Nanu c±ya½ up±d±ya paññatto k±lo sam³ho ca voh±ramattako, so katha½±dh±ro tattha vuttadhamm±nanti? N±ya½ doso. Yath± hi k±lo sabh±vadhammaparicchinnosaya½ paramatthato avijjam±nopi ±dh±rabh±vena paññatto taªkhaºappavatt±na½ tato pubbe paratoca abh±vato “pubbaºhe j±to s±yanhe gacchat²”ti-±d²su, sam³ho ca avayavavinimuttoavijjam±nopi kappan±mattasiddho avayav±na½ ±dh±rabh±vena paññap²yati “rukkhe s±kh±,yavar±simhi sambh³to”ti-±d²su, evamidh±p²ti daµµhabba½.
Abhidhamme ±dh±ratthasambhava½ dassetv± id±ni bh±venabh±valakkhaºatthasambhava½ dassento ±ha “khaºasamav±yahetusaªkh±tass±”ti-±di.Tattha khaºo n±ma aµµhakkhaºavinimutto navamo buddhupp±dasaªkh±to khaºo, y±ni v± panet±ni“catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, cakk±ni yehi samann±gat±na½ devamanuss±na½ catucakka½pavattat²”ti (a. ni. 4.31) ettha patir³padesav±so, sappuris³panissayo, attasamm±paºidhi,pubbe ca katapuññat±ti catt±ri cakk±ni vutt±ni, t±ni ekajjha½ katv± ok±saµµhenakhaºoti veditabbo. T±ni hi kusaluppattiy± ok±sabh³t±ni. Samav±yo n±ma“cakkhuñca paµicca r³pe ca uppajjati cakkhuviññ±ºan”ti (ma. ni. 1.204; 3.421;sa½. ni. 4.60) evam±din± niddiµµh± cakkhuviññ±º±disaªkh±tas±dh±raºaphalanipph±dakattenasaºµhit± cakkhur³p±dipaccayas±magg². Cakkhur³p±d²nañhi cakkhuviññ±º±dis±dh±raºaphala½.Het³ti janakahetu. Yath±vuttakhaºasaªkha-±tassa samav±yasaªkh±tassa hetusaªkh±tassa ca samayassabh±vena satt±ya tesa½ phass±didhamm±na½ bh±vo satt± lakkh²yati viññ±yat²ti attho.Ida½ vutta½ hoti– yath± “g±v²su duyham±n±su gato, duddh±su ±gato”ti dohanakiriy±yagamanakiriy± lakkh²yati, evamidh±pi “yasmi½ samaye, tasmi½ samaye”ti ca vutte “sat²”tiayamattho viññ±yam±no eva hoti aññakiriy±ya sambandh±bh±ve padatthassa satt±virah±bh±vatotisamayassa satt±kiriy±ya cittassa upp±dakiriy± phass±dibhavanakiriy± ca lakkh²yat²ti.Ayañhi tattha attho yasmi½ yath±vutte khaºe paccayasamav±ye hetumhi ca sati k±m±vacara½kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti, tasmi½yeva khaºe paccayasamav±ye hetumhi ca satiphass±dayopi hont²ti Tadatthajotanatthanti adhikaraºatthassa bh±venabh±valakkhaºatthassaca d²panattha½.
Idha pan±ti imasmi½ vinaye. Hetu-attho karaºattho ca sambhavat²ti “annena vasati,vijj±ya vasat²”ti-±d²su viya hetu-attho “pharasun± chindati, kud±lena khaºat²”ti-±d²suviya karaºattho ca sambhavati. Katha½ sambhavat²ti ±ha “yo hi so”ti-±di. Tenasamayena hetubh³tena karaºabh³ten±ti ettha pana ta½ta½vatthuv²tikkamova sikkh±padapaññattiy±hetu ceva karaºañca. Tath± hi yad± bhagav± sikkh±padapaññattiy± paµhamameva tesa½ tesa½tattha tattha ta½ta½sikkh±padapaññattihetubh³ta½ v²tikkama½ apekkham±no viharati, tad±ta½ ta½ v²tikkama½ apekkhitv± tadattha½ vasat²ti siddho vatthuv²tikkamassa hetubh±vo “annenavasati, anna½ apekkhitv± tadatth±ya vasat²”ti-±d²su viya. Sikkh±padapaññattik±lepana teneva pubbasiddhena v²tikkamena sikkh±pada½ paññapet²ti sikkh±padapaññattiy±s±dhakatamatt± karaºabh±vopi v²tikkamasseva siddho “asin± chindat²”ti-±d²su viya.V²tikkama½ pana apekkham±no teneva saddhi½ tannissayak±lampi apekkhitv± viharat²tik±lassapi idha hetubh±vo vutto, sikkh±pada½ paññapento ca ta½ ta½ v²tikkamak±la½anatikkamitv± teneva k±lena sikkh±pada½ paññapet²ti v²tikkamanissayassa k±lassapikaraºabh±vo vutto, tasm± imin± pariy±yena k±lassapi hetubh±vo karaºabh±vo ca labbhat²tivutta½ “tena samayena hetubh³tena karaºabh³ten±”ti. Nippariy±yato pana v²tikkamoyevahetubh³to karaºabh³to ca. So hi v²tikkamakkhaºe hetu hutv± pacch± sikkh±padapaññ±panekaraºampi hot²ti.
Sikkh±pad±ni paññ±payantoti v²tikkama½ pucchitv± bhikkhusaªgha½ sannip±t±petv±otiººavatthuka½ puggala½ paµipucchitv± vigarahitv± ca ta½ ta½ vatthu½ otiººak±la½anatikkamitv± teneva k±lena karaºabh³tena sikkh±pad±ni paññ±payanto. Sikkh±padapaññattihetuñcaapekkham±noti tatiyap±r±jik±d²su viya sikkh±padapaññattiy± hetubh³ta½ ta½ ta½ vatthu½v²tikkamasamaya½ apekkham±no tena samayena hetubh³tena bhagav± tattha tattha vih±s²tiattho. “Sikkh±pad±ni paññ±payanto sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no”tivacanato “tena samayena karaºabh³tena hetubh³ten±”ti eva½ vattabbepi paµhama½ “hetubh³ten±”tivacana½ idha hetu-atthassa adhippetatt± vutta½. Bhagav± hi verañj±ya½ viharanto therassasikkh±padapaññattiy±canahetubh³ta½ parivitakkasamaya½ apekkham±no tena samayena hetubh³tenavih±s²ti t²supi gaºµhipadesu vutta½. Ki½ panettha yutticint±ya, ±cariyassaidha kamavacanicch± natth²ti evameta½ gahetabba½. Teneva d²ghanik±yaµµhakath±yampi (d².ni. aµµha. 1.paribb±jakakath±vaººan±) “tena samayena hetubh³tena karaºabh³ten±”ti-±din±ayameva anukkamo vutto. Na hi tattha paµhama½ “hetubh³ten±”ti vacana½ idha “tenasamayena verañj±ya½ viharat²”ti ettha hetu-atthassa adhippetabh±vad²panattha½ vutta½. “Sikkh±pad±nipaññ±payanto hetubh³tena karaºabh³tena samayena vih±si, sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±nohetubh³tena samayena vih±s²ti evamettha sambandho k±tabbo”tipi vadanti. Tadatthajotanatthantihetu-atthassa karaºatthassa v± d²panattha½. Idh±ti imasmi½ vinaye. Hoti cetth±tiettha imasmi½ padese yath±vuttatthasaªgahavasena aya½ g±th± hoti. Aññatr±ti sutt±bhidhammesu.
Por±º±ti aµµhakath±cariy±. Abhil±pamattabhedoti vacanamattena viseso. Tenasuttavinayesu vibhattivipariº±mo katoti dasseti. Parato attha½ vaººayiss±m±tiparato “itipi so bhagav±”ti-±din± ±gataµµh±ne vaººayiss±ma. Verañj±yanti ettha“balikaraggahaºena janassa p²¼±bh±vato niddosatt± vigato rajo ass±ti verañj±,seriv±ºijaj±take devadattassa veruppannapadese katatt± vera½ ettha j±tanti verañj±,paviµµhapaviµµhe naµasamajj±d²hi kh±dan²yabhojan²y±laªk±r±d²hi ca vividhehi upakaraºehi rañjanatovividhehi rañjayat²ti verañj±, paµipakkhe abhibhavitv± katabh±vato vera½ abhibhavitv±j±t±ti verañj±, verañjassa n±ma isino assamaµµh±ne katatt± verañj±”ti evam±din±keci vaººayanti. Ki½ imin±, n±mamattameta½ tassa nagarass±ti dassento ±ha “verañj±tiaññatarassa nagarasseta½ adhivacanan”ti. Sam²patthe bhummavacananti “gaªg±ya½ g±vo caranti, k³pe gaggakulan”ti-±d²su viya. Avisesen±ti “p±timokkhasa½varasa½vutoviharati. Paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharati. Mett±sahagatena cetas± eka½ disa½ pharitv±viharati. Sabbanimitt±na½ amanasik±r± animitta½ cetosam±dhi½ sam±pajjitv± viharat²”ti-±d²suviya saddantarasannidh±nasiddhena visesapar±masanena vin±. Atha v± avisesen±ti na visesena,vih±rabh±vas±maññen±ti attho.
Iriy±patha…pe… vih±res³ti iriy±pathavih±ro dibbavih±ro brahmavih±ro ariyavih±rotietesu cat³su vih±resu. Tattha iriyana½ pavattana½ iriy±, k±yappayogo k±yikakiriy±.Tass± pavattanup±yabh±vato iriy±ya pathoti iriy±patho, µh±nanisajj±di. Na hi µh±nanisajj±d²hiavatth±hi vin± kañci k±yikakiriya½ pavattetu½ sakk±. Ýh±nasamaªg² v± hi k±yenakiñci kareyya gaman±d²su aññatarasamaªg² v±ti. Viharaºa½, viharati eten±ti v±vih±ro, iriy±pathova vih±ro iriy±pathavih±ro, so ca atthato µh±nanisajj±di-±k±rappavattocatusantatir³pappabandhova. Divi bhavo dibbo, tattha bahulappavattiy± brahmap±risajj±didevalokabhavotiattho. Tattha yo dibb±nubh±vo tadatth±ya sa½vattat²ti v± dibbo, abhiññ±bhin²h±ravasenamah±gatikatt± v± dibbo, dibbo ca so vih±ro c±ti dibbavih±ro, dibbabh±v±vahov± vih±ro dibbavih±ro, mahaggatajjh±n±ni. ¾ruppasam±pattiyopi hi ettheva saªgaha½gacchanti. Nettiya½ pana “catasso ±ruppasam±pattiyo ±neñjavih±ro”ti vutta½,ta½ mett±jh±n±d²na½ brahmavih±rat± viya t±sa½ bh±van±visesabh±va½ sandh±ya vutta½. Aµµhakath±supana dibbabh±v±vahas±maññato t±pi “dibbavih±r±”tveva vutt±. Brahm±na½ vih±r±brahmavih±r±, brahm±no v± vih±r± brahmavih±r±, hit³pasa½har±divasena pavattiy± brahmabh³t±seµµhabh³t± vih±r±ti attho, mett±jh±n±dik± catasso appamaññ±yo. Ariy± uttam±vih±r±ti ariyavih±r±, anaññas±dh±raºatt± ariy±na½ v± vih±r± ariyavih±r±,catasso phalasam±pattiyo. Visesato pana r³p±vacaracatutthajjh±na½ catasso appamaññ±yo catutthajjh±nikaphalasam±pattica bhagavato dibbabrahma-ariyavih±r±.
Aññataravih±rasamaªg²parid²pananti yath±vuttavih±resu aññataravih±rasamaªg²bh±vaparid²pana½.Bhagav± hi lobhadosamohussannak±le loke tassa sak±ya paµipattiy± vinayanattha½dibbabrahma-a-ayavih±re upasampajja viharati. Tath± hi yad± satt± k±mesu vippaµipajjanti,tad± kira bhagav± dibbena vih±rena viharati tesa½ alobhakusalam³lupp±danattha½ “appeva n±ma ima½ paµipatti½ disv± ettha ruci½ upp±dent± k±mesu virajjeyyun”ti.Yad± pana issariyattha½ sattesu vippaµipajjanti, tad± pana brahmavih±rena viharati tesa½ adosakusalam³lupp±danattha½“appeva n±ma ima½ paµipatti½ disv± ettha ruci½ upp±detv± adosena dosa½ v³pasameyyun”ti.Yad± pana pabbajit± dhamm±dhikaraºa½ vivadanti, tad± ariyavih±rena viharati tesa½ amohakusalam³lupp±danattha½“appeva n±ma ima½ paµipatti½ disv± tattha ruci½ upp±detv± amohena moha½ v³pasameyyun”ti.Evañca katv± imehi dibbabrahma-ariyavih±rehi satt±na½ vividha½ hitasukha½ harati upaharatiupaneti janeti upp±det²ti “viharat²”ti vuccati.
Iriy±pathavih±rena pana na kad±ci na viharati ta½ vin± attabh±vapariharaº±bh±vato, tatoyevaca dibbavih±r±d²nampi s±dh±raºo iriy±pathavih±roti ±ha “idha pan±”ti-±di. Iriy±pathasam±yogaparid²panantiitaravih±rasam±yogaparid²panassa visesavacanassa abh±vato iriy±pathasam±yogaparid²panassa caatthasiddhatt± vutta½. Asmi½ pana pakkhe viharat²ti ettha vi-saddo vicchedatthajotano,harat²ti neti pavattet²ti attho, vicchinditv± harat²ti vutta½ hoti. Tattha kassakena vicchindana½, katha½ kassa pavattananti antol²nacodana½ sandh±y±ha “so h²”ti-±di.Soti bhagav±. Yadipi bhagav± ekenapi iriy±pathena ciratara½ k±la½ attabh±va½pavattetu½ sakkoti, tath±pi up±dinnakasar²rassa n±ma aya½ sabh±voti dassetu½ “eka½iriy±pathab±dhanan”ti-±di vutta½. Aparipatantanti apatanta½. Yasm± pana bhagav±yattha katthaci vasanto vineyy±na½ dhamma½ desento n±n±sam±patt²hi ca k±la½ v²tin±mentovasat²ti satt±na½ attano ca vividha½ hitasukha½ harati upaneti, tasm± vividha½ harat²tiviharat²ti evampettha attho veditabbo.
Na¼erupucimandam³leti ettha vaººayanti– na¼er³ti tasmi½ rukkheadhivatthayakkhasseta½ adhivacana½, tasm± tena adhivattho pucimando “na¼erussa pucimandona¼erupucimando”ti vuccati. Atha v± na¼e ruhatt± j±tatt± na¼eru. Susirametthana¼asaddena vuccati, tasm± rukkhasusire j±tatt± na¼eru ca so pucimando c±ti na¼erupucimandotivuccati. Na¼avane ruhatt± j±tatt± v± na¼eru. Na¼avane kira so pucimandarukkhoj±to. Uruna¼o pucimando na¼erupucimando. Urusaddo cettha mahantapariy±yo, na¼asaddosusirapariy±yo, tasm± mahantena susirena samann±gato pucimando na¼erupucimandotivuccat²ti. ¾cariyo pana kimettha bahubh±siten±ti ekamevattha½ dassento “na¼erun±ma yakkho”ti-±dim±ha.