Sa½khippanti ettha avijj±dayo viññ±º±dayo c±ti saªkhepo, hetu vip±ko ca. Athav± hetuvip±koti sa½khippat²ti saªkhepo, avijj±dayo viññ±º±dayo ca. Saªkhepabh±vas±maññenapana ekavacana½ katanti daµµhabba½ Te pana saªkhep± at²te hetu, etarahivip±ko, etarahi hetu, ±yati½ vip±koti eva½ k±lavibh±gena catt±ro j±t±,ten±ha “purimasaªkhepo cettha at²to addh±”ti-±di. Paccuppanno addh±ti sambandho.Taºhup±d±nabhav± gahit±va hont²ti ettha avijj±gahaºena kilesabh±vas±maññato taºhup±d±n±gahit±, saªkh±raggahaºena kammabh±vas±maññato bhavo gahito, avijj±saªkh±r±na½ tehi vin± sakicc±karaºato ca taºhup±d±nabhav± gahit±va honti. Atha v± avidv± paritassati, paritasito up±diyati, tassup±d±napaccay± bhavo, tasm± taºhup±d±nabhav±pi gahit± honti. Tath±ca vutta½–
“Purimakammabhavasmi½ moho avijj±, ±y³han± saªkh±r±. Nikanti taºh±,upagamana½ up±d±na½, cetan± bhavo, iti ime pañca dhamm± purimakammabhavasmi½ idhapaµisandhiy± paccay±”ti (paµi. ma. 1.47).
Tattha (vibha. aµµha. 242; paµi. ma. aµµha. 1.1.47) purimakammabhavasminti purime kammabhave,at²taj±tiya½ kammabhave kariyam±neti attho. Moho avijj±ti yo tad± dukkh±d²sumoho yena m³¼ho kamma½ karoti, s± avijj±. ¾y³han± saªkh±r±ti ta½ kamma½karoto y± purimacetan±yo, yath± “d±na½ dass±m²”ti citta½ upp±detv± m±sampisa½vaccharampi d±n³pakaraº±ni sajjentassa uppann± purimacetan±yo, paµigg±hak±na½ panahatthe dakkhiºa½ patiµµh±payato cetan± bhavoti vuccati. Ek±vajjanesu v± chasu javanesucetan± ±y³hanasaªkh±r± n±ma, sattam± bhavo. Y± k±ci v± pana cetan± bhavo, sampayutt±±y³hanasaªkh±r± n±ma. Nikanti taºh±ti y± kamma½ karontassa tassa phale upapattibhavenik±man± patthan±, s± taºh± n±ma. Upagamana½ up±d±nanti ya½ kammabhavassa paccayabh³ta½“ida½ katv± asukasmi½ n±ma µh±ne k±me seviss±mi ucchijjiss±m²”ti-±din±nayena pavatta½ upagamana½ gahaºa½ par±masana½, ida½ up±d±na½ n±ma. Cetan± bhavoti “ta½kamma½ karoto y± purim± cetan±yo”ti-±din± heµµh± vuttesu t²su atthavikappesuy± cetan± bhavoti vutt±, s± cetan± bhavoti evamattho veditabbo.
Id±ni sabbepete avijj±dayo dhamme dv²hi vaµµehi saªgahetv± dassetuk±mo±ha “ime pañca dhamm± at²te kammavaµµan”ti. Ettha ca nippariy±yato saªkh±r± bhavoca kamma½, avijj±dayo pana kammasah±yat±ya kammasarikkhak± tadupak±rak± c±ti kammantivutt±. Avijj±dayo hi vip±kadhammadhammat±ya kammasarikkhak± sahaj±takoµiy± upanissayakoµiy±ca kammassa ca upak±rak±. Kammameva ca aññamaññasambandha½ hutv± punappuna½ parivattanaµµhenakammavaµµa½. Viññ±º±dayo pañc±ti viññ±º±dayo vedan±pariyant± pañca etarahi id±niimasmi½ attabh±veti vutta½ hoti. Avijj±saªkh±r± gahit±va hont²ti etth±pi pubbeviya kilesakammabh±vas±maññato taºhup±d±naggahaºena avijj± gahit±, bhavaggahaºena saªkh±r±gahit±ti daµµhabba½. Atha v± bhave gahite tassa pubbabh±g± ta½sampayutt± v± saªkh±r± gahit±vahonti taºhup±d±naggahaºena ca ta½sampayutt± y±ya v± m³¼ho kamma½ karoti, s±avijj±va hot²ti taºhup±d±nabhavaggahaºena avijj±saªkh±r± gahit±va honti. Teneva vutta½–
“Idha paripakkatt± ±yatan±na½ moho avijj±, ±y³han± saªkh±r±, nikanti taºh±,upagamana½ up±d±na½, cetan± bhavo, iti ime pañca dhamm± idha kammabhavasmi½ ±yati½ paµisandhiy±paccay±”ti (paµi. ma. 1.47).
Tattha idha paripakkatt± ±yatan±nanti paripakk±yatanassa kammakaraºak±le sammoho dassito.Sesa½ heµµh± vuttanayameva.
Viññ±ºan±mar³pasa¼±yatanaphassavedan±na½ j±tijar±bhaªg±vatth± j±tijar±maraºanti vutt±ti avatth±na½gahaºena avatth±vant± gahit±va honti tadavin±bh±vatoti ±ha “j±tijar±maraº±padesenaviññ±º±d²na½ niddiµµhatt±”ti. Apadesen±ti j±tijar±maraº±na½ kathanena. Imetiviññ±º±dayo. ¾yati½ vip±kavaµµanti paccuppannahetuto bh±v²na½ an±gat±na½ gahitatt±.Teti avijj±dayo. ¾k±ratoti sar³pato avutt±pi tasmi½ tasmi½ saªgahe ±kir²yantiavijj±saªkh±r±diggahaºehi pak±s²yant²ti ±k±r±, at²tahetu-±d²na½ v± pak±r±±k±r± Tato ±k±rato. V²satividh± hont²ti at²te hetupañcak±dibhedatov²satividh± honti.
Saªkh±raviññ±º±nañcettha antar± eko sandh²ti hetuto phalassa avicchedappavattibh±vatohetuphalassa sambandhabh³to eko sandhi, tath± bhavaj±t²namantar±. Vedan±taºh±namantar± panaphalato hetuno avicchedappavattibh±vato phalahetusambandhabh³to eko sandhi. Phalabh³topihi dhammo aññassa hetusabh±vassa dhammassa paccayo hot²ti.
It²ti vuttappak±rapar±masana½. Ten±ha “catusaªkhepan”ti-±di. Sabb±k±ratotiidha vuttehi ca avuttehi ca paµiccasamupp±davibhaªge anantanayasamantapaµµh±n±d²su ca ±gatehisabbehi ±k±rehi. J±n±t²ti avabujjhati. Passat²ti dassanabh³tena ñ±ºacakkhun±paccakkhato passati. Aññ±ti paµivijjhat²ti tesa½yeva vevacana½. Tanti ta½ j±nana½.ѱtaµµhen±ti yath±sabh±vato j±nanaµµhena. Paj±nanaµµhen±ti anicc±d²hi pak±rehi paµivijjhanaµµhena.
Id±ni yadatthamida½ bhavacakka½ idh±n²ta½, ta½ dassetu½ “imin±”ti-±di vutta½.Tattha te dhammeti te avijj±dike dhamme. Yath±bh³ta½ ñatv±ti mah±vajirañ±ºenay±th±vato j±nitv±. Nibbindantoti balavavipassan±ya nibbindanto. Virajjantovimuccantoti ariyamaggehi virajjanto vimuccanto. Are han²ti sambandho. Tatthayad± bhagav± virajjati vimuccati, tad± are hanati n±ma. Tato para½ pana abhisambuddhakkhaºa½gahetv± vutta½ “hani vihani viddha½ses²”ti. Evampi ar±na½ hatatt± arahantieva½ imin±pi pak±rena yath±vuttasa½s±racakkassa saªkh±r±di-ar±na½ hatatt± araha½.Ettheda½ vuccati–
“Ar± sa½s±racakkassa, hat± ñ±º±sin± yato;
lokan±thena tenesa, arahanti pavuccat²”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.128).
Aggadakkhiºeyyatt±ti uttamadakkhiºeyyabh±vato. Cakkavattino acetane cakkarataneuppanne tattheva loko p³ja½ karoti, aññattha p³j±vises± pacchijjanti, kimaªga½ panasamm±sambuddhe uppanneti dassento “uppanne tath±gate”ti-±dim±ha.“Ekeka½ dhammakkhandha½ ekekavih±rena p³jess±m²”ti vuttepi satth±ra½yeva uddissakatatt± “bhagavanta½ uddiss±”ti-±di vutta½. Ko pana v±do aññesa½ p³j±vises±nantiyath±vuttato aññesa½ amahesakkhehi devamanussehi kariyam±n±na½ n±ti-u¼±r±na½ p³j±vises±na½arahabh±ve k± n±ma kath±. Paccay±d²na½ arahatt±pi arahanti yath±vuttac²var±dipaccay±na½p³j±visesassa ca aggadakkhiºeyyabh±vena anucchavikatt±pi araha½. Imassapi atthassasukhaggahaºattha½ ida½ vuccati–
“P³j±visesa½ saha paccayehi,
yasm± aya½ arahati lokan±tho;
atth±nur³pa½ arahanti loke,
tasm± jino arahati n±mametan”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.129).
Asilokabhayen±ti akittibhayena, ayasabhayena garah±bhayen±ti vutta½ hoti. Rahop±pa½ karont²ti “m± na½ koci jaññ±”ti rahasi p±pa½ karonti. Evamesa nakad±ci karot²ti esa bhagav± p±pahet³na½ bodhimaº¹eyeva suppah²natt± kad±cipieva½ na karoti. Hoti cettha–
“Yasm± natthi raho n±ma, p±pakammesu t±dino;
rah±bh±vena tenesa, araha½ iti vissuto”ti. (Visuddhi. 1.130).
Id±ni sukhaggahaºattha½ yath±vuttamattha½ sabbampi saªgahetv± dassento ±ha “hoti cetth±”ti-±di.Kiles±r²na so mun²ti ettha g±th±bandhasukhattha½ niggah²talopo daµµhabbo, kiles±r²na½hatatt±ti attho. Paccay±d²na c±rahoti etth±pi niggah²talopo vuttanayeneva daµµhabbo.
Arahanti ettha ayamaparopi nayo daµµhabbo– ±rak±ti araha½, suvid³rabh±vato iccevaattho. Kuto pana suvid³rabh±vatoti? Ye abh±vitak±y± abh±vitas²l± abh±vitacitt±abh±vitapaññ±, tato eva appah²nar±gadosamoh± ariyadhammassa akovid± ariyadhamme avin²t±ariyadhammassa adass±vino appaµipann± micch±paµipann± ca, tato suvid³rabh±vato. Vuttañheta½bhagavat±–
“Saªgh±µikaººe cepi me, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gahetv± piµµhito piµµhitoanubandho assa p±de p±da½ nikkhipanto, so ca hoti abhijjh±lu k±mesu tibbas±r±goby±pannacitto paduµµhamanasaªkappo muµµhassati asampaj±no asam±hito vibbhantacitto p±katindriyo,atha kho so ±rak±va mayha½, ahañca tassa. Ta½ kissa hetu? Dhammañhi so, bhikkhave,bhikkhu na passati, dhamma½ apassanto na ma½ passat²”ti (itivu. 92).
Yath±vuttapuggal± hi sacepi s±ya½p±ta½ satthu santik±vacar±va siyu½, na te t±vat± “satthusantik±”ti vattabb±, tath± satth±pi nesa½. Iti asappuris±na½ ±rak± d³retiaraha½. Teneda½ vuccati–
“Samm± na paµipajjanti, ye nih²n±say± nar±;
±rak± tehi bhagav±, d³re ten±raha½ mato”ti.
Tath± ±rak±ti araha½, ±sannabh±vatoti attho. Kuto pana ±sannabh±vatoti? Yebh±vitak±y± bh±vitas²l± bh±vitacitt± bh±vitapaññ±, tato eva pah²nar±gadosamoh± ariyadhammassakovid± ariyadhamme suvin²t± ariyadhammassa dass±vino samm±paµipann±, tato ±sannabh±vato.Vuttampi ceta½ bhagavat±–
“Yojanasate cepi me, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya, so ca hoti anabhijjh±lu k±mesuna tibbas±r±go aby±pannacitto apaduµµhamanasaªkappo upaµµhitassati sampaj±no sam±hitoekaggacitto sa½vutindriyo, atha kho so santikeva mayha½, ahañca tassa. Ta½kissa hetu? Dhammañhi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu passati, dhamma½ passanto ma½ passat²”ti(itivu. 92).
Tath±r³p± hi puggal± satthu yojanasatantarik±pi honti, na t±vat± te “satthu d³rac±rino”tivattabb±, tath± satth±pi nesa½. Iti sappuris±na½ ±rak± ±sanneti araha½. Teneda½vuccati–
“Ye samm± paµipajjanti, suppaº²t±dhimuttik±;
±rak± tehi ±sanne, ten±pi araha½ jino”ti.
Ye ime r±g±dayo p±padhamm± yasmi½ sant±ne uppajjanti, tassa diµµhadhammikampisampar±yikampi anattha½ ±vahanti, nibb±nag±miniy± paµipad±ya eka½seneva ujuvipaccan²kabh³t±ca, te attahita½ parahitañca parip³retu½ samm± paµipajjantehi s±dh³hi d³rato rahitabb±pariccajitabb± pah±tabb±ti rah± n±ma, te ca yasm± bhagavato bodhim³leyeva ariyamaggenasabbaso pah²n± susamucchinn±. Yath±ha–
“Tath±gatassa kho, br±hmaºa, r±go pah²no doso moho, sabbepi p±pak± akusal±dhamm± pah²n± ucchinnam³l± t±l±vatthukat± anabh±va½kat± ±yati½ anupp±dadhamm±”ti(p±r±. 9).

Tasm± sabbaso na santi etassa rah±ti arahoti vattabbe ok±rassa s±nus±ra½ ak±r±desa½katv± “arahan”ti vutta½. Teneda½ vuccati–

“P±padhamm± rah± n±ma, s±dh³hi rahitabbato;
tesa½ suµµhu pah²natt±, bhagav± araha½ mato”ti.
Ye te sabbaso pariññ±takkhandh± pah²nakiles± bh±vitamagg± sacchikatanirodh± arahantokh²º±sav±, ye ca sekh± appattam±nas± anuttara½ yogakkhema½ patthayam±n± viharanti, yeca parisuddhappayog± kaly±ºajjh±say± saddh±s²lasut±diguºasampann± puggal±, tehi na rahitabbona pariccajitabbo, te ca bhagavat±ti araha½. Tath± hi ariyapuggal± satth±r± diµµhadhammassapaccakkhakaraºato satthu dhammasar²rena avirahit±va honti. Yath±ha ±yasm± piªgiyo–