3. Ov±davaggo

1. Ov±dasikkh±padavaŗŗan±

141-144. Bhikkhunivaggassa paµhamasikkh±pade– l±bhino hont²ti ettha na tesa½ bhikkhuniyo denti, na d±penti, mah±kulehi pabbajit± pana kuladh²taro attano santika½ ±gat±na½ ń±timanuss±na½ “kuto ayye ov±da½ uddesa½ paripuccha½ labhath±”ti pucchant±na½ “asuko ca asuko ca thero ovadat²”ti as²timah±s±vake uddisitv± kath±nus±rena tesa½ s²lasut±c±raj±tigott±dibheda½ vijjam±naguŗa½ kathayanti. Evar³p± hi vijjam±naguŗ± kathetu½ vaµµanti. Tato pasannacitt± manuss± ther±na½ c²var±dibheda½ mahanta½ l±bhasakk±ra½ abhihari½su. Tena vutta½– “l±bhino honti c²vara…pe… parikkh±r±nan”ti.
Bhikkhuniyo upasaŖkamitv±ti tesa½ kira santike t±su ek± bhikkhun²pi na ±gacchati, l±bhataŗh±ya pana ±ka¹¹hiyam±nahaday± t±sa½ upassaya½ agama½su. Ta½ sandh±ya vutta½– “bhikkhuniyo upasaŖkamitv±”ti. T±pi bhikkhuniyo calacittat±ya tesa½ vacana½ aka½suyeva Tena vutta½– “atha kho t± bhikkhuniyo…pe… nis²di½s³”ti. Tiracch±nakathanti saggamaggagamanepi tiracch±nabh³ta½ r±jakath±dimanekavidha½ niratthakakatha½. Iddhoti samiddho, sahitattho gambh²ro bahuraso lakkhaŗapaµivedhasa½yuttoti adhipp±yo.
145-147. Anuj±n±mi bhikkhaveti ettha yasm± te bhikkh³ “m± tumhe bhikkhave bhikkhuniyo ovaditth±”ti vuccam±n± adiµµhasaccatt± tath±gate ±gh±ta½ bandhitv± ap±yupag± bhaveyyu½, tasm± nesa½ ta½ ap±yupagata½ pariharanto bhagav± ańńeneva up±yena te bhikkhunov±dato parib±hire kattuk±mo ima½ bhikkhunov±dakasammuti½ anuj±n²ti veditabbo. Eva½ idha parib±hire kattuk±mat±ya anuj±nitv± parato karontova “anuj±n±mi bhikkhave aµµhahaŖgehi samann±gatan”ti-±dim±ha. Im±ni hi aµµhaŖg±ni chabbaggiy±na½ supinantenapi na bh³tapubb±n²ti.
Tattha s²lamassa atth²ti s²lav±. Id±ni yańca ta½ s²la½, yath± ca ta½ tassa atthi n±ma hoti, ta½ dassento “p±timokkhasa½varasa½vuto”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha p±timokkhova sa½varo p±timokkhasa½varo. P±timokkhasa½varena sa½vuto samann±gatoti p±timokkhasa½varasa½vut±e.
Viharat²ti vattati. Vuttańheta½ vibhaŖge–
“P±timokkhanti s²la½ patiµµh± ±di caraŗa½ sa½yamo sa½varo mokkha½ pamokkha½ kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ sam±pattiy±; sa½varoti k±yiko av²tikkamo v±casiko av²tikkamo k±yikav±casiko av²tikkamo. Sa½vutoti imin± p±timokkhasa½varena upeto hoti samupeto upagato samupagato upapanno samupapanno sampanno samann±gato, tena vuccati ‘p±timokkhasa½varasa½vuto’ti. Viharat²ti iriyati vattati p±leti yapeti y±peti carati viharati, tena vuccati ‘viharat²”’ti (vibha. 511-512).
¾c±ragocarasampannoti micch±j²vapaµisedhakena na ve¼ud±n±din± ±c±rena, vesiy±di-agocara½ pah±ya saddh±sampannakul±din± ca gocarena sampanno. Aŗumattesu vajjesu bhayadass±v²ti appamattakesu vajjesu bhayadass±v², t±ni vajj±ni bhayato dassanas²loti vutta½ hoti. Sam±d±ya sikkhati sikkh±pades³ti adhis²lasikkh±dibh±vena tidh± µhitesu sikkh±padesu ta½ ta½ sikkh±pada½ sam±d±ya samm± ±d±ya s±dhuka½ gahetv± avijahanto sikkhat²ti attho. Ayamettha saŖkhepo, vitth±ro pana yo icchati, tena visuddhimaggato gahetabbo.
Bahu sutamass±ti bahussuto. Suta½ dh±ret²ti sutadharo; yadassa ta½ bahu suta½ n±ma, ta½ na sutamattameva; atha kho na½ dh±ret²ti attho. Mańj³s±ya½ viya ratana½ suta½ sannicitamasminti sutasannicayo. Etena ya½ so suta½ dh±reti, tassa mańj³s±ya gopetv± sannicitaratanasseva cirak±len±pi avin±sana½ dasseti. Id±ni ta½ suta½ sar³pato dassento “ye te dhamm±”ti-±dim±ha, ta½ verańjakaŗ¹e vuttanayameva. Ida½ panettha nigamana½– tath±r³p±ssa dhamm± bahussut± honti, tasm± bahussuto. Dh±t±, tasm± sutadharo. Vacas± paricit± manas±nupekkhit±, diµµhiy± suppaµividdh±; tasm± sutasannicayo. Tattha vacas± paricit±ti v±c±ya paguŗ± kat±. Manas±nupekkhit±ti manas± anupekkhit±, ±vajjantassa d²pasahassena obh±sit± viya honti. Diµµhiy± suppaµividdh±ti atthato ca k±raŗato ca pańń±ya suµµhu paµividdh± supaccakkhakat± honti.
Aya½ pana bahussuto n±ma tividho hoti– nissayamuccanako, parisupaµµh±pako, bhikkhunov±dakoti. Tattha nissayamuccanakena upasampad±ya pańcavassena sabbantimena paricchedena dve m±tik± paguŗ± v±cuggat± k±tabb± pakkhadivasesu dhammas±vanatth±ya suttantato catt±ro bh±ŗav±r±, sampatt±na½ parikathanatth±ya andhakavindamah±r±hulov±da-ambaµµhasadiso eko kath±maggo, saŖghabhattamaŖgal±maŖgalesu anumodanatth±ya tisso anumodan±, uposathapav±raŗ±dij±nanattha½ kamm±kammavinicchayo samaŗadhammakaraŗattha½ sam±dhivasena v± vipassan±vasena v± arahattapariyos±nameka½ kammaµµh±na½, ettaka½ uggahetabba½. Ett±vat± hi aya½ bahussuto hoti c±tuddiso, yattha katthaci attano issariyena vasitu½ labhati.
Parisupaµµh±pakena upasampad±ya dasavassena sabbantimena paricchedena parisa½ abhivinaye vinetu½ dve vibhaŖg± paguŗ± v±cuggat± k±tabb±, asakkontena t²hi janehi saddhi½ parivattanakkham± k±tabb±, kamm±kammańca khandhakavattańca uggahetabba½. Paris±ya pana abhidhamme vinayanattha½ sace majjhimabh±ŗako hoti m³lapaŗŗ±sako uggahetabbo, d²ghabh±ŗakena mah±vaggo, sa½yuttabh±ŗakena heµµhim± v± tayo vagg± mah±vaggo v±, aŖguttarabh±ŗakena heµµh± v± upari v± upa¹¹hanik±yo uggahetabbo, asakkontena tikanip±tato paµµh±ya heµµh± uggahetumpi vaµµati. Mah±paccariya½ pana “eka½ uggaŗhantena catukkanip±ta½ v± pańcakanip±ta½ v± gahetu½ vaµµat²”ti vutta½. J±takabh±ŗakena s±µµhakatha½ j±taka½ uggahetabba½, tato ora½ na vaµµati. Dhammapadampi saha vatthun± uggahetu½ vaµµat²ti mah±paccariya½ vutta½. Tato tato samuccaya½ katv± m³lapaŗŗ±sakamatta½ vaµµati, na vaµµat²ti? “Na vaµµat²”ti kurundaµµhakath±ya½ paµikkhitta½, itar±su vic±raŗ±yeva natthi. Abhidhamme kińci uggahetabbanti na vutta½. Yassa pana s±µµhakathampi vinayapiµaka½ abhidhammapiµakańca paguŗa½, suttante ca vuttappak±ro gantho natthi, parisa½ upaµµh±petu½ na labhati. Yena pana suttantato vinayato ca vuttappam±ŗo gantho uggahito, aya½ parisupaµµh±pako bahussuto hoti dis±p±mokkho yenak±maŖgamo, parisa½ upaµµh±petu½ labhati.
Bhikkhunov±dakena pana s±µµhakath±ni t²ŗi piµak±ni uggahetabb±ni, asakkontena cat³su nik±yesu ekassa aµµhakath± paguŗ± k±tabb±, ekanik±yena hi sesanik±yesupi pańha½ kathetu½ sakkhissati. Sattasu pakaraŗesu catuppakaraŗassa aµµhakath± paguŗ± k±tabb±, tattha laddhanayena hi sesapakaraŗesu pańha½ kathetu½ sakkhissati. Vinayapiµaka½ pana n±nattha½ n±n±k±raŗa½, tasm± ta½ saddhi½ aµµhakath±ya paguŗa½ k±tabbameva. Ett±vat± hi bhikkhunov±dako bahussuto n±ma hot²ti.
Ubhay±ni kho panass±ti-±di pana yasm± ańńasmi½ sakale navaŖgepi b±hussacce sati s±µµhakatha½ vinayapiµaka½ vin± na vaµµatiyeva, tasm± visu½ vutta½. Tattha vitth±ren±ti ubhatovibhaŖgena saddhi½. Sv±gat±n²ti suµµhu ±gat±ni. Yath± ±gat±ni pana sv±gat±ni honti, ta½ dassetu½ “suvibhatt±n²”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha suvibhatt±n²ti suµµhu vibhatt±ni padapacc±bhaµµhasaŖkaradosavirahit±ni. Suppavatt²n²ti paguŗ±ni v±cuggat±ni. Suvinicchit±ni suttasoti khandhakapariv±rato ±haritabbasuttavasena suµµhu vinicchit±ni. Anubyańjanasoti akkharapadap±rip³riy± ca suvinicchit±ni akhaŗ¹±ni avipar²takkhar±ni. Etena aµµhakath± d²pit±, aµµhakath±to hi esa vinicchayo hot²ti.
Kaly±ŗav±coti sithiladhanit±d²na½ yath±vidh±navacanena parimaŗ¹alapadabyańjan±ya poriy± v±c±ya samann±gato vissaµµh±ya anelaga¼±ya atthassa vińń±paniy±. Kaly±ŗav±kkaraŗoti madhurassaro, m±tug±mo hi sarasampattirato, tasm± parimaŗ¹alapadabyańjanampi vacana½ sarasampattirahita½ h²¼eti. Yebhuyyena bhikkhun²na½ piyo hoti man±poti sabb±sa½ piyo n±ma dullabho, bahutar±na½ pana paŗ¹it±na½ bhikkhun²na½ s²l±c±rasampattiy± piyo hoti manava¹¹hanako. Paµibalo hoti bhikkhuniyo ovaditunti suttańca k±raŗańca dassento vaµµabhayena tajjetv± bhikkhuniyo ovaditu½ t±disa½ dhamma½ desetu½ samattho hoti. K±s±yavatthavasan±y±ti k±s±yavatthanivatth±ya. Garudhammanti gihik±le bhikkhuniy± k±yasa½sagga½ v± sikkham±n±s±maŗer²su methunadhamma½ v± anajjh±pannapubbo hoti. M±tug±mo hi pubbe katamanussaranto sa½vare µhitass±pi dhammadesan±ya g±rava½ na karoti. Atha v± tasmiyeva asaddhamme citta½ upp±deti. V²sativasso v±ti upasampad±ya v²sativasso tato atirekavasso v±. Evar³po hi visabh±gehi vatth³hi punappuna½ sam±gacchantopi daharo viya sahas± s²lavin±sa½ na p±puŗ±ti, attano vaya½ paccavekkhitv± ayuttaµµh±ne chandar±ga½ vinetu½ paµibalo hoti, tena vutta½– “v²sativasso v± hoti atirekav²sativasso v±”ti.
Ettha ca “s²lav±”ti-±di ekamaŖga½, “bahussuto hot²”ti-±di dutiya½, “ubhay±ni kho panass±”ti-±di tatiya½, “kaly±ŗav±co hoti kaly±ŗav±kkaraŗo”ti catuttha½, “yebhuyyena bhikkhun²na½ piyo hoti man±po”ti pańcama½, “paµibalo hoti bhikkhuniyo ovaditun”ti chaµµha½, “na kho panetan”ti-±di sattama½, “v²sativasso”ti-±di aµµhamanti veditabba½.
148. Ńatticatutthen±ti pubbe vatthusmi½ vutteneva. Garudhammeh²ti garukehi dhammehi, te hi g±rava½ katv± bhikkhun²hi sampaµicchitabbatt± garudhamm±ti vuccanti. Ekato-upasampann±y±ti ettha bhikkhun²na½ santike ekato-upasampann±ya, yo garudhammena ovadati, tassa dukkaµa½. Bhikkh³na½ santike upasampann±ya pana yath±vatthukameva.
149. Pariveŗa½ sammajjitv±ti sace p±to asammaµµha½ sammaµµhampi v± puna tiŗapaŗŗ±d²hi ukl±pa½ p±dappah±rehi ca vikiŗŗav±lika½ j±ta½, sammajjitabba½. Asammaµµhańhi ta½ disv± “ayyo attano nissitake daharabhikkh³pi vattapaµipattiya½ na yojeti, dhamma½yeva kathet²”ti t± bhikkhuniyo asotuk±m± viya bhaveyyu½. Tena vutta½– “pariveŗa½ sammajjitv±”ti. Antog±mato pana bhikkhuniyo ±gacchantiyo pip±sit± ca kilant± ca honti, t± p±n²yańca hatthap±damukhas²talakaraŗańca pacc±s²santi, tasmińca asati purimanayeneva ag±rava½ janetv± asotuk±m±pi honti Tena vutta½– “p±n²ya½ paribhojan²ya½ upaµµhapetv±”ti.
¾sananti n²cap²µhakaphalakataµµikakaµas±rak±dibheda½ antamaso s±kh±bhaŖgampi “ida½ t±sa½ ±sana½ bhavissat²”ti eva½ ±sana½ pańńapetv±. Dhammadesan±pattimocanattha½ pana dutiyo icchitabbo. Tena vutta½– “dutiya½ gahetv± nis²ditabban”ti. Nis²ditabbanti na vih±rapaccante, atha kho vih±ramajjhe uposath±g±rassa v± bhojanas±l±ya v± dv±re sabbesa½ osaraŗaµµh±ne nis²ditabba½. Samagg±tth±ti sabb± ±gatatth±ti attho. Vattant²ti ±gacchanti; paguŗ± v±cuggat±ti attho. Niyy±detabboti appetabbo. Os±retabboti p±¼i vattabb±. Vassasat³pasampann±y±ti-±di vattabbap±¼idassana½.