Sikkh±s±j²vapadabh±jan²yavaººan±

Sikkhitabb±ti ±sevitabb±. Uttamanti visiµµha½. Adhis²l±d²su vijjam±nesus²l±d²hipi bhavitabba½. Yath± hi omakatarappam±ºa½ chatta½ v± dhaja½ v± up±d±ya atirekappam±ºa½“atichatta½ atidhajo”ti vuccati, evamih±pi “anukkaµµhas²la½ up±d±ya adhis²lenabhavitabba½, tath± anukkaµµha½ citta½ paññañca up±d±ya adhicittena adhipaññ±ya ca bhavitabban”timanasi katv± s²l±di½ sar³pato vibh±vetuk±mo “katama½ panettha s²lan”ti-±dim±ha.Aµµhaªgas²la½ dasaªgas²lesveva antogadhatt± visu½ aggahetv± “pañcaªgadasaªgas²lan”ti ettakamevavutta½. P±timokkhasa½varas²lanti c±rittav±rittavasena duvidha½ vinayapiµakapariy±panna½sikkh±padas²la½. Tañhi yo na½ p±ti rakkhati, ta½ mokkheti moceti ±p±yik±d²hidukkheh²ti p±timokkhanti vuccati. Sa½varaºa½ sa½varo k±yav±c±hiav²tikkamo. P±timokkhameva sa½varo p±timokkhasa½varo. So eva s²lanaµµhena s²lantip±timokkhasa½varas²la½.
Aparo nayo (ud±. aµµha. 31; itivu. aµµha. 97)– kiles±na½ balavabh±vato p±pakiriy±yasukarabh±vato puññakiriy±ya ca dukkarabh±vato bahukkhattu½ ap±yesu patanas²loti p±t²,puthujjano. Aniccat±ya v± bhav±bhav±d²su kammavegakkhitto ghaµiyanta½ viya anavaµµh±nenaparibbhamanato gamanas²loti p±t², maraºavasena v± tamhi tamhi sattanik±ye attabh±vassapatanas²loti p±t², sattasant±no, cittameva v±. Ta½ p±tina½ sa½s±radukkhato mokkhet²tip±timokkha½. Cittassa hi vimokkhena satto vimuttoti vuccati. Vuttañhi “cittavod±n±visujjhant²”ti (sa½. ni. 3.100), “anup±d±ya ±savehi citta½ vimuttan”ti(mah±va. 28) ca.
Atha v± avijj±din± hetun± sa½s±re patati gacchati pavattat²ti p±ti. “Avijj±n²varaº±na½satt±na½ taºh±sa½yojan±na½ sandh±vata½ sa½saratan”ti (sa½. ni. 2.124) hi vutta½.Tassa p±tino sattassa taºh±disa½kilesattayato mokkho eten±ti p±timokkho. “Kaºµhek±¼o”ti-±d²na½viyassa sam±sasiddhi veditabb±.
Atha v± p±teti vinip±teti dukkheh²ti p±ti, citta½. Vuttañhi “cittena n²yatiloko, cittena parikassat²”ti (sa½. ni. 1.62). Tassa p±tino mokkho eten±tip±timokkho. Patati v± etena ap±yadukkhe sa½s±radukkhe c±ti p±ti, taºh±sa½kileso.Vuttañhi “taºh± janeti purisa½ (sa½. ni. 1.55-57), taºh±dutiyo puriso”ti(a. ni. 4.9; itivu. 15, 105) ca ±di. Tato p±tito mokkhoti p±timokkho.
Atha v± patati etth±ti p±ti, cha ajjhattikab±hir±ni ±yatan±ni. Vuttañhi “chasu lokosamuppanno, chasu kubbati santhavan”ti (sa½. ni. 1.70; su. ni. 171). Tatocha-ajjhattikab±hir±yatanasaªkh±tato p±tito mokkhoti p±timokkho.
Atha v± p±to vinip±to assa atth²ti p±t², sa½s±ro. Tato mokkhotip±timokkho.
Atha v± sabbalok±dhipatibh±vato dhammissaro bhagav± pat²ti vuccati, muccati eten±ti mokkho,patino mokkho tena paññattatt±ti patimokkho, patimokkho eva p±timokkho. Sabbaguº±na½v± m³labh±vato uttamaµµhena pati ca so yath±vuttena atthena mokkho c±ti patimokkho, patimokkhoeva p±timokkho. Tath± hi vutta½ “p±timokkhanti mukhameta½ pamukhametan”ti (mah±va.135) vitth±ro.
Atha v± pa-iti pak±re, at²ti accantatthe nip±to, tasm± pak±rehi accanta½ mokkhet²tip±timokkho. Idañhi s²la½ saya½ tadaªgavasena sam±dhisahita½ paññ±sahitañca vikkhambhanavasenasamucchedavasena ca accanta½ mokkheti mocet²ti p±timokkho.
Pati pati mokkhoti v± patimokkho, tamh± tamh± v²tikkamadosato pacceka½ mokkhet²tiattho, patimokkho eva p±timokkho. Mokkho v± nibb±na½, tassa mokkhassa paµibimbabh³totipatimokkho. S²lasa½varo hi s³riyassa aruºuggamana½ viya nibb±nassa udayabh³to tappaµibh±goca yath±raha½ kilesanibb±panato, patimokkhoyeva p±timokkho. Pativattati mokkh±bhimukhantiv± patimokkha½, patimokkhameva p±timokkhanti eva½ t±vettha p±timokkhasaddassa atthoveditabbo.
Sa½varati pidahati eten±ti sa½varo, p±timokkhameva sa½varo p±timokkhasa½varo. So evas²la½ p±timokkhasa½varas²la½, atthato pana tato tato v²tikkamitabbato viratiyo cevacetan± ca.
Adhis²lanti vuccat²ti anavasesato k±yikav±casikasa½varabh±vato ca maggas²lassa padaµµh±nabh±vatoca p±timokkhasa½varas²la½ adhika½ visiµµha½ s²la½ adhis²lanti vuccati. Pajjot±nanti±lok±na½. Nanu ca paccekabuddh±pi dhammat±vasena p±timokkhasa½varas²lena samann±gat±vahonti, eva½ sati kasm± “buddhupp±deyeva pavattati, na vin± buddhupp±d±”ti iyametv± vuttanti ±ha– “na hi ta½ paññatti½ uddharitv±”ti-±di. Kiñc±pipaccekabuddh± p±timokkhasa½varasampann±gat± honti, na pana tesa½ vasena vitth±rita½ hutv±pavattat²ti adhipp±yo. “Imasmi½ vatthusmi½ imasmi½ v²tikkame ida½ n±ma hot²”tipaññapana½ aññesa½ avisayo, buddh±na½yeva esa visayo, buddh±na½ balanti ±ha– “buddh±yevapan±”ti-±di. Lokiyas²lassa adhis²labh±vo pariy±yen±ti nippariy±yameva ta½ dassetu½“p±timokkhasa½varatopi ca maggaphalasampayuttameva s²la½ adhis²lan”ti vutta½. Nahi ta½ sam±panno bhikkh³ti gahaµµhesu sot±pann±na½ sad±rav²tikkamasambhavato vutta½.Tath± hi te saputtad±r± ag±ra½ ajjh±vasanti.
Sam±d±pana½ sam±d±nañc±ti aññesa½ sam±d±pana½ saya½ sam±d±nañca. Adhicittanti vuccat²ti maggasam±dhissa adhiµµh±nabh±vato adhicittanti vuccati. Na vin± buddhupp±d±ti kiñc±pi paccekabuddh±na½ vipassan±p±daka½ aµµhasam±patticitta½ hotiyeva, na pana tetattha aññe sam±d±petu½ sakkont²ti na tesa½ vasena vitth±rita½ hutv± pavattat²ti adhipp±yo.Vipassan±paññ±yapi adhipaññat±s±dhane “na vin± buddhupp±d±”ti vacana½ imin±va adhipp±yenavuttanti veditabba½. Lokiyacittassa adhicittat± pariy±yen±ti nippariy±yameva ta½dassetu½ “tatopi ca maggaphalacittameva adhicittan”ti ±ha. Ta½ pana idha anadhippetantiimin± aµµhakath±vacanena lokiyacittassa vasena adhicittasikkh±pi idha adhippet±ti viññ±yati.Na hi ta½ sam±panno bhikkhu methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevat²ti ca imin± lokiya-adhicitta½sam±panno methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevat²ti ±panna½. Adhipaññ±niddese ca “tatopi ca maggaphalapaññ±vaadhipaññ±”ti vatv± “s± pana idha anadhippet±. Na hi ta½ sam±panno bhikkhu methuna½dhamma½ paµisevat²”ti vuttatt± lokiyapaññ±vasena adhipaññ±sikkh±yapi idh±dhippetabh±vota½ sam±pannassa methunadhammapaµisevanañca aµµhakath±ya½ anuññ±tanti viññ±yati. Idañca sabba½“tatra y±ya½ adhis²lasikkh±, aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippet± sikkh±”ti im±ya p±¼iy±na sameti. Ayañhi p±¼i adhis²lasikkh±va idha adhippet±, na itar±ti d²peti, tasm±p±¼iy± aµµhakath±ya ca evamadhipp±yo veditabbo– lokiya-adhicitta-adhipaññ±sam±pannassa tath±r³papaccaya½paµicca “methuna½ dhamma½ paµiseviss±m²”ti citte uppanne tato adhicittato dhipaññato ca parih±ni sambhavat²ti ta½ dvaya½ sam±pannena na sakk± methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevituntip±¼iya½ adhis²lasikkh±va vutt±. Adhis²lasikkhañhi y±va v²tikkama½ na karoti, t±vasam±pannova hoti. Na hi cittupp±damattena p±timokkhasa½varas²la½ bhinna½ n±ma hot²ti.Aµµhakath±ya½ pana lokiya-adhicittato adhipaññato ca parih±yitv±pi bhikkhuno methunadhammapaµisevana½kad±ci bhaveyy±ti ta½ dvaya½ appaµikkhipitv± maggaphaladhamm±na½ akuppasabh±vatt± ta½sam±pannassa bhikkhuno tato parih±yitv± methunadhammapaµisevana½ n±ma na kad±ci sambhavat²tilokuttar±dhicitta-adhipaññ±na½yeva paµikkhepo katoti veditabbo.
Atthi dinna½ atthi yiµµhanti-±dinayappavattanti imin±–
“Tattha katama½ kammassakataññ±ºa½? ‘Atthi dinna½, atthi yiµµha½, atthi huta½, atthisukatadukkaµ±na½ kamm±na½ phala½ vip±ko, atthi aya½ loko, atthi paro loko,atthi m±t±, atthi pit±, atthi satt± opap±tik±, atthi loke samaºabr±hmaº± sammaggat±samm± paµipann±, ye imañca loka½ parañca loka½ saya½ abhiññ± sacchikatv± pavedent²’tiy± evar³p± paññ± paj±nan±…pe… amoho dhammavicayo samm±diµµhi, ida½ vuccatikammassakataññ±ºa½. Ýhapetv± sacc±nulomika½ ñ±ºa½ sabb±pi s±sav± kusal± paññ±kammassakataññ±ºan”ti (vibha. 793)–

Ima½ vibhaªgap±¼i½ saªgaºh±ti.

Tattha (vibha. aµµha. 793) atthi dinnanti-±d²su dinnapaccay± phala½ atth²ti imin± up±yenaattho veditabbo. Dinnanti ca deyyadhammas²sena d±na½ vutta½. Yiµµhanti mah±y±go,sabbas±dh±raºa½ mah±d±nanti attho. Hutanti pahonakasakk±ro adhippeto. Atthim±t±, atthi pit±ti m±t±pit³su samm±paµipattimicch±paµipatti-±d²na½ phalasambhavovutto. Ida½ vuccat²ti ya½ ñ±ºa½ “ida½ kamma½ saka½, ida½ no sakan”ti j±n±ti,ida½ kammassakataññ±ºa½ n±ma vuccat²ti attho. Tattha tividha½ k±yaduccarita½ catubbidha½vac²duccarita½ tividha½ manoduccaritanti ida½ na sakakamma½ n±ma, t²su dv±resudasavidhampi sucarita½ sakakamma½ n±ma. Attano v±pi hotu parassa v±, sabbampi akusala½na sakakamma½ n±ma. Kasm±? Atthabhañjanato anatthajananato ca. Attanov± hotu parassa v±, sabbampi kusala½ sakakamma½ n±ma. Kasm±? Anatthabhañjanatoatthajananato ca. Eva½ j±nanasamatthe imasmi½ kammassakataññ±ºe µhatv± bahu½ d±na½ datv±s²la½ p³retv± uposatha½ sam±diyitv± sukhena sukha½ sampattiy± sampatti½ anubhavitv±nibb±na½ patt±na½ satt±na½ gaºanaparicchedo natthi. Ýhapetv± sacc±nulomika½ ñ±ºantimaggasaccassa paramatthasaccassa ca anulomanato sacc±nulomikanti laddhan±ma½ vipassan±ñ±ºa½µhapetv± avases± sabb±pi s±sav± kusal± paññ± kammassakataññ±ºamev±ti attho.
Tilakkhaº±k±raparicchedakanti anicc±dilakkhaºattayassa hutv± abh±v±di-±k±rapa-acchindanaka½.Adhipaññ±ti vuccat²ti maggapaññ±ya adhiµµh±nabh±vato vipassan±ñ±ºa½ adhipaññ±tivuccati.
“Kaly±ºak±r² kaly±ºa½, p±pak±r² ca p±paka½;
anubhoti dvayameta½, anubandhati k±rakan”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.256).

Eva½ at²te an±gate ca vaµµam³lakadukkhasallakkhaºavasena sa½vegavatthut±ya vimutti-±kaªkh±yapaccayabh³t± kammassakatapaññ± adhipaññ±tipi vadanti. Lokiyapaññ±ya adhipaññ±bh±vopariy±yen±ti nippariy±yameva ta½ dassetu½ “tatopi ca maggaphalapaññ±va adhipaññ±”tivutta½.

Saha ±j²vanti etth±ti s±j²voti sabbasikkh±pada½ vuttanti ±ha– “sabbampi…pe…tasm± s±j²vanti vuccat²”ti. Tattha sikkh±padanti “n±mak±yo padak±yo niruttik±yobyañjanak±yo”ti vutta½ bhagavato vacanasaªkh±ta½ sikkh±pada½. Sabh±gavuttinoti sam±navuttik±,sadisappavattik±ti attho. Tasmi½ sikkhat²ti ettha ±dheyy±pekkhatt± adhikaraºassakim±dheyyamapekkhitv± “tasmin”ti adhikaraºa½ niddiµµhanti ±ha– “ta½ sikkh±pada½cittassa adhikaraºa½ katv±”ti, ta½ s±j²vasaªkh±ta½ sikkh±pada½ “yath±sikkh±pada½ nukho sikkh±mi, na sikkh±m²”ti eva½ pavattivasena sikkh±padavisayatt± tad±dheyyabh³tassacittassa adhikaraºa½ katv±ti attho. Nanu ca “sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti imassa padabh±jana½karontena “ya½ sikkha½ s±j²vañca sam±panno, tadubhaya½ dassetv± tesu sikkhati, tena vuccati sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti vattabba½ siy±, evamavatv± “tasmi½sikkhati, tena vuccati s±j²vasam±panno”ti ettakameva kasm± vuttanti antol²nacodana½sandh±y±ha “na kevalañc±yametasmin”ti-±di.

Tass± ca sikkh±y±ti tass± adhis²lasaªkh±t±ya sikkh±ya. Sikkha½ parip³rentoti

S²lasa½vara½ parip³rento, v±rittas²lavasena viratisampayutta½ cetana½ c±rittas²lavasenavirativippayutta½ cetanañca attani pavattentoti attho. Tasmiñca sikkh±pade av²tikkamantosikkhat²ti “n±mak±yo padak±yo niruttik±yo byañjanak±yo”ti eva½ vutta½bhagavato vacanasaªkh±ta½ sikkh±pada½ av²tikkamanto hutv± tasmi½ yath±vuttasikkh±pade sikkhat²tiattho. S²lasa½varap³raºa½ s±j²v±natikkamanañc±ti idameva ca dvaya½ idha sikkhana½ n±m±tiadhipp±yo. Tattha s±j²v±natikkamo sikkh±p±rip³riy± paccayo. S±j²v±natikkamatohi y±va magg± sikkh±p±rip³r² hoti. Apicettha “sikkha½ parip³rento sikkhat²”tiimin± viraticetan±saªkh±tassa s²lasa½varassa visesato sant±ne pavattanak±lova gahito,“av²tikkamanto sikkhat²”ti imin± pana appavattanak±lopi. Sikkhañhi parip³raºavasenaattani pavattentopi nidd±divasena appavattentopi v²tikkam±bh±v± “av²tikkamantosikkhat²”ti vuccat²ti.

Sikkh±s±j²vapadabh±jan²yavaººan± niµµhit±.