7. Kathinakkhandhaka½

Kathin±nuj±nanakath±

306. Kathinakkhandhake p±veyyak±ti p±veyyaraµµhav±sino. P±veyya½ n±ma kosalesu pacchimadis±bh±ge raµµha½; tattha v±sinoti vutta½ hoti. Kosalarañño ekapitukabh±t³na½ bhaddavaggiyatther±na½ eta½ adhivacana½. Tesu sabbajeµµhako an±g±m², sabbapacchimako sot±panno, ekopi arah± v± puthujjano v± natthi. ¾raññik±ti dhutaªgasam±d±navasena ±raññik±; na araññav±samattena. Piº¹ap±tik±dibh±vepi tesa½ eseva nayo. S²savasena ceta½ vutta½. Ime pana teras±pi dhutaªg±ni sam±d±yeva vattanti. Udakasaªgaheti udakena saªgahite ghaµite sa½saµµhe; thale ca ninne ca ekodak²bh³teti attho.
Udakacikkhalleti akkanta-akkantaµµh±ne udakacikkhallo uµµhahitv± y±va ±nisad± paharati, ²dise cikkhalleti attho. Okapuººeh²ti udakapuººehi. Tesa½ kira c²var±ni ghan±ni, tesu patita½ udaka½ na paggharati ghanatt± puµabaddha½ viya tiµµhati. Tena vutta½– “okapuººehi c²vareh²”ti. “Oghapuººeh²”tipi p±µho.
Avivadam±n± vassa½ vasimh±ti ettha ±gantukaµµh±ne sen±sanaph±sut±ya abh±vena ca bhagavato dassan±l±bhena ukkaºµhitat±ya ca te bhikkh³ ph±su½ na vasi½su, tasm± “avivadam±n± ph±suka½ vassa½ vasimh±”ti n±vocu½. Dhammi½ katha½ katv±ti bhagav± tesa½ bhikkh³na½ anamataggiyakatha½ kathesi. Te sabbepi kath±pariyos±ne arahatta½ p±puºitv± nisinnaµµh±natoyeva ±k±se uppatitv± agama½su, ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “dhammi½ katha½ katv±”ti. Tato bhagav± “sace kathinatth±ro paññatto abhavissa, ete bhikkh³ eka½ c²vara½ µhapetv± santaruttarena ±gacchant± na eva½ kilant± assu, kathinatth±ro ca n±mesa sabbabuddhehi anuññ±to”ti cintetv± kathinatth±ra½ anuj±nituk±mo bhikkh³ ±mantesi, ±mantetv± ca pana “anuj±n±mi bhikkhave”ti-±dim±ha.
Tattha atthatakathin±na½ voti nip±tamatta½ vok±ro; atthatakathin±nanti attho. Evañhi sati parato “so nesa½ bhavissat²”ti yujjati. Atha v± voti s±mivacanameveta½. So nesanti ettha pana so c²varupp±do ye atthatakathin±, tesa½ bhavissat²ti attho.
Tattha an±mantac±roti y±va kathina½ na uddhariyati, t±va an±mantetv± caraºa½ kappissati c±rittasikkh±padena an±patti bhavissat²ti attho. Asam±d±nac±roti tic²vara½ asam±d±ya caraºa½; c²varavippav±so kappissat²ti attho. Gaºabhojananti gaºabhojanampi kappissati. Y±vadatthac²varanti y±vattakena c²varena attho, t±vattaka½ anadhiµµhita½ avikappita½ kappissat²ti attho. Yo ca tattha c²varupp±doti tattha kathinatthatas²m±ya½ matakac²vara½ v± hotu saªgha½ uddissa dinna½ v± saªghikena tatrupp±dena ±bhata½ v±, yena kenaci ±k±rena ya½ saªghikac²vara½ uppajjati, ta½ tesa½ bhavissat²ti attho.
Evañca pana bhikkhave kathina½ attharitabbanti ettha kathinatth±ra½ ke labhanti, ke na labhant²ti? Gaºanavasena t±va pacchimakoµiy± pañca jan± labhanti, uddha½ satasahassampi, pañcanna½ heµµh± na labhanti. Vutthavassavasena purimik±ya vassa½ upagantv± paµhamapav±raº±ya pav±rit± labhanti, chinnavass± v± pacchimik±ya upagat± v± na labhanti, aññasmi½ vih±re vutthavass±pi na labhant²ti mah±paccariya½ vutta½. Purimik±ya upagat±na½ pana sabbe gaºap³rak± honti, ±nisa½sa½ na labhanti, ±nisa½so itaresa½yeva hoti. Sace purimik±ya upagat± catt±ro v± honti tayo v± dve v± eko v±, itare gaºap³rake katv± kathina½ attharitabba½. Atha catt±ro bhikkh³ upagat±, eko paripuººavasso s±maºero, so ce pacchimik±ya upasampajjati, gaºap³rako ceva hoti, ±nisa½sañca labhati. Tayo bhikkh³ dve s±maºer±, dve bhikkh³ tayo s±maºer±, eko bhikkhu catt±ro s±maºer±ti etth±pi eseva nayo. Sace purimik±ya upagat± kathinatth±rakusal± na honti, atth±rakusal± khandhakabh±ºakather± pariyesitv± ±netabb±. Kammav±ca½ s±vetv± kathina½ atthar±petv± d±nañca bhuñjitv± gamissanti. ¾nisa½so pana itaresa½yeva hoti.
Kathina½ kena dinna½ vaµµati? Yena kenaci devena v± manussena v± pañcanna½ v± sahadhammik±na½ aññatarena dinna½ vaµµati. Kathinad±yakassa vatta½ atthi, sace so ta½ aj±nanto pucchati– “bhante katha½ kathina½ d±tabban”ti tassa eva½ ±cikkhitabba½– “tiººa½ c²var±na½ aññatarappahonaka½ s³riyuggamanasamaye vattha½ ‘kathinac²vara½ dem±’ti d±tu½ vaµµati tassa parikammattha½ ettak± n±ma s³ciyo, ettaka½ sutta½, ettaka½ rajana½, parikamma½ karont±na½ ettak±na½ bhikkh³na½ y±gubhattañca d±tu½ vaµµat²”ti.
Kathinatth±raken±pi dhammena samena uppanna½ kathina½ attharantena vatta½ j±nitabba½. Tantav±yagehato hi ±bhatasant±neneva khalimakkhitas±µako na vaµµati, mal²nas±µakopi na vaµµati, tasm± kathinatth±ras±µaka½ labhitv± suµµhu dhovitv± s³ci-±d²ni c²varakamm³pakaraº±ni sajjetv± bah³hi bhikkh³hi saddhi½ tadaheva sibbitv± niµµhitas³cikamma½ rajitv± kappabindu½ datv± kathina½ attharitabba½. Sace tasmi½ anatthateyeva añña½ kathinas±µaka½ ±harati, aññ±ni ca bah³ni kathin±nisa½savatth±ni deti, yo ±nisa½sa½ bahu½ deti, tassa santakeneva attharitabba½. Itaro yath± tath± ovaditv± saññ±petabbo.
Kathina½ pana kena attharitabba½? Yassa saªgho kathinac²vara½ deti. Saªghena pana kassa d±tabba½? Yo jiººac²varo hoti. Sace bah³ jiººac²var± honti, vu¹¹hassa d±tabba½. Vu¹¹hesupi yo mah±pariso tadaheva c²vara½ katv± attharitu½ sakkoti, tassa d±tabba½. Sace vu¹¹ho na sakkoti navakataro sakkoti, tassa d±tabba½. Apica saªghena mah±therassa saªgaha½ k±tu½ vaµµati, tasm± “tumhe bhante gaºhatha, maya½ katv± dass±m±”ti vattabba½. T²su c²varesu ya½ jiººa½ hoti, tadatth±ya d±tabba½. Pakatiy± dupaµµac²varassa dupaµµatth±yeva d±tabba½. Sacepissa ekapaµµac²vara½ ghana½ hoti, kathinas±µako ca pelavo, s±ruppatth±ya dupaµµappahonakameva d±tabba½, “aha½ alabhanto ekapaµµa½ p±rup±m²”ti vadantass±pi dupaµµa½ d±tu½ vaµµati. Yo pana lobhapakatiko hoti, tassa na d±tabba½. Ten±pi “kathina½ attharitv± pacch± sibbitv± dve c²var±ni kariss±m²”ti na gahetabba½. Yassa pana d²yati, tassa yena vidhin± d±tabba½, ta½ dassetu½ “evañca pana bhikkhave kathina½ attharitabban”ti ±rabhitv± suº±tu me bhanteti-±dik± d±nakammav±c± t±va vutt±.
Eva½ dinne pana kathine sace ta½ kathinadussa½ niµµhitaparikammameva hoti icceta½ kusala½. No ce niµµhitaparikamma½ hoti, “aha½ thero”ti v± “bahussuto”ti v± eken±pi ak±tu½ na labbhati, sabbeheva sannipatitv± dhovanasibbanarajan±ni niµµh±petabb±ni. Idañhi kathinavatta½ n±ma buddhappasattha½. At²te padumuttaropi bhagav± kathinavatta½ ak±si. Tassa kira aggas±vako suj±tatthero n±ma kathina½ gaºhi, ta½ satth± aµµhasaµµhiy± bhikkhusatasahassehi saddhi½ nis²ditv± ak±si.
Katapariyosita½ pana kathina½ gahetv± atth±rakena bhikkhun± “sace saªgh±µiy± kathina½ attharituk±mo hoti, por±ºik± saªgh±µi paccuddharitabb±, nav± saªgh±µi adhiµµh±tabb±. ‘Im±ya saªgh±µiy± kathina½ atthar±m²’ti v±c± bhinditabb±”ti-±din± pariv±re vuttavidh±nena kathina½ attharitabba½. Attharitv± ca pana “tena kathinatth±rakena bhikkhun± saªgha½ upasaªkamitv± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± añjali½ paggahetv± evamassa vacan²yo– ‘atthata½ bhante saªghassa kathina½, dhammiko kathinatth±ro, anumodath±’ti tehi anumodakehi bhikkh³hi eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± añjali½ paggahetv± evamassa vacan²yo– ‘atthata½ ±vuso saªghassa kathina½, dhammiko kathinatth±ro, anumod±m±”ti evam±din± pariv±re vuttavidh±neneva anumod±petabba½, itarehi ca anumoditabba½. Eva½ sabbesa½ atthata½ hoti kathina½. Vuttañheta½ pariv±re “dvinna½ puggal±na½ atthata½ hoti kathina½– atth±rakassa ca anumodakassa c±”ti (pari. 403). Punapi vutta½– “na saªgho kathina½ attharati, na gaºo kathina½ attharati, puggalo kathina½ attharati, saªghassa anumodan± gaºassa anumodan± puggalassa atth±r± saªghassa atthata½ hoti kathina½, gaºassa atthata½ hoti kathina½, puggalassa atthata½ hoti kathina½”ti (pari. 414).
Eva½ atthate pana kathine sace kathinac²varena saddhi½ ±bhata½ ±nisa½sa½ d±yak± “yena amh±ka½ kathina½ gahita½, tasseva dem±”ti denti bhikkhusaªgho anissaro. Atha avic±retv±va datv± gacchanti, bhikkhusaªgho issaro. Tasm± sace kathinatth±rakassa sesac²var±nipi dubbal±ni honti, saªghena apaloketv± tesampi atth±ya vatth±ni d±tabb±ni. Kammav±c± pana ek±yeva vaµµati. Avasese kathin±nisa½se balavavatth±ni vass±v±sikaµµhitik±ya d±tabb±ni, µhitik±ya abh±ve ther±sanato paµµh±ya d±tabb±ni, garubhaº¹a½ na bh±jetabba½. Sace pana ekas²m±ya bah³ vih±r± honti, sabbe bhikkh³ sannip±tetv± ekattha kathina½ attharitabba½, visu½ visu½ attharitu½ na vaµµati.
308. Id±ni yath± ca kathina½ atthata½ hoti, yath± ca anatthata½, ta½ vidhi½ vitth±rato dassetu½ evañca pana bhikkhave atthata½ hoti kathina½ eva½ anatthatanti vatv± akaraº²yañceva mah±bh³mikañca anatthatalakkhaºa½ t±va dassento na ullikhitamatten±ti-±dike catuv²sati ±k±re dassesi. Tato para½ atthatalakkhaºa½ dassento ahatena atthatanti-±dike sattarasa ±k±re dassesi. Pariv±repi hi “catuv²satiy± ±k±rehi anatthata½ hoti kathina½, sattarasahi ±k±rehi atthata½ hoti kathinan”ti idameva lakkhaºa½ vutta½.
Tattha ullikhitamatten±ti d²ghato ca puthulato ca pam±ºaggahaºamattena. Pam±ºañhi gaºhanto tassa tassa padesassa sañj±nanattha½ nakh±d²hi v± pariccheda½ dassento ullikhati, nal±µ±d²su v± gha½sati, tasm± ta½ pam±ºaggahaºa½ “ullikhitamattan”ti vuccati. Dhovanamatten±ti kathinadussadhovanamattena. C²varavic±raºamatten±ti “pañcaka½ v± sattaka½ v± navaka½ v± ek±dasaka½ v± hot³”ti eva½ vic±ritamattena. Chedanamatten±ti yath±vic±ritassa vatthassa chedanamattena. Bandhanamatten±ti moghasuttak±ropanamattena. Ovaµµiyakaraºamatten±ti moghasuttak±nus±rena d²ghasibbitamattena. Kaº¹usakaraºamatten±ti muddhiyapattabandhanamattena. Da¼h²kammakaraºamatten±ti dve cimilik±yo ekato katv± sibbitamattena. Atha v± paµhamacimilik± ghaµetv± µhapit± hoti, kathinas±µaka½ tass± kucchicimilika½ katv± sibbitamatten±tipi attho. Mah±paccariya½ “pakatic²varassa upassayad±nen±”ti vutta½. Kurundiya½ pana “pakatipattabaddhac²vara½ dupaµµa½ k±tu½ kucchicimilika½ alliy±panamatten±”ti vutta½. Anuv±takaraºamatten±ti piµµhi-anuv±t±ropanamattena. Paribhaº¹akaraºamatten±ti kucchi-ana-uv±t±ropanamattena. Ovaddheyyakaraºamatten±ti ±gantukapatt±ropanamattena Kathinac²varato v± patta½ gahetv± aññasmi½ akathinac²vare patt±ropanamattena.
Kambalamaddanamatten±ti ekav±ra½yeva rajane pakkhittena dantavaººena paº¹upal±savaººena v±. Sace pana saki½ v± dvikkhattu½ v± rattampi s±ruppa½ hoti, vaµµati. Nimittakaten±ti “imin± dussena kathina½ atthariss±m²”ti eva½ nimittakatena. Ettakameva hi pariv±re vutta½. Aµµhakath±su pana “aya½ s±µako sundaro, sakk± imin± kathina½ attharitun’ti eva½ nimittakamma½ katv± laddhen±”ti vutta½. Parikath±katen±ti “kathina½ n±ma d±tu½ vaµµati, kathinad±yako bahu½ puñña½ pasavat²”ti eva½ parikath±ya upp±ditena. Kathina½ n±ma ati-ukkaµµha½ vaµµati, m±tarampi viññ±petu½ na vaµµati, ±k±sato otiººasadisameva vaµµat²ti. Kukkukaten±ti t±vak±likena. Sannidhikaten±ti ettha duvidho sannidhi karaºasannidhi ca nicayasannidhi ca. Tattha tadaheva akatv± µhapetv± karaºa½ karaºasannidhi. Saªgho ajja kathinadussa½ labhitv± punadivase deti, aya½ nicayasannidhi.
Nissaggiyen±ti rattinissaggiyena. Pariv±repi vutta½– “nissaggiya½ n±ma kariyam±ne aruºa½ uµµhahat²”ti. Akappakaten±ti an±dinnakappabindun±. Aññatra saªgh±µiy±ti-±d²su µhapetv± saªgh±µi-uttar±saªga-antarav±sake aññena paccattharaº±din± atthata½ anatthata½ hot²ti. Aññatra pañcakena v± atirekapañcakena v±ti pañca v± atirek±ni v± khaº¹±ni katv± mah±maº¹ala-a¹¹hamaº¹al±ni dassetv± kateneva vaµµati. Evañhi samaº¹alikata½ hoti, ta½ µhapetv± aññena acchinnakena v± dvatticatukhaº¹ena v± na vaµµati. Aññatra puggalassa atth±r±ti puggalassa atth±ra½ µhapetv± na aññena saªghassa v± gaºassa v± atth±rena atthata½ hoti. Niss²maµµho anumodat²ti bahi-upac±ras²m±ya µhito anumodati.
309. Ahaten±ti aparibhuttena. Ahatakappen±ti ahatasadisena ekav±ra½ v± dvikkhattu½ v± dhotena. Pilotik±y±ti hatavatthakas±µakena Pa½suk³len±ti tev²satiy± khettesu uppannapa½suk³lena. Pa½suk³likabhikkhun± co¼akabhikkha½ ±hiº¹itv± laddhaco¼akehi katac²varen±tipi kurundimah±paccar²su vutta½. P±paºiken±ti ±paºadv±re patitapilotika½ gahetv± kathinatth±ya deti, ten±pi vaµµat²ti attho. Sesa½ vuttavipall±seneva veditabba½. Imasmi½ pana µh±ne “saha kathinassa atth±r± kati dhamm± j±yant²”ti-±di bahu-aµµhakath±su vutta½, ta½ sabba½ pariv±re p±¼i-±r³¼hameva, tasm± tattha ±gatanayeneva veditabba½. Na hi tena idha avuccam±nena kathinatth±rakassa kiñci parih±yati.
310. Eva½ kathinatth±ra½ dassetv± id±ni ubbh±ra½ dassetu½ kathañca bhikkhave ubbhata½ hoti kathinanti-±dim±ha. Tattha m±tik±ti m±taro; janettiyoti attho. Kathinubbh±rañhi et± aµµha janettiyo. T±su pakkamana½ anto ass±ti pakkamanantik±. Eva½ ses±pi veditabb±.