Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan±

Id±ni ta½ paµhamamah±saªg²ti½ dassetuk±mo tass± tanti-±ru¼h±ya idha vacane k±raºa½ dassento“paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma ces±…pe… veditabb±”ti ±ha. Paµhamamah±saªg²tin±ma ces±ti ca-saddo ²disesu µh±nesu vattabbasampiº¹anattho, tañca paµhamamah±saªg²tik±levutta½, es± ca paµhamamah±saªg²ti eva½ veditabb±ti vutta½ hoti. Upaññ±sattho v±ca-saddo. Upaññ±soti ca v±ky±rambho vuccati. Es± hi ganthak±r±na½ pakati,yadida½ kiñci vatv± puna para½ vattum±rabhant±na½ casaddappayogo. Ya½ pana kenaci vutta½“paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma c±ti ettha ca-saddo atirekattho, tena aññ±pi atth²ti d²pet²”ti.Tadeva tassa ganthakkame akovidata½ dasseti. Na hettha casaddena atirekattho viññ±yati.Yadi cettha etadatthoyeva ca-k±ro adhippeto siy±, eva½ sati na kattabboyeva paµhamasaddenevaaññ±sa½ dutiy±disaªg²t²nampi atthibh±vassa d²pitatt±. Dutiy±di½ up±d±ya hi paµhamasaddappayogod²gh±di½ up±d±ya rass±disaddappayogo viya. Yath±paccaya½ tattha tattha desitatt± paññattatt±ca vippakiºº±na½ dhammavinay±na½ saªgahetv± g±yana½ kathana½ saªg²ti. Etena ta½ta½sikkh±pad±na½sutt±nañca ±dipariyos±nesu antarantar± ca sambandhavasena µhapita½ saªg²tik±ravacana½ saªgahita½ hoti. Mah±visayatt± p³jan²yatt± ca mahat² saªg²ti mah±saªg²ti,paµham± mah±saªg²ti paµhamamah±saªg²ti. Nid±nakosallatthanti nidad±ti desana½ desak±l±divasenaavidita½ vidita½ katv± nidasset²ti nid±na½, tattha kosalla½ nid±nakosalla½, tadatthantiattho.
Satt±na½ dassan±nuttariyasaraº±dipaµil±bhahetubh³t±su vijjam±n±supi aññ±su bhagavatokiriy±su “buddho bodheyyan”ti paµiññ±ya anulomanato veneyy±na½ maggaphaluppattihetubh³t±kiriy± nippariy±yena buddhakiccanti ±ha “dhammacakkappavattanañhi ±di½ katv±”ti.Tattha saddhindriy±didhammoyeva pavattanaµµhena cakkanti dhammacakka½. Atha v± cakkanti±º±, dhammato anapetatt± dhammañca ta½ cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½, dhammena ñ±yena cakkantipidhammacakka½. Yath±ha–
“Dhammañca pavatteti cakkañc±ti dhammacakka½, cakkañca pavatteti dhammañc±ti dhammacakka½,dhammena pavattet²ti dhammacakka½, dhammacariy±ya pavattet²ti dhammacakkan”ti-±di (paµi.ma. 2.40).
Katabuddhakicceti kata½ pariniµµh±pita½ buddhakicca½ yena, tasmi½ katabuddhakiccebhagavati lokan±theti sambandho. Etena buddhakattabbassa kassacipi asesitabh±va½ dasseti.Tatoyeva hi so bhagav± parinibbutoti. Nanu ca s±vakehi vin²t±pi vineyy± bhagavat±yevavin²t± honti, tath± hi s±vakabh±sita½ sutta½ buddhavacananti vuccati, s±vakavineyy±ca na t±va vin²t±ti? N±ya½ doso tesa½ vinayan³p±yassa s±vakesu µhapitatt±. Tenev±ha–
“Na t±v±ha½ p±pima parinibb±yiss±mi, y±va na bhikkh³ viyatt± vin²t± vis±rad±bahussut± ±gat±gam± dhammadhar± vinayadhar± m±tik±dhar± uppanna½ parappav±da½ sahadhammenasuniggahita½ niggahetv± sapp±µih±riya½ dhamma½ desessant²”ti-±di (d². ni.2.168).
“Kusin±r±yan”ti-±din± bhagavato parinibbutadesak±lavisesadassana½, “aparinibbutobhagav±”ti g±hassa micch±bh±vadassanattha½ loke j±tasa½va¹¹habh±vadassanatthañca.Tath± hi manussabh±vassa sup±kaµakaraºattha½ mah±bodhisatt± carimabhave d±rapariggah±d²nipikaront²ti. Kusin±r±yanti eva½n±make nagare. Sam²patthe ceta½ bhummavacana½. Upavattanemall±na½ s±lavaneti tassa nagarassa upavattanabh³ta½ mallar±j³na½ s±lavanuyy±na½ dasseti.Tattha nagara½ pavisituk±m± uyy±nato upecca vattanti gacchanti eten±ti upavattananti s±lavana½vuccati. Yath± hi anur±dhapurassa th³p±r±mo dakkhiºapacchimadis±ya½, eva½ ta½ uyy±na½kusin±r±ya dakkhiºapacchimadis±ya hoti. Yath± ca th³p±r±mato dakkhiºadv±rena nagara½ pavisanamaggop±c²namukho gantv± uttarena nivattati, eva½ uyy±nato s±lapanti p±c²namukh± gantv±uttarena nivatt±, tasm± ta½ “upavattanan”ti vuccati. Yamakas±l±namantareti yamakas±l±na½vemajjhe. Tattha kira bhagavato paññattassa parinibb±namañcassa ek± s±lapanti s²sabh±gehoti, ek± p±dabh±ge, tatr±pi eko taruºas±lo s²sabh±gassa ±sanno hoti, ekop±dabh±gassa, tasm± “yamakas±l±namantare”ti vutta½. Api ca “yamakas±l± n±ma m³lakkhandhaviµapapattehiaññamañña½ sa½sibbetv± µhitas±l±”tipi mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ vutta½.
Anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy±ti up±d²yate kammakileseh²ti up±di, vip±kakkhandh±kaµatt± ca r³pa½. So pana up±di kiles±bhisaªkh±ram±ranimmathanena nibb±nappattiya½ anossaµµho,idha khandhamaccum±ranimmathanena ossaµµho nisesitoti aya½ anup±dises± nibb±nadh±tu natthietiss± up±disesoti katv±. Nibb±nadh±t³ti cettha nibbutimatta½ adhippeta½,itthambh³talakkhaºe c±ya½ karaºaniddeso. Parinibb±neti parinibb±naµµh±ne, nimittatthev± bhummavacana½, parinibb±nahetu sannipatit±nanti attho. Saªghassa thero saªghatthero.So pana saªgho ki½parim±ºoti ±ha “sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±nan”ti. Niccas±pekkhatt±hi ²disesu sam±so hotiyeva yath± “devadattassa garukulan”ti. Sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±nantica saªghatther±na½yeva sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±na½. Tad± hi “sannipatit± bhikkh³ ettak±”tipam±ºarahit±. Tath± hi ve¼uvag±me vedan±vikkhambhanato paµµh±ya “na cirena bhagav± parinibb±yissat²”tisutv± tato tato ±gatesu bhikkh³su ekabhikkhupi pakkanto n±ma natthi, tasm± gaºana½v²tivatto saªgho ahosi. ¾yasm± mah±kassapo dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janes²ti sambandho.
Tattha mah±kassapoti mahantehi s²lakkhandh±d²hi samann±gatatt± mahanto kassapoti mah±kassapo,apica kum±rakassapatthera½ up±d±ya aya½ mah±thero “mah±kassapo”ti vuccati.Atha kimattha½ ±yasm± mah±kassapo dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½ uss±ha½ janes²ti ±ha “satt±haparinibbute”ti-±di.Satta ah±ni sam±haµ±ni satt±ha½, satt±ha½ parinibbutassa ass±ti satt±haparinibbuto,bhagav±, tasmi½ satt±haparinibbute bhagavati, bhagavato parinibb±nadivasato paµµh±ya satt±hev²tivatteti vutta½ hoti. Subhaddena vu¹¹hapabbajitena vuttavacana½ samanussarantoti sambandho.Tattha subhaddoti tassa n±ma½, vu¹¹hak±le pana pabbajitatt± vu¹¹hapabbajitoti vuccati.“Ala½ ±vuso”ti-±din± tena vuttavacana½ nidasseti. So hi satt±haparinibbutebhagavati ±yasmat± mah±kassapattherena saddhi½ p±v±ya kusin±ra½ addh±namaggappaµipannesupañcamattesu bhikkhusatesu av²tar±ge bhikkh³ antar±magge diµµha-±j²vakassa santik± bhagavatoparinibb±na½ sutv± pattac²var±ni cha¹¹etv± b±h± paggayha n±nappak±ra½ paridevantedisv± evam±ha.
Kasm± pana so evam±ha? Bhagavati ±gh±tena. Aya½ kira so khandhake (mah±va. 303)±gate ±tum±vatthusmi½ nah±pitapubbako vu¹¹hapabbajito bhagavati kusin±rato nikkhamitv±a¹¹hate¼asehi bhikkhusatehi saddhi½ ±tuma½ gacchante “bhagav± ±gacchat²”ti sutv±±gatak±le “y±gud±na½ kariss±m²”ti s±maºerabh³miya½ µhite dve putte etadavoca“bhagav± kira t±t± ±tuma½ ±gacchati mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhi½ a¹¹hate¼asehi bhikkhusatehi,gacchatha tumhe t±t± khurabhaº¹a½ ±d±ya n±¼iy±v±pakena anugharaka½ anugharaka½ ±hiº¹atha,loºampi telampi taº¹ulampi kh±dan²yampi sa½haratha, bhagavato ±gatassa y±gud±na½ kariss±m²”ti.Te tath± aka½su. Atha bhagavati ±tuma½ ±gantv± bhus±g±raka½ paviµµhe subhaddo s±yanhasamaya½g±madv±ra½ gantv± manusse ±mantetv± “hatthakammamatta½ me deth±”ti hatthakamma½y±citv± “ki½ bhante karom±”ti vutte “idañcidañca gaºhath±”tisabb³pakaraº±ni g±h±petv± vih±re uddhan±ni k±retv± eka½ k±¼aka½ k±s±va½niv±setv± t±disameva p±rupitv± “ida½ karotha, ida½ karoth±”ti sabbaratti½ vic±rentosatasahassa½ vissajjetv± bhojjay±guñca madhugo¼akañca paµiy±d±pesi. Bhojjay±gun±ma bhuñjitv± p±tabbay±gu, tattha sappimadhuph±ºitamacchama½sapupphaphalaras±di ya½ kiñcikh±dan²ya½ n±ma atthi, ta½ sabba½ pavisati, k²¼ituk±m±na½ s²samakkhanayogg± hoti sugandhagandh±.
Atha bhagav± k±lasseva sar²rapaµijaggana½ katv± bhikkhusaªghaparivuto piº¹±ya caritu½ ±tum±bhimukhop±y±si. Manuss± tassa ±rocesu½ “bhagav± piº¹±ya g±ma½ pavisati, tay± kassay±gu paµiy±dit±”ti. So yath±nivatthap±ruteheva tehi k±¼akak±s±vehi ekenahatthena dabbiñca kaµacchuñca gahetv± brahm± viya dakkhiºaj±ºumaº¹ala½ bh³miya½ patiµµh±petv±vanditv± “paµiggaºhatu me bhante bhagav± y±gun”ti ±ha. Tato “j±nant±pi tath±gat±pucchant²”ti khandhake (mah±va. 303) ±gatanayena bhagav± pucchitv± ca sutv± cata½ vu¹¹hapabbajita½ vigarahitv± tasmi½ vatthusmi½ akappiyasam±d±panasikkh±pada½ khurabhaº¹apariharaºasikkh±padañc±tidve sikkh±pad±ni paññapetv± “bhikkhave anekakappakoµiyo bhojana½ pariyesantehevav²tin±mit±, ida½ pana tumh±ka½ akappiya½, adhammena uppannabhojana½ ima½ paribhuñjitv±anek±ni attabh±vasahass±ni ap±yesveva nibbattissanti, apetha m± gaºhath±”ti bhikkh±c±r±bhimukhoagam±si, ekabhikkhun±pi na kiñci gahita½.
Subhaddo anattamano hutv± “aya½ ‘sabba½ j±n±m²’ti ±hiº¹ati, sace na gahetuk±mopesetv± ±rocetabba½ assa, pakk±h±ro n±ma sabbacira½ tiµµhanto satt±hamatta½ tiµµheyya,idañca mama y±vaj²va½ pariyatta½ assa, sabba½ tena n±sita½, ahitak±mo aya½ mayhan”tibhagavati ±gh±ta½ bandhitv± dasabale dharam±ne kiñci vattu½ n±sakkhi. Eva½ kirassaahosi “aya½ uccakul± pabbajito mah±puriso, sace kiñci vakkh±mi, mama½yevasantajjessat²”ti. Sv±ya½ ajja mah±kassapattherena saddhi½ ±gacchanto “parinibbutobhagav±”ti sutv± laddhass±so viya haµµhatuµµho evam±ha. Thero pana ta½ sutv±hadaye pah±ra½ viya matthake patitasukk±sani½ viya maññi, dhammasa½vego cassa uppajji“satt±hamattaparinibbuto bhagav±, ajj±pissa suvaººavaººa½ sar²ra½ dharatiyeva, dukkhenabhagavat± ±r±dhitas±sane n±ma eva½ lahu½ mahanta½ p±pakasaµa½ kaºµako uppanno, ala½kho panesa p±po va¹¹ham±no aññepi evar³pe sah±ye labhitv± s±sana½ osakk±petun”ti.
Tato thero cintesi “sace kho pan±ha½ ima½ mahallaka½ idheva pilotika½ niv±setv±ch±rik±ya okir±petv± n²har±pess±mi, manuss± ‘samaºassa gotamassa sar²re dharam±neyevas±vak± vivadant²’ti amh±ka½ dosa½ dassessanti, adhiv±semi t±va. Bhagavat± hidesitadhammo asaªgahitapupphar±sisadiso, tattha yath± v±tena pahaµapupph±ni yato v± tatov± gacchanti, evameva evar³p±na½ vasena gacchante gacchante k±le vinaye eka½ dve sikkh±pad±ninassissanti vinassissanti, sutte eko dve pañhav±r± nassissanti, abhidhamme eka½dve bh³mantar±ni nassissanti, eva½ anukkamena m³le naµµhe pis±casadis± bhaviss±ma,tasm± dhammavinayasaªgaha½ kariss±mi, eva½ sati da¼hasuttena saªgahitapupph±ni viya aya½dhammavinayo niccalo bhavissati. Etadatthañhi bhagav± mayha½ t²ºi g±vut±ni paccuggamana½ak±si, t²hi ov±dehi upasampada½ ak±si, k±yato c²varaparivattana½ ak±si, ±k±sep±ºi½ c±letv± candopamapaµipada½ kathento maññeva sakkhi½ katv± kathesi, tikkhattu½sakalas±sanaratana½ paµicch±pesi, m±dise bhikkhumhi tiµµham±ne aya½ p±po s±sane va¹¹hi½m± alatthu, y±va adhammo na dippati, dhammo na paµib±h²yati, avinayo na dippati, vinayona paµib±h²yati, adhammav±dino na balavanto honti, dhammav±dino na dubbal± honti,avinayav±dino na balavanto honti, vinayav±dino na dubbal± honti, t±va dhammañca vinayañcasaªg±yiss±mi, tato bhikkh³ attano attano pahonaka½ gahetv± kappiy±kappiyekathessanti, ath±ya½ p±po sayameva niggaha½ p±puºissati, puna s²sa½ ukkhipitu½ nasakkhissati, s±sana½ iddhañceva ph²tañca bhavissat²”ti. Cintetv± so “eva½ n±mamayha½ citta½ uppannan”ti kassaci an±rocetv± bhikkhusaªgha½ samass±setv±atha pacch± dh±tubh±janadivase dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½ bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janesi. Tena vutta½“±yasm± mah±kassapo satt±haparinibbute…pe… dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½ bhikkh³na½uss±ha½ janes²”ti.