Catubbidhavinayakath±vaººan±

45. N²haritv±ti s±sanato n²haritv±. Tath± hi “pañcahup±li aªgehi samann±gatenabhikkhun± n±nuyuñjitabba½. Katamehi pañcahi? Sutta½ na j±n±ti, sutt±nuloma½na j±n±t²”ti (pari. 442) evam±dipariyattis±sanato sutta½ sutt±nulomañca n²haritv±pak±sesu½, “an±patti eva½ amh±ka½ ±cariy±na½ uggaho paripucch±ti gaºh±t²”tievam±dipariyattis±sanato ±cariyav±da½ n²haritv± pak±sesu½, bh±rukacchakavatthusmi½(p±r±. 78) “±yasm± up±li evam±ha an±patti ±vuso supinanten±”tievam±dipariyattis±sanato eva attanomati½ n²haritv± pak±sesu½. T±ya hi attanomatiy±thero etadaggaµµh±na½ labhi.
Vuttanti n±gasenattherena vutta½. Pajjate anena atthoti pada½, bhagavat± kaºµh±divaººappavattiµµh±na½±hacca visesetv± bh±sita½ pada½ ±haccapada½, bhagavatoyeva vacana½. Ten±ha “±haccapadantisutta½ adhippetan”ti. “Ida½ kappati, ida½ na kappat²”ti eva½ avisesetv±“ya½, bhikkhave, may± ‘ida½ na kappat²’ti appaµikkhitta½, tañce akappiya½ anulometi,kappiya½ paµib±hati, ta½ vo na kappat²”ti-±din± (mah±va. 305) vutta½ s±maññalakkhaºa½idha “raso”ti adhippetanti ±ha “rasoti sutt±nuloman”ti. Dhammasaªg±hakappabhuti-±cariyaparamparato±n²t± aµµhakath±tanti idha “±cariyava½so”ti adhippet±ti ±ha “±cariyava½soti±cariyav±do”ti.
Idha vinayavinicchayassa adhikatatt± tadanucchavikameva sutta½ dassento ±ha– “sutta½n±ma sakale vinayapiµake p±¼²”ti. Mah±pades±ti mah±-ok±s±, mahant±nivinayassa patiµµh±panaµµh±n±ni yesu patiµµh±pito vinayo vinicchayati asandehato. Mahant±niv± k±raº±ni mah±pades±, mahant±ni vinayavinicchayak±raº±n²ti vutta½ hoti.“Atthato pana ‘ya½, bhikkhave’ti-±din± vutt± s±dhipp±y± p±¼iyeva mah±pades±”tivadanti. Tenev±ha “ye bhagavat± eva½ vutt±”ti-±di. Ime ca mah±pades± khandhake±gat±, tasm± tesa½ vinicchayakath± tattheva ±vi bhavissat²ti idha na vuccati. Yadipitattha tattha bhagavat± pavattit± pakiººakadesan±va aµµhakath±, s± pana dhammasaªg±hakehi paµhama½t²ºi piµak±ni saªg±yitv± tassa atthavaººan±nur³peneva v±can±magga½ ±ropitatt± “±cariyav±do”tivuccati ±cariy± vadanti sa½vaººenti p±¼i½ eten±ti katv±. Ten±ha– “±cariyav±don±ma…pe… aµµhakath±tant²”ti. Tisso saªg²tiyo ±ru¼hoyeva ca buddhavacanassaatthasa½vaººan±bh³to kath±maggo mah±mahindattherena tambapaººid²pa½ ±bhato, pacch± tambapaººiyehimah±therehi s²ha¼abh±s±ya µhapito nik±yantaraladdhisaªkarapariharaºattha½. Kiñc±pi attanomatisutt±d²hi sa½sanditv±va parikapp²yati, tath±pi s± na sutt±d²su visesato iddiµµh±ti ±ha “suttasutt±nuloma-±cariyav±de muñcitv±”ti. Anubuddhiy±tisutt±d²niyeva anugatabuddhiy±. Nayagg±hen±ti sutt±dito labbham±nanayaggahaºena.
Attanomati½ s±maññato paµhama½ dassetv± id±ni tameva visesetv± dassento “apic±”ti-±dim±ha.Id±ni tattha paµipajjitabb±k±ra½ dassento ±ha– “ta½ pana attanomati½ gahetv±kathenten±”ti-±di. Atthen±ti attan± sallakkhitena atthena. ¾cariyav±de ot±retabb±ti±cariyav±de ñ±ºena anuppavesetabb±. Sabbadubbal±ti puggalassa saya½ paµibh±nabh±vato.Pam±dap±µhavasena ±cariyav±dassa kad±ci sutt±nulomena asa½sandan±pi siy±, so na gahetabbotidassento ±ha– “±cariyav±dopi…pe… samento eva gahetabbo”ti. Samentamevagahetabbanti yath± suttena sa½sandati, eva½ mah±padesato atth± uddharitabb±ti dasseti.Sutt±nulomassa suttekadesattepi sutte viya “ida½ kappati, ida½ na kappat²”tiparicchinditv± ±haccabh±sita½ kiñci natth²ti ±ha– “sutt±nulomato hi suttamevabalavataran”ti. Appaµivattiyanti appaµib±hiya½. K±rakasaªghasadisanti pam±ºatt±saªg²tik±rakasaªghasadisa½. Buddh±na½ µhitak±lasadisanti imin± buddheheva kathitatt±dharam±nabuddhasadisanti vutta½ hoti. Sutte hi paµib±hite buddhova paµib±hito hoti.Sakav±d² sutta½ gahetv± kathet²ti sakav±d² attano sutta½ gahetv± voharati.Parav±d² sutt±nulomanti aññanik±yav±d² attano nik±ye sutt±nuloma½ gahetv±katheti. Khepa½ v± garaha½ v± akatv±ti “ki½ imin±”ti khepa½ v± “kimesab±lo vadat²”ti garaha½ v± akatv±. Sutt±nulomanti parav±din± vutta½ aññanik±yesutt±nuloma½. Sutte ot±retabbanti sakav±din± attano sutte ot±retabba½.Suttasmi½yeva µh±tabbanti attano sutteyeva µh±tabba½. Eva½ sesav±resupi atthayojan±k±tabb±. Ayanti sakav±d². Paroti aññanik±yav±d². Eva½ sesesupi.
Nanu ca “sutt±nulomato suttameva balavataran”ti heµµh± vutta½, idha pana “sutt±nulomesutta½ ot±retabban”ti-±di kasm± vuttanti? N±ya½ virodho. “Sutt±nulomatosuttameva balavataran”ti hi ida½ sakamateyeva sutta½ sandh±ya vutta½.Tattha hi sakamatipariy±pannameva sutt±di½ sandh±ya “attanomati sabbadubbal±, attanomatito±cariyav±do balavataro, ±cariyav±dato sutt±nuloma½ balavatara½, sutt±nulomato suttamevabalavataran”ti ca vutta½. Idha pana parav±din± ±n²ta½ aññanik±ye sutta½ sandh±ya “sutt±nulomesutta½ ot±retabban”ti-±di vutta½. Tasm± parav±din± ±n²ta½ sutt±di½ attanosutt±nuloma-±cariyav±da-attanomat²su ot±retv± samenta½yeva gahetabba½, itara½ na gahetabbantiaya½ nayo idha vuccat²ti na koci pubb±paravirodho.
B±hirakasuttanti tisso saªg²tiyo an±ru¼hagu¼havessantar±d²ni mah±saªghikanik±yav±s²na½sutt±ni. Vedall±d²nanti ±di-saddena gu¼ha-ummagg±diggahaºa½ veditabba½, itara½g±rayhasutta½ na gahetabba½. Attanomatiyameva µh±tabbanti imin± aññanik±yato±n²tasuttatopi sakanik±ye attanomatiyeva balavatar±ti dasseti. Sakav±d² sutta½gahetv± katheti, parav±d²pi suttamev±ti-evam±din± sam±naj±tik±na½ vasena v±rona vutto, suttassa sutteyeva ot±raºa½ bhinna½ viya hutv± na paññ±yati, vuttanayenevaca sakk± yojetunti.
Id±ni sakav±d²parav±d²na½ kappiy±kappiy±dibh±va½ sandh±ya viv±de uppanne tattha paµipajjitabbavidhi½dassento ±ha– “atha pan±ya½ kappiyanti gahetv± kathet²”ti-±di. Tattha sutteca sutt±nulome ca ot±retabbanti sakav±din± attanoyeva sutte ca sutt±nulomeca ot±retabba½. Paro k±raºa½ na vindat²ti parav±d² k±raºa½ na labhati. Suttatobahu½ k±raºañca vinicchayañca dasset²ti parav±d² attano suttato bahu½ k±raºa½ vinicchayañca±haritv± dasseti. S±dh³ti sampaµicchitv± akappiyeva µh±tabbanti imin±attano nik±ye sutt±d²ni alabhantena sakav±din± parav±d²vacaneyeva µh±tabbanti vadati.Dvinnampi k±raºacch±y± dissat²ti sakav±d²parav±d²na½ ubhinnampi kappiy±kappiyabh±vas±dhaka½k±raºapatir³paka½ dissati. Yadi dvinnampi k±raºacch±y± dissati, kasm± “akappiyevaµh±tabban”ti ±ha “vinayañhi patv±”ti-±di. “Vinaya½ patv±”ti vuttamevattha½p±kaµatara½ katv± dassento ±ha “kappiy±kappiyavic±raºam±gamm±”ti. Rundhitabbanti-±d²su dubbiññeyyavinicchaye kappiy±kappiyabh±ve sati kappiyanti gahaºa½ rundhitabba½,akappiyanti gahaºa½ g±¼ha½ k±tabba½. Apar±para½ pavattakappiyagahaºasota½ pacchinditabba½,garukabh±vasaªkh±te akappiyabh±veyeva µh±tabbanti attho.
Bah³hi suttavinicchayak±raºeh²ti bah³hi suttehi ceva tato ±n²tavinicchayak±raºehica. Attano gahaºa½ na vissajjetabbanti sakav±din± attano akappiyanti gahaºa½ na vissajjetabba½.Id±ni vuttamevattha½ nigamento “evan”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha yoti sakav±d²parav±d²suyo koci. Keci pana “sakav±d²suyeva yo koci idh±dhippeto”ti vadanti, eva½sante “atha pan±ya½ kappiyanti gahetv± kathet²”ti-±d²su sabbattha ubhopi sakav±dinoyevasiyu½ heµµh± vuttasseva nigamanavasena “evan”ti-±d²na½ vuttatt±, tasm± ta½ na gahetabba½.Atirekak±raºa½ labhat²ti ettha sutt±d²su purima½ purima½ atirekak±raºa½ n±ma,yo v± sutt±d²su cat³su bahutara½ k±raºa½ labhati, so atirekak±raºa½ labhati n±ma.
Suµµhu pavatti etass±ti suppavatti, suµµhu pavattati s²len±ti v± suppavatti. Ten±ha“suppavatt²ti suµµhu pavattan”ti. V±c±ya uggata½ v±cuggata½, vacas± suggahitantivutta½ hoti. Suttatoti imassa vivaraºa½ “p±¼ito”ti. Ettha ca “sutta½n±ma sakala½ vinayapiµakan”ti vuttatt± p±¼itoti tadatthad²pik± aññ±yeva p±¼iveditabb±. Anubyañjanasoti imassa vivaraºa½ “paripucchato ca aµµhakath±to c±”ti.P±¼i½ anugantv± atthassa byañjanato pak±sanato anubyañjananti hi paripucch± aµµhakath±ca vuccati. Ettha ca aµµhakath±ya visu½ gahitatt± paripucch±ti therav±do vutto.Saªghabhedassa pubbabh±ge pavattakalahasseta½ adhivacana½ saªghar±j²ti. Kukkuccakotiaºumattesupi vajjesu bhayadassanavasena kukkucca½ upp±dento. Tanti½ avisa½v±detv±tip±¼i½ aññath± akatv±. Avokkamantoti anatikkamanto.
Vitthunat²ti attha½ adisv± nitthunati. Vipphandat²ti kampati. Santiµµhitu½na sakkot²ti ekasmi½yeva atthe patiµµh±tu½ na sakkoti. Ten±ha “ya½ ya½ parena vuccati, ta½ ta½ anuj±n±t²”ti. Parav±da½ gaºh±t²ti“ucchumhi kasaµa½ y±vaj²vika½, raso satt±hak±liko, tadubhayavinimutto ca ucchun±ma visu½ natthi, tasm± ucchupi vik±le vaµµat²”ti parav±din± vutte tampi gaºh±ti.Ekekalomanti palita½ sandh±ya vutta½. Yamh²ti yasmi½ puggale. Parikkhaya½pariy±d±nanti atthato eka½.
¾cariyaparampar± kho panassa suggahit± hot²ti ettha ±cariyaparampar±ti ±cariy±na½vinicchayaparampar±. Teneva vakkhati “yath± ±cariyo ca ±cariy±cariyo ca p±¼iñca paripucchañcavadanti, tath± ñ±tu½ vaµµat²”ti. Pubb±par±nusandhitoti “ida½ pubbavacana½, ida½paravacana½, ayamanusandh²”ti eva½ pubb±par±nusandhito. ¾cariyaparamparanti imassevavevacana½ therav±daªganti, therapaµip±µinti attho. Dve tayo parivaµµ±ti dvetisso parampar±.
Imehi ca pana t²hi lakkhaºeh²ti “suttamassa sv±gata½ hot²”ti-±din± heµµh± vuttehit²hi lakkhaºehi. Ettha ca paµhamena lakkhaºena vinayassa suµµhu uggahitabh±vo vutto, dutiyenauggahitena acalat± suppatiµµhitat± vutt±, tatiyena ya½ p±¼iy± aµµhakath±ya ca natthi, tampi±cariyavacanena vinicchinitu½ samatthat± vutt±. Otiººe vatthusminti codan±saªkh±tev²tikkamasaªkh±te v± vatthusmi½ saªghamajjhe otiººe, osaµeti attho. Vuttameva vibh±vento“codakena ca cuditakena ca vutte vattabbe”ti ±ha. Keci pana “codakenaotiººe vatthusmi½ cuditakena ca vutte vattabbe”ti eva½ yojenti. Apare pana“codakena ca cuditakena ca vutte vinayadharena ca vattabbe”ti evampi yojenti.“Codakena ca cuditakena ca vutte vattabbe”ti ayameva pana yojan± sundaratar±ti veditabb±.Vatthu oloketabbanti tassa tassa sikkh±padassa vatthu oloketabba½. “Tiºena v±paººena v±…pe… yo ±gaccheyya, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti (p±r±. 517) hi ida½nissaggiye aññ±takaviññattisikkh±padassa vatthusmi½ paññatta½, thullaccayadubbh±sit±patt²na½m±tik±ya an±gatatt± “pañcanna½ ±patt²na½ aññataran”ti vutta½. Aññatara½ v±±pattinti “k±le vik±lasaññ² ±patti dukkaµassa, k±le vematiko ±pattidukkaµass±”ti evam±din± (p±ci. 250) ±gata½ dukkaµa½ sandh±ya vutta½.Sikkh±padantares³ti vin²tavatthu½ antokatv± ekekasmi½ sikkh±padantare.
Sukhum±ti attanopi duviññeyyasabh±vassa lahuparivattino cittassa s²ghaparivattit±yavutta½. Ten±ha “cittalahuk±”ti. Citta½ lahu s²ghaparivatti etesanticittalahuk±. Teti te v²tikkame. Ta½vatthukanti te adinn±d±namanussaviggahav²tikkam±vatthu adhiµµh±na½ k±raºametass±ti ta½vatthuka½. S²l±ni sodhetv±ti ya½vatthuka½kukkucca½ uppanna½, ta½ amanasikaritv± avasesas²l±ni sodhetv±. P±kaµabh±vato sukhava¼añjanat±yaca “dvatti½s±k±ra½ t±va manasi karoh²”ti vutta½. Aññasmi½ pana kammaµµh±nekataparicayena tadeva manasi k±tabba½. Kammaµµh±na½ ghaµayat²ti antarantar± khaº¹a½ adassetv±cittena saddhi½ ±lambanabh±vena cirak±la½ ghaµayati. Saªkh±r± p±kaµ± hutv± upaµµhahant²tivipassan±kammaµµh±niko ce, tassa saªkh±r± p±kaµ± hutv± upaµµhahanti. Sace katap±r±jikav²tikkamobhaveyya, tassa satipi asarituk±mat±ya vippaµis±ravatthuvasena punappuna½ ta½ upaµµhahat²ticittekaggata½ na vindati. Tena vutta½ “kammaµµh±na½ na ghaµayat²”ti-±di. Attan±j±n±t²ti sayameva j±n±ti. Paccatte ceta½ karaºavacana½, att± j±n±t²ti vutta½hoti. Aññ± ca devat± j±nant²ti ±rakkhadevat±hi aññ± paracittaviduniyo devat±ca j±nanti.

Niµµhit± catubbidhavinayakath±vaººan±

Vinayadharassa ca lakkhaº±dikath±vaººan±.