³padh±tu. Ora½ k±mar³pabhavo, p±ra½ ar³pabhavo. Ora½attabh±vo, p±ra½ attabh±vasukhupakaraº±ni. Evametasmi½ orap±re catutthamaggena chandar±ga½pajahanto “jah±ti orap±ran”ti vuccati. Ettha ca kiñc±pi an±g±mino k±mar±gassapah²natt± idhattabh±v±d²su chandar±go eva natthi, apica kho panassa vaººappak±sanattha½ sabbameta½orap±rabheda½ saªgahetv± tattha chandar±gappah±nena “jah±ti orap±ran”ti vutta½.
Id±ni tassatthassa vibh±vanatth±ya upama½ ±ha “urago jiººamivattaca½ pur±ºan”ti.Tattha urena gacchat²ti urago, sappasseta½ adhivacana½. So duvidho k±mar³p² ca ak±mar³p²ca. K±mar³p²pi duvidho jalajo thalajo ca. Jalajo jale eva k±mar³pa½ labhati, na thalesaªkhap±laj±take (j±. 2.17.143 ±dayo) saªkhap±lan±gar±j± viya. Thalajo thale eva,na jale. So jajjarabh±vena jiººa½, cirak±lat±ya pur±ºañc±ti saªkha½ gata½ taca½ jahantocatubbidhena jahati saj±tiya½ µhito jigucchanto niss±ya th±men±ti. Saj±ti n±ma sappaj±tid²ghattabh±vo. Urag± hi pañcasu µh±nesu saj±ti½ n±tivattanti upapattiya½ cutiya½vissaµµhaniddokkamane saj±tiy± methunapaµisevane jiººatac±panayane c±ti. Tasm± yad± taca½jahati, tad± saj±tiya½yeva µhatv± jahati. Saj±tiya½ µhitopi ca jigucchanto jahati.Jigucchanto n±ma yad± upa¹¹haµµh±ne mutto hoti, upa¹¹haµµh±ne amutto olambati, tad± na½aµµ²yanto jahati, eva½ jigucchantopi ca daº¹antara½ v± m³lantara½ v± p±s±ºantara½ v±niss±ya jahati. Niss±ya jahantopi ca th±ma½ janetv± uss±ha½ karitv± v²riyena vaªka½naªguµµha½ katv± passasantova phaºa½ karitv± jahati. Eva½ jahitv± yenak±ma½ pakkamati.
Evameva ayampi bhikkhu orap±ra½ jahituk±mo catubbidhena jahati saj±tiya½ µhito jigucchantoniss±ya th±men±ti. Saj±ti n±ma bhikkhuno “ariy±ya j±tiy± j±to”ti (ma. ni.2.351) vacanato s²la½. Tenev±ha “s²le patiµµh±ya naro sapañño”ti(sa½. ni. 1.23, 192). Evametissa½ saj±tiya½ µhito bhikkhu ta½ sakattabh±v±dibheda½orap±ra½ jiººapur±ºattacamiva ta½ dukkha½ janenta½ tattha tattha ±d²navadassanena jigucchantokaly±ºamitte niss±ya adhimattasamm±v±y±masaªkh±ta½ th±ma½ janetv± “divasa½ caªkamena nisajj±ya±varaº²yehi dhammehi citta½ parisodhet²”ti (a. ni. 3.16; 4.37) vuttanayenarattindiva½ chadh± vibhajitv± ghaµento v±yamanto urago viya vaªka½ naªguµµha½ pallaªka½ ±bhujitv±urago viya passasanto ayampi asithilaparakkamat±ya v±yamanto uragova phaºa½ karitv±ayampi ñ±ºavipph±ra½ janetv± uragova taca½ orap±ra½ jahati, jahitv± ca urago viyaohitataco yenak±ma½ pakkamati, ayampi ohitabh±ro anup±disesanibb±nadh±tudisa½pakkamat²ti.
90. Bhavant²ti imin± viru¼ham³le n²labh±va½ ±pajjitv± va¹¹ham±nake taruºagacchedasseti. Ahuvunti imin± pana va¹¹hitv± µhite mahante rukkhagacch±dike dasseti.Bhavant²ti imassa vivaraºa½ “j±yanti va¹¹hant²”ti, ahuvunti imassa “j±t±va¹¹hit±”ti. R±s²ti suddhaµµhakadhammasam³ho. Bh³t±nanti tath±laddhasamaññ±na½ aµµhadhamm±na½.“Bh³t±na½ g±mo”ti vuttepi avayavavinimuttassa samud±yassa abh±vato bh³tasaññit±teyeva tiºarukkhalat±dayo gayhanti. “Bh³miya½ patiµµhahitv± haritabh±vam±pann± rukkhagacch±dayodevat±hi pariggayhanti, tasm± bh³t±na½ niv±saµµh±nat±ya bh³t±na½ g±mo”tipi vadanti.Rukkh±d²nanti ±di-saddena osadhigacchalat±dayo veditabb±.
Nanu ca rukkh±dayo cittarahitat±ya na j²v±, cittarahitat± ca paripphand±bh±vato chinnepiruhanato visadisaj±tikabh±vato catuyoni-apariy±pannato ca veditabb±, vu¹¹hi pana pav±¼asil±lavaº±nampivijjat²ti na tesa½ j²vabh±ve k±raºa½, visayaggahaºañca nesa½ parikappan±matta½ supana½viya ciñc±d²na½, tath± doha¼±dayo, tattha kasm± bh³tag±massa chedan±dipaccay± p±cittiya½vuttanti? Samaºas±ruppato ta½niv±sasatt±nurakkhaºato ca. Tenev±ha “j²vasaññinohi moghapuris± manuss± rukkhasmin”ti-±di.
91. “M³le j±yant²”ti-±d²su attho upari attan± vuccam±nappak±rena s²ha¼aµµhakath±ya½vuttoti ±ha “eva½ santepi…pe… na sament²”ti. Vij±ta-saddo idha vi-saddalopa½katv± niddiµµhoti ±ha “vij±t±n²”ti. Vij±ta-saddo ca “vij±t± itth²”ti-±d²suviya pas³tavacanoti ±ha “pas³t±n²”ti. Pas³ti ca n±mettha nibbattapaººam³lat±ti±ha “nibbattapaººam³l±n²”ti. Imin± ima½ d²peti “nibbattapaººam³l±ni b²j±nibh³tag±masaªkhameva gacchanti, tesu ca vattam±no b²jaj±ta-saddo ru¼h²vasena rukkh±d²supivattat²”ti. Purimasmi½ atthavikappe pana b²jehi j±t±na½ rukkhalat±d²na½yeva bh³tag±mat±vutt±.
T±ni dassentoti t±ni b²j±ni dassento. M³lab²janti-±d²su m³lameva b²ja½m³lab²ja½. Sesesupi eseva nayo. Pha¼ub²janti pabbab²ja½. Paccayantarasamav±yesadisaphaluppattiy± visesak±raºabh±vato viruhanasamatthe s±raphale niru¼ho b²ja-saddo.Tadatthasa½siddhiy± m³l±d²supi kesuci pavattat²ti m³l±dito nivattanattha½ ekena b²jasaddenavisesetv± vutta½ “b²jab²jan”ti “r³par³pa½, dukkhadukkhan”ti ca yath±.B²jato nibbattena b²ja½ dassitanti k±riyopac±rena k±raºa½ dassitanti d²peti.
92. B²je b²jasaññ²ti ettha k±raº³pac±rena k±riya½ vuttanti dassento “tatthayath±”ti-±dim±ha. Bh³tag±maparimocana½ katv±ti bh³tag±mato mocetv±, viyojetv±tiattho. Ya½ b²ja½ bh³tag±mo n±ma hot²ti b²j±ni ca t±ni j±t±ni c±ti vuttamattha½sandh±ya vadati. Tattha ya½ b²janti ya½ nibbattapaººam³la½ b²ja½. Tasmi½ b²jetitasmi½ bh³tag±masaññite b²je. Ettha ca b²jaj±ta-saddassa viya ru¼h²vasena rukkh±d²sub²ja-saddassapi pavatti veditabb±. Yath±rutanti yath±p±¼i.
Yattha katthac²ti m³le agge majjhe v±. Sañcicca ukkhipitu½ na vaµµat²ti ettha sacepisar²re laggabh±va½ j±nantova udakato uµµhahati, “ta½ uddhariss±m²”ti saññ±ya abh±vatovaµµati. Upp±µit±n²ti uddhaµ±ni. B²jag±me saªgaha½ gacchant²ti bh³tag±mato parimocitatt±vutta½. Anantaka-ggahaºena s±sapamattik± gahit±. N±mañheta½ tass± sev±laj±tiy± M³lapaºº±na½ asampuººatt± “asampuººabh³tag±mo n±m±”ti vutta½.Abh³tag±mam³latt±ti ettha bh³tag±mo m³la½ k±raºa½ etass±ti bh³tag±mam³lo, bh³tag±massav± m³la½ k±raºanti bh³tag±mam³la½. B²jag±mo hi n±ma bh³tag±mato sambhavati, bh³tag±massaca k±raºa½ hoti, aya½ pana t±diso na hot²ti “abh³tag±mam³latt±”ti vutta½.Tatraµµhakatt± vutta½ “so b²jag±mena saªgahito”ti. Idañca “abh³tag±mam³latt±”tiettha paµhama½ vutta-atthasambhavato vutta½. Kiñc±pi hi t±lan±¼iker±d²na½ kh±ºu uddha½ava¹¹hanato bh³tag±massa k±raºa½ na hoti, tath±pi bh³tag±masaªkhyupagatanibbattapaººam³lab²jato sambh³tatt±bh³tag±mato uppanno n±ma hot²ti b²jag±mena saªgaha½ gacchati.
“Aªkure harite”ti vatv± tameva vibh±veti “n²lapaººavaººe j±te”ti, n²lapaººassavaººasadise vaººe j±teti attho. “N²lavaººe j±te”ti v± p±µho gahetabbo. Am³lakabh³tag±mesaªgaha½ gacchat²ti n±¼ikerassa ±veºika½ katv± vadati. “P±n²yaghaµ±d²na½ bahisev±lo udake aµµhitatt± b²jag±m±nulomatt± ca dukkaµavatth³”ti vadanti. Kaººakampiabboh±rikamev±ti n²lavaººampi abboh±rikameva. Seleyyaka½ n±ma sil±yasambh³t± ek± sugandhaj±ti. “Rukkhattaca½ vikopet²ti vuttatt± rukkhe j±ta½ ya½kiñci chattaka½ rukkhattaca½ avikopetv± matthakato chinditv± gahetu½ vaµµat²”tivadanti. Rukkhato muccitv± tiµµhat²ti ettha “yadipi kiñcimatta½ rukkhe all²n±hutv± tiµµhati, rukkhato gayham±no pana rukkhacchavi½ na vikopeti, vaµµat²”ti vadanti.Allarukkhato na vaµµat²ti etth±pi rukkhattaca½ avikopetv± matthakato tacchetv± gahetu½vaµµat²ti veditabba½. Hatthakukkuccen±ti hatth±na½ asa½yatabh±vena, hatthac±pallen±tivutta½ hoti. P±n²ya½ na v±setabbanti ida½ attano atth±ya n±mita½ sandh±ya vutta½.Kevala½ anupasampannassa atth±ya n±mite pana pacch± tato labhitv± na v±setabbanti natthi.“Yesa½ rukkh±na½ s±kh± ruhat²ti vuttatt± yesa½ s±kh± na ruhati, tattha kappiyakaraºakicca½natth²”ti vadanti.
93. Pañcahi samaºakappeh²ti pañcahi samaºavoh±rehi. Kiñc±pihi b²j±na½ aggin± phuµµhamattena nakh±d²hi vilikhanamattena ca aviru¼h²dhammat± na hoti,tath±pi eva½ kateyeva samaº±na½ kappat²ti aggiparijit±dayo samaºavoh±r± n±ma j±t±,tasm± tehi samaºavoh±rehi karaºabh³tehi phala½ paribhuñjitu½ anuj±n±m²ti adhipp±yo.Ab²janibbaµµab²j±nipi samaº±na½ kappant²ti paññattapaººattibh±vato samaºavoh±r±-iccevasaªkha½ gat±ni. Atha v± aggiparijit±d²na½ pañcanna½ kappiyabh±vatoyeva pañcahi samaºakappiyabh±vasaªkh±tehik±raºehi phala½ paribhuñjitu½ anuj±n±m²ti evamettha adhipp±yo veditabbo. Aggiparijitanti-±d²su“paricitan”tipi paµhanti. Ab²ja½ n±ma taruºambaphal±di. Nibbaµµab²ja½ n±maambapanas±di, ya½ b²ja½ nibbaµµetv± visu½ katv± paribhuñjitu½ sakk± hoti. “Kappiyan”tivatv±va k±tabbanti yo kappiya½ karoti, tena kattabb±k±rasseva vuttatt± bhikkhun±avuttepi k±tu½ vaµµat²ti na gahetabba½. Puna “kappiya½ k±retabban”ti k±r±panassapaµhamameva kathitatt± bhikkhun± “kappiya½ karoh²”ti vutteyeva anupasampannena “kappiyan”tivatv± aggiparijit±di k±tabbanti gahetabba½. “Kappiyanti vacana½ pana y±ya k±yacibh±s±ya vattu½ vaµµat²”ti vadanti. “Kappiyanti vatv±va k±tabban”ti vacanato paµhama½“kappiyan”ti vatv± pacch± aggi-±din± phusan±di k±tabbanti veditabba½. “Paµhama½aggi½ nikkhipitv± nakh±din± v± vijjhitv± ta½ anuddharitv±va ‘kappiyan’ti vattumpivaµµat²”ti vadanti.
Ekasmi½ b²je v±ti-±d²su “eka½yeva k±rem²ti adhipp±ye satipi ek±baddhatt±sabba½ katameva hot²”ti vadanti. D±ru½ vijjhat²ti ettha “j±nitv±pi vijjhativ± vijjh±peti v±, vaµµatiyev±”ti vadanti. Bhattasitthe vijjhat²ti etth±pi esevanayo. “Ta½ vijjhati, na vaµµat²ti rajju-±d²na½ bh±janagatikatt±”ti vadanti.Maricapakk±d²hi missetv±ti ettha bhattasitthasambandhavasena ek±baddhat± veditabb±, naphal±na½yeva aññamañña½ sambandhavasena. Bhind±petv± kappiya½ k±r±petabbanti b²jatomuttassa kaµ±hassa bh±janagatikatt± vutta½.
Nikkh±metunti ta½ bhikkhu½ nikkh±metu½. “Sace etassa anuloman”ti sen±sanarakkhaºatth±yaanuññ±tampi paµaggid±n±di½ attan±pi k±tu½ vaµµat²ti ettakeneva idampietassa anulomanti evamadhipp±yo siy±. Paµaggid±na½ parittakaraºañca attano parassav± sen±sanarakkhaºatth±ya vaµµatiyeva. Tasm± sace tassa suttassa eta½ anuloma½ siy±, attanona vaµµati, aññassa vaµµat²ti aya½ viseso kuto labbhat²ti ±ha “attano na vaµµati…pe…na sakk± laddhun”ti. Sesamettha utt±nameva. Bh³tag±mo, bh³tag±masaññit±, vikopana½v± vikop±pana½ v±ti im±ni panettha t²ºi aªg±ni.

Bh³tag±masikkh±padavaººan± niµµhit±.