Saraºagamanakath±

Saraºagamanassa visayappabhedaphalasa½kilesabhed±na½ viya kattu ca vibh±van± tattha kosall±yahot²ti “saraºagamanesu kosallattha½ saraºa½…pe… veditabbo”ti vutta½tena vin± saraºagamanasseva asambhavato. Tattha saraºanti padatthato t±va hi½sat²ti saraºa½.Hi½satthassa hi sarasaddassa vaseneta½ pada½ daµµhabba½, tasm± saraºagat±na½ teneva saraºagamanenavaµµabhaya½ cittutr±sa½ k±yika½ dukkha½ duggatipariy±panna½ sabbampi dukkha½ hanati,vin±set²ti attho. Ratanattayasseveta½ adhivacana½ Atha v± hite pavattanena“sampannas²l±, bhikkhave, viharath±”ti-±din± (ma. ni. 1.64) atthe niyojanena ahit±ca nivattanena “p±º±tip±tassa kho pana p±pako vip±ko, p±paka½ abhisampar±yan”ti-±din±±d²navadassan±dimukhena anatthato nivattanena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sati, hit±hitesu appavattipavattihetuka½byasana½ apavattikaraºena vin±seti buddho. Bhavakant±ra-uttaraºena maggasaªkh±to dhammosatt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sati, itaro ass±sad±nena. Appak±nampi d±navasena p³j±vasena caupan²t±na½ sakk±r±na½ vipulaphalapaµil±bhakaraºena satt±na½ bhaya½ hi½sati saªgho anuttaradakkhiºeyyabh±vato,tasm± imin±pi vibhajitv± vuttapariy±yena ratanattaya½ saraºa½. “Samm±sambuddho bhagav±,sv±kkh±to dhammo, suppaµipanno saªgho”ti eva½ pavattaratanattayapasa-±dataggarukat±hi vidhutadiµµhivicikicch±sammoha-assaddhiy±dit±yavihatakileso tadeva ratanattaya½ saraºa½ par±yaºa½ gati t±ºa½ leºanti eva½ pavattiy±tappar±yaºat±k±rappavatto cittupp±do saraºagamana½ saraºanti gacchati eten±ti katv±.Tena yath±vuttacittupp±dena samann±gato satto saraºanti gacchati, vuttappak±rena cittupp±dena“et±ni me t²ºi ratan±ni saraºa½, et±ni par±yaºan”ti eva½ upeti bhajati sevatipayirup±sati, eva½ v± j±n±ti, bujjhat²ti attho. Eva½ t±va saraºa½, saraºagamana½,yo ca saraºa½ gacchati, ida½ taya½ veditabba½.
Saraºagamanappabhede pana duvidha½ saraºagamana½ lokuttara½ lokiyañca. Tattha lokuttara½diµµhasacc±na½ maggakkhaºe saraºagamanupakkilesasamucchedanena ±rammaºato nibb±n±rammaºa½hutv± kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhati. Atthato catusacc±dhigamo eva hi lokuttarasaraºagamana½.Tattha hi nibb±nadhammo sacchikiriy±bhisamayavasena, maggadhammo bh±van±bhisamayavasena paµivijjhiyam±noyevasaraºagamanattha½ s±dheti, buddhaguº± pana s±vakagocarabh³t± pariññ±bhisamayavasena, tath± ariyasaªghaguº±.Tena vutta½ “kiccato sakalepi ratanattaye ijjhat²”ti Ijjhantañca saheva ijjhati,na lokiya½ viya paµip±µiy± asammohapaµivedhena paµividdhatt±. Ye pana vadanti “nasaraºagamana½ nibb±n±rammaºa½ hutv± pavattati, maggassa adhigatatt± pana adhigatameva hotiekacc±na½ tevijj±d²na½ lokiyavijj±dayo viy±”ti, tesa½ lokiyamevasaraºagamana½ siy±, na lokuttara½. Tañca ayutta½ duvidhassapi icchitabbatt±. Lokiya½pana saraºagamana½ puthujjan±na½ saraºagamanupakkilesavikkhambhanena ±rammaºato buddh±diguº±rammaºa½hutv± ijjhati. Ta½ atthato buddh±d²su vatth³su “samm±sambuddho bhagav±”ti-±din±saddh±paµil±bho yath±vuttasaddh±pubbaªgam± ca samm±diµµhi, dasasu puññakiriyavatth³su diµµhijukammantivuccati. Ettha ca “saddh±paµil±bho”ti imin± m±t±d²hi uss±hitad±rak±d²na½ viyañ±ºavippayuttasaraºagamana½ dassitanti veditabba½. “Samm±diµµh²”ti imin± pana ñ±ºasampayutta½saraºagamana½ dassita½ buddhasubuddhata½ dhammasudhammata½ saªghasuppaµipattiñca lokiy±vabodhavasenevasamm± ñ±yena dassanato.
Tayida½ lokiyasaraºagamana½ catudh± pavattati attasanniyy±tanena tappar±yaºat±ya sissabh±v³pagamanenapaºip±ten±ti. Tattha attasanniyy±tana½ n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ att±na½buddhassa niyy±temi, dhammassa, saªghass±”ti eva½ buddh±d²na½yeva sa½s±radukkhanittharaºattha½attano attabh±vassa pariccajana½. Tappar±yaºat± n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± aha½ buddhapar±yaºodhammapar±yaºo saªghapar±yaºoti ma½ dh±reth±”ti eva½ tappar±yaºabh±vo. Sissabh±v³pagamana½n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± ‘aha½ buddhassa antev±siko, dhammassa, saªghass±’ti ma½ dh±reth±”tieva½ sissabh±v³pagamo. Paºip±to n±ma “ajja ±di½ katv± ‘aha½ abhiv±dana½ paccuµµh±na½añjalikamma½ s±m²cikamma½ buddh±d²na½yeva tiººa½ vatth³na½ karom²’ti ma½ dh±reth±”tieva½ buddh±d²su paramanipaccak±ro. Imesañhi catunna½ ±k±r±na½ aññatarampi karontenagahita½yeva hoti saraºagamana½.
Apica “bhagavato att±na½ pariccaj±mi, dhammassa saªghassa att±na½ pariccaj±mi, j²vita½pariccaj±mi, pariccattoyeva me att±, pariccatta½yeva me j²vita½, j²vitapariyantika½buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±mi, buddho me saraºa½ leºa½ t±ºan”ti evampi attasanniyy±tana½veditabba½. “Satth±rañca vat±ha½ pass±mi, bhagavantameva pass±mi, sugatañca vat±ha½ pass±mi,bhagavantameva pass±mi, samm±sambuddhañca vat±ha½ pass±mi, bhagavantameva pass±m²”ti (sa½.ni. 2.154) eva½ mah±kassapattherassa saraºagamana½ viya sissabh±v³pagamana½ daµµhabba½.
“So aha½ vicariss±mi, g±m± g±ma½ pur± pura½;
namassam±no sambuddha½, dhammassa ca sudhammata½. (Sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni.194).
“Te maya½ vicariss±ma, g±m± g±ma½ nag± naga½…pe… sudhammatan”ti. (Su.ni. 182)–

Evampi ±¼avakas±t±girahemavat±d²na½ saraºagamana½ viya tappar±yaºat± veditabb±.Nanu cete ±¼avak±dayo maggeneva ±gatasaraºagaman±, katha½ tesa½ tappar±yaºat±saraºagamana½vuttanti? Maggen±gatasaraºagamanehipi “soha½ vicariss±mi g±m± g±man”ti-±din±(sa½. ni. 1.246; su. ni. 194) tehi tappar±yaºat±k±rassa paveditatt± tath± vutta½.Atha kho brahm±yu br±hmaºo uµµh±y±san± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± bhagavato p±desu siras±nipatitv± bhagavato p±d±ni mukhena ca paricumbati, p±º²hi ca parisamb±hati, n±mañca s±veti“brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama, br±hmaºo, brahm±yu aha½, bho gotama, br±hmaºo”ti (ma. ni.2.394) evampi paºip±to daµµhabbo.

So panesa ñ±tibhay±cariyadakkhiºeyyat±vasena catubbidho hoti. Tattha dakkhiºeyyat±hetukenapaºip±tena saraºagamana½ hoti, na itarehi ñ±tibhay±divasappavattehi t²hi paºip±tehi.Seµµhavaseneva hi saraºa½ gayhati, seµµhavasena bhijjati, tasm± yo s±kiyo v± koliyov± “buddho amh±ka½ ñ±tako”ti vandati, aggahitameva hoti saraºa½. Yo v±“samaºo gotamo r±jap³jito mah±nubh±vo avandiyam±no anatthampi kareyy±”ti bhayenavandati, aggahitameva hoti saraºa½. Yopi bodhisattak±le bhagavato santike kiñciuggahita½ saram±no buddhak±le v±–
“Ekena bhoga½ bhuñjeyya, dv²hi kamma½ payojaye;
catutthañca nidh±peyya, ±pad±su bhavissat²”ti. (D². ni. 3.265)–

Evar³pi½ diµµhadhammika½ anus±sani½ uggahetv± “±cariyo me”ti vandati, aggahitamevahoti saraºa½, sampar±yika½ pana niyy±nika½ v± anus±sani½ pacc±s²santo dakkhiºeyyapaºip±tamevakaroti. Yo pana “aya½ loke aggadakkhiºeyyo”ti vandati, teneva gahita½ hotisaraºa½.

Eva½ gahitasaraºassa ca up±sakassa v± up±sik±ya v± aññatitthiyesu pabbajitampiñ±ti½ “ñ±tako me ayan”ti vandatopi saraºagamana½ na bhijjati, pageva apabbajita½.Tath± r±j±na½ bhayavasena vandato. So hi raµµhap³jitatt± avandiyam±no anatthampi kareyy±ti.Tath± ya½ kiñci sippasikkh±paka½ titthiyampi “±cariyo me ayan”ti vandatopina bhijjati. Eva½ saraºagamanassa pabhedo veditabbo.

Saraºagamanakath± niµµhit±.