Eva½ por±ºaµµhakath±ya an³nabh±va½ dassetv± id±ni attano sa½vaººan±ya payojanavisesa½ dassetu½“sa½vaººan±”ti-±dim±ha. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– kiñc±pi pubb±cariy±sabhehi yath±vuttaguºavisiµµhehiaya½ vinayo sabbaso vaººito, tath±pi tesa½ es± sa½vaººan± s²ha¼ad²pav±s²na½ bh±s±yasaªkhatatt± racitatt± d²pantare bhikkhujanassa s²ha¼ad²pato aññad²pav±sino bhikkhugaºassakiñci attha½ payojana½ yasm± n±bhisambhuº±ti na samp±deti na s±dheti, tasm± ima½sa½vaººana½ p±¼inay±nur³pa½ katv± buddhasirittherena ajjhiµµho id±ni sam±rabhissanti.Tattha sa½vaººiyati attho et±y±ti sa½vaººan±, aµµhakath±. S± pana dhammasaªg±hakattherehipaµhama½ t²ºi piµak±ni saªg±yitv± tassa atthavaººan±nur³peneva v±can±magga½ ±ropitatt±tisso saªg²tiyo ±ru¼hoyeva buddhavacanassa atthasa½vaººan±bh³to kath±maggo. Soyevaca mah±mahindattherena tambapaººid²pa½ ±bhato, pacch± tambapaººiyehi mah±therehi nik±yantaraladdh²hisaªkarapariharaºattha½ s²ha¼abh±s±ya µhapito. Ten±ha “s²ha¼ad²paken±”ti-±di. S²hassal±nato gahaºato s²ha¼o, s²hakum±ro. Ta½va½saj±tat±ya tambapaººid²pe khattiy±na½tesa½ niv±sat±ya tambapaººid²passapi s²ha¼abh±vo veditabbo, tasmi½ s²ha¼ad²pe bh³tatt±s²ha¼ad²pakena v±kyena vacanena, s²ha¼abh±s±y±ti vutta½ hoti.
P±¼inay±nur³panti p±¼inayassa anur³pa½ katv±, m±gadhabh±s±ya parivattitv±ti vutta½hoti Ajjhesananti garuµµh±niya½ payirup±sitv± garutara½ payojana½ uddissa abhipatthan±ajjhesan±, ta½ ajjhesana½, ±y±cananti attho. Tassa “samanussaranto”ti imin± sambandho.Kassa ajjhesananti ±ha “buddhasirivhayassa therass±”ti. Buddhasir²tiavhayo n±ma½ yassa soya½ buddhasirivhayo, tassa, itthann±massa therassa ajjhesana½ samm±±darena samanussaranto hadaye µhapentoti attho.
Id±ni attano sa½vaººan±ya karaºappak±ra½ dassento “sa½vaººana½ tañc±”ti-±dim±ha.Tattha tañca id±ni vuccam±na½ sa½vaººana½ sam±rabhanto sakal±yapi mah±-aµµhakath±ya idha gahetabbatomah±-aµµhakatha½ tass± id±ni vuccam±n±ya sa½vaººan±ya sar²ra½ katv± mah±paccariya½ yovinicchayo vutto, tatheva kurund²n±m±d²su vissut±su aµµhakath±su yo vinicchayovutto, tatopi vinicchayato yuttamattha½ apariccajanto antogadhattherav±da½ katv± sa½vaººana½sam±rabhissanti padatthasambandho veditabbo. Ettha ca attho kathiyati et±y±ti atthakath±,s±yeva aµµhakath± tthak±rassa µµhak±ra½ katv± “dukkhassa p²¼anaµµho”ti-±d²su (paµi.ma. 1.17; 2.8) viya. Mah±paccariyanti ettha paccar²ti u¼umpa½ vuccati, tasmi½nis²ditv± katatt± tameva n±ma½ j±ta½. Kurundivallivih±ro n±ma atthi, tatthakatatt± kurund²ti n±ma½ j±tanti vadanti. ¾disaddena andhakaµµhakatha½ saªkhepaµµhakathañcasaªgaºh±ti. Vissut±s³ti sabbattha patthaµ±su, p±kaµ±s³ti vutta½ hoti.
Yuttamatthanti ettha t±va majjhimagaºµhipade c³¼agaºµhipade ca ida½ vutta½ “yuttamatthantisa½vaººetabbaµµh±nassa yuttamattha½, na pana tattha ayuttampi atth²ti vutta½ hot²”ti. Mah±gaºµhipadepanettha na kiñci vutta½. Kenaci pana “mah±-aµµhakath±nayena vinayayuttiy± v± yuttamatthan”tivutta½, ta½ yutta½ viya dissati mah±paccari-±d²supi katthaci ayuttass±pi atthassaupari vibh±vanato. “Aµµhakatha½yeva gahetv± sa½vaººana½ kariss±m²”ti vutte aµµhakath±suvuttattherav±d±na½ b±hirabh±vo siy±ti tepi antokattuk±mo “antogadhatherav±dan”ti±ha, therav±depi antokatv±ti vutta½ hoti. Sa½vaººananti aparak±lakiriy±yakammaniddeso. Pubbe vutta½ tu “sa½vaººanan”ti vacana½ tattheva “sam±rabhanto”tipubbak±lakiriy±ya kammabh±vena yojetabba½. Samm±ti vattabbe g±th±bandhavasena rassabh±vokatoti veditabbo.
Eva½ karaºappak±ra½ dassetv± id±ni sot³hi paµipajjitabbavidhi½ dassento“ta½ me”ti-±dim±ha. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– id±ni vuccam±na½ ta½ mama sa½vaººana½dhammapad²passa tath±gatassa dhamma½ s±sanadhamma½ p±¼idhamma½ v± sakkacca½ paµim±nayant± p³jent±thirehi s²lakkhandh±d²hi samann±gatatt± ther±, acirapabbajitatt± nav±, tesa½ majjhe bhavatt±majjhim± ca bhikkh³ pasannacitt± yath±vuttanayena sappayojanatt± upari vakkham±navidhin± pam±ºatt±ca saddahitv± p²tisomanassayuttacitt± iss±pakat± ahutv± nis±mentu suºant³ti.Tattha dhammappad²pass±ti dhammoyeva sattasant±nesu mohandhak±ravidhamanato pad²pasadisatt±pad²po ass±ti dhammapad²po, bhagav±. Tassa dhammapad²passa.
Id±ni attano sa½vaººan±ya ±gamavisuddhi½ dassetv± pam±ºabh±va½ dassento “buddhen±”ti-±dim±ha.Yatheva buddhena yo dhammo ca vinayo ca vutto, so tassa buddhassa yehi puttehi dhammasen±pati-±d²hitatheva ñ±to, tesa½ buddhaputt±na½ matimaccajant± s²ha¼aµµhakath±cariy± yasm± pure aµµhakath±aka½s³ti ayamettha sambandho. Tattha dhammoti sutt±bhidhamme saªgaºh±ti, vinayotisakala½ vinayapiµaka½. Ett±vat± ca sabbampi buddhavacana½ niddiµµha½ hoti. Sakalañhibuddhavacana½ dhammavinayavasena duvidha½ hoti. Vuttoti p±¼ito ca atthato ca buddhenabhagavat± vutto. Na hi bhagavat± aby±kata½ n±ma tantipada½ atthi, sabbesa½yeva atthokathito, tasm± samm±sambuddheneva tiººa½ piµak±na½ atthavaººan±kkamopi bh±sitoti daµµhabba½.Tattha tattha bhagavat± pavattit± pakiººakadesan±yeva hi aµµhakath±. Tatheva ñ±toti yathevabuddhena vutto, tatheva ekapadampi ekakkharampi avin±setv± adhipp±yañca avikopetv±ñ±to viditoti attho. Tesa½ matimaccajant±ti tesa½ buddhaputt±na½ adhipp±ya½ apariccajant±.Aµµhakath± aka½s³ti aµµhakath±yo aka½su. Katthaci “aµµhakath±maka½s³”ti p±µho dissati,tatth±pi soyevattho, ma-k±ro pana padasandhivasena ±gatoti daµµhabbo. “Aµµhakath±”tibahuvacananiddesena mah±paccariy±dika½ saªgaºh±ti.
Tasm±ti yasm± tesa½ buddhaputt±na½ adhipp±ya½ avikopetv± pure aµµhakath± aka½su,tasm±ti attho. ti nip±tamatta½ hetu-atthassa “tasm±”ti imin±yevapak±sitatt±. Yadi aµµhakath±su vutta½ sabbampi pam±ºa½, eva½ sati tattha pam±dalekh±pipam±ºa½ siy±ti ±ha “vajjayitv±na pam±dalekhan”ti. Tattha pam±dalekhantiaparabh±ge potthak±ru¼hak±le pamajjitv± likhanavasena pavatta½ pam±dap±µha½. Ida½ vutta½hoti– pam±dena sati½ apaccupaµµhapetv± adinn±d±nassa pubbapayoge “saccepi alikepidukkaµan”ti vuttavacanasadisa½ ya½ likhita½, ta½ vajjayitv± apanetv± sabba½ pam±ºanti.Vakkhati hi tattha–
“Mah±-aµµhakath±ya½ pana saccepi alikepi dukkaµameva vutta½, ta½ pam±dalikhitanti veditabba½.Na hi adinn±d±nassa pubbapayoge p±cittiyaµµh±ne dukkaµa½ n±ma atth²”ti (p±r±.aµµha. 1.94).
Kesa½ pam±ºanti ±ha “sikkh±su sag±rav±na½ idha paº¹it±nan”ti. Idh±ti imasmi½s±sane. Puna “yasm±”ti vacanassa ko sambandhoti ce? Ettha t±va mah±gaºµhipadegaºµhipade ca na kiñci vutta½, majjhimagaºµhipade pana c³¼agaºµhipade ca ida½vutta½ “yasm± pam±ºa½, tasm± nis±mentu pasannacitt±”ti. Evamassa sambandho daµµhabbo.Yasm± aµµhakath±su vutta½ pam±ºa½, tasm± idha vuttampi pam±ºamev±ti p±µhasesa½ katv±vajirabuddhitthero vadati. Tattha idh±ti imiss± samantap±s±dik±y±ti attho gahetabbo.
Tattha “yasm±”ti vacanassa paµhama½ vuttasambandhavasena aµµhakath±su vutta½ sabbampi pam±ºantis±dhitatt± id±ni vuccam±n±pi sa½vaººan± kevala½ vacanamatteneva bhinn±, atthatopana aµµhakath±yev±ti dassetu½ “tato ca bh±santaramev±”ti-±dim±ha. Pacch± vuttasambandhavasenapana idha vuttampi kasm± pam±ºanti ce? Yasm± vacanamatta½ µhapetv± es±pi aµµhakath±yeva,tasm± pam±ºanti dassetu½ “tato ca bh±santaramev±”ti-±dim±ha. Evam±kula½ dubbiññeyyasabh±vañcakatv± gaºµhipadesu sambandho dassito, an±kulavacano ca bhadantabuddhaghos±cariyo.Na hi so evam±kula½ katv± vattumarahati, tasm± yath±dhippetamatthaman±kula½ suviññeyyañcakatv± yath±µhitassa sambandhavaseneva dassayiss±ma. Katha½? Yasm± aµµhakath±su vutta½ pam±ºa½,tasm± sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti evamettha sambandho daµµhabbo. Yadi n±ma aµµhakath±suvutta½ pam±ºa½, aya½ pana id±ni vuccam±n± kasm± sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti±ha “tato ca bh±santarameva hitv±”ti-±di. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yasm± aµµhakath±suvutta½ pam±ºa½, yasm± ca aya½ sa½vaººan±pi bh±santaraparicc±g±dimattavisiµµh±, atthatopana abhinn±va, tatoyeva ca pam±ºabh³t± hessati, tasm± sakkacca½ ±dara½ katv± anusikkhitabb±ti.Tath± hi por±ºaµµhakath±na½ pam±ºabh±vo, imiss± ca sa½vaººan±ya bh±santaraparicc±g±dimattavisiµµh±yaatthato tato abhinnabh±voti ubhayampeta½ sakkacca½ anusikkhitabbabh±vahet³ti daµµhabba½.Na hi kevala½ por±ºaµµhakath±na½ satipi pam±ºabh±ve aya½ sa½vaººan± tato bhinn± atthatoaññ±yeva ca sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti vattumarahati, n±pi imiss± sa½vaººan±ya tato-abhinnabh±vepi por±ºaµµhakath±na½ asati pam±ºabh±ve aya½ sa½vaººan± sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti vattu½ yuttar³p± hoti, tasm± yath±vuttanayena ubhayampeta½ sakkacca½ anusikkhitabbabh±vahet³tidaµµhabba½.
Tatoti aµµhakath±to. Bh±santarameva hitv±ti kañcukasadisa½ s²ha¼abh±sa½ apanetv±.Vitth±ramaggañca sam±sayitv±ti por±ºaµµhakath±su upari vuccam±nampi ±netv±tattha tattha papañcita½ “ñatticatutthena kammena akuppena µh±n±rahena upasampannoti bhikkh³”ti(p±r±. 45) ettha apalokan±d²na½ catunnampi kamm±na½ vitth±rakath± viya t±disa½ vitth±ramagga½saªkhipitv± vaººayiss±m±ti adhipp±yo. Tath± hi vakkhati–
“Ettha ca ñatticatutthakamma½ ekameva ±gata½, imasmi½ pana µh±ne µhatv± catt±ri saªghakamm±nin²haritv± vitth±rato kathetabb±n²ti sabba-aµµhakath±su vutta½, t±ni ca ‘apalokanakamma½ñattikamma½ ñattidutiyakamma½ ñatticatutthakamman’ti paµip±µiy± µhapetv± vitth±renakhandhakato pariv±r±vas±ne kammavibhaªgato ca p±¼i½ ±haritv± kathit±ni. T±ni maya½pariv±r±vas±ne kammavibhaªgeyeva vaººayiss±ma. Evañhi sati paµhamap±r±jikavaººan±ca na bh±riy± bhavissati, yath±µhit±ya ca p±¼iy± vaººan± suviññeyy± bhavissati, t±nica µh±n±ni asuññ±ni bhavissanti, tasm± anupadavaººanameva karom±”ti (p±r±. aµµha.1.45 bhikkhupadabh±jan²yavaººan±).
Vinicchaya½ sabbamasesayitv±ti ta½ta½aµµhakath±su vutta½ sabbampi vinicchaya½asesayitv± sesa½ akatv±, kiñcimattampi apariccajitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Vaººitu½yuttar³pa½ hutv± anukkamena ±gata½ p±¼i½ apariccajitv± sa½vaººanato s²ha¼aµµhakath±suayuttaµµh±ne vaººita½ yath±µh±neyeva sa½vaººanato ca vutta½ “tantikkama½ kiñci avokkamitv±”ti,kiñci p±¼ikkama½ anatikkamitv± anukkameneva vaººayiss±m±ti adhipp±yo.
Suttantik±na½ vacan±namatthanti suttantap±¼iya½ ±gat±nampi vacan±namattha½. S²ha¼aµµhakath±su“suttantik±na½ bh±ro”ti vatv± avutt±nampi verañjakaº¹±d²su jh±nakath±-±n±p±nassatisama-±dhi-±d²na½suttantavacan±namattha½ ta½ta½sutt±nur³pa½ sabbaso parid²payiss±m²ti adhipp±yo. Hessat²tibhavissati, kariyissat²ti v± attho. Ettha ca paµhamasmi½ atthavikappe bh±santaraparicc±g±dika½catubbidha½ kicca½ nipph±detv± suttantik±na½ vacan±namattha½ parid²payant² aya½ vaººan± bhavissat²ti vaººan±ya vasena sam±nakattukat± veditabb±. Pacchimasmi½ atthavikappe pana heµµh±vuttabh±santaraparicc±g±di½ katv± suttantik±na½ vacan±namattha½ parid²payant²aya½ vaººan± amhehi kariyissat²ti eva½ ±cariyavasena sam±nakattukat± veditabb±.Vaººan±p²ti ettha apisadda½ gahetv± “tasm±pi sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti yojetabban”tic³¼agaºµhipade vutta½. Tattha pubbe vuttappayojanavisesa½ pam±ºabh±vañca sampiº¹et²tiadhipp±yo. Majjhimagaºµhipade pana “tasm± sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±p²”ti sambandhovutto. Ettha pana na kevala½ aya½ vaººan± hessati, atha kho anusikkhitabb±p²ti imamattha½sampiº¹et²ti adhipp±yo. Etth±pi yath±µhitavaseneva apisaddassa attho gahetabbotiamh±ka½ khanti. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yasm± aµµhakath±su vutta½ pam±ºa½, yasm± caaya½ vaººan±pi tato abhinnatt± pam±ºabh³t±yeva hessati, tasm± sakkacca½ anusikkhitabb±ti.

Ganth±rambhakath±vaººan± niµµhit±.