J±ta½ bh³ta½ pur±vuttha½ bhagavato pubbacarita½ k±yati katheti pak±set²ti j±taka½.
“Catt±rome bhikkhave, acchariy± abbhut± dhamm± ±nande. Katame catt±ro? Sace,bhikkhave, bhikkhuparis± ±nanda½ dassan±ya upasaªkamati, dassanenapi s± attaman± hoti.Tattha ce ±nando dhamma½ bh±sati, bh±sitenapi s± attaman± hoti, atitt±va, bhikkhave,bhikkhuparis± hoti, atha ±nando tuºh² bhavati. Sace bhikkhun²paris±…pe… up±sakaparis±…pe…up±sik± paris± ±nanda½ dassan±ya upasaªkamati, dassanenapi s± attaman± hoti. Tattha ce±nando dhamma½ bh±sati, bh±sitenapi s± attaman± hoti, atitt±va, bhikkhave, up±sik±paris±hoti, atha ±nando tuºh² bhavati. Ime kho, bhikkhave, catt±ro acchariy± abbhut± dhamm±±nande”ti (a. ni. 4.129) evam±dinayappavatt± sabbepi acchariya-abbhutadhammapaµisa½yutt±suttant± abbhutadhamma½ n±m±ti dassento ±ha “catt±rome, bhikkhave”ti-±di.
C³¼avedall±d²su (ma. ni. 1.460 ±dayo) vis±khena n±ma up±sakena puµµh±ya dhammadinn±yan±ma bhikkhuniy± bh±sita½ sutta½ c³¼avedallanti veditabba½. Mah±vedalla½ (ma.ni. 1.449 ±dayo) pana mah±koµµhikattherena pucchitena ±yasmat± s±riputtattherenabh±sita½. Samm±diµµhisuttampi (ma. ni. 1.89 ±dayo) bhikkh³hi puµµhena tenev±yasmat±s±riputtattherena bh±sita½. Et±ni majjhimanik±yapariy±pann±ni. Sakkapañha½(d². ni. 2.344 ±dayo) pana sakkena puµµho bhagav± abh±si, tañca d²ghanik±yapariy±pannantiveditabba½. Mah±puººamasuttampi (ma. ni. 3.85 ±dayo) tadahuposathe pannarase puººam±yarattiy± aññatarena bhikkhun± puµµhena bhagavat± bh±sita½, ta½ pana majjhimanik±yapariy±pannantiveditabba½. Vedanti ñ±ºa½. Tuµµhinti yath±bh±sitadhammadesana½ viditv± “s±dhuayye, s±dh±vuso”ti-±din± abbhanumodanavasappavatta½ p²tisomanassa½. Laddh± laddh±tilabhitv± labhitv±, punappuna½ labhitv±ti vutta½ hoti.
Eva½ aªgavasena sakalampi buddhavacana½ vibhajitv± id±ni dhammakkhandhavasenavibhajitv± kathetuk±mo ±ha “katha½ dhammakkhandhavasen±”ti-±di. Tattha dhammakkhandhavasen±tidhammar±sivasena. Dv±s²ti sahass±ni buddhato gaºhi½, dve sahass±ni bhikkhuto gaºhintisambandho. Tattha buddhato gaºhinti samm±sambuddhato uggaºhi½, dvesahass±dhik±nias²ti dhammakkhandhasahass±ni satthu santik± adhigaºhinti attho. Dve sahass±ni bhikkhutotidve dhammakkhandhasahass±ni bhikkhuto uggaºhi½, dhammasen±pati-±d²na½ bhikkh³na½ santik±adhigaºhi½. S±riputtatther±d²hi bh±sit±na½ samm±diµµhisuttant±d²na½ vasena hi“dve sahass±ni bhikkhuto”ti vutta½. Catur±s²ti sahass±n²ti tadubhaya½ samodh±netv±catusahass±dhik±ni as²ti sahass±ni. Ye me dhamm± pavattinoti ye dhamm± mama pavattinopavattam±n± paguº± v±cuggat± jivhagge parivattanti, te dhamm± catur±s²ti dhammakkhandhasahass±n²tivutta½ hoti. Keci pana “ye ime”ti padaccheda½ katv± “ye ime dhamm± buddhassabhagavato bhikkh³nañca pavattino, tehi pavattit±, tesv±ha½ dv±s²ti sahass±ni buddhatogaºhi½, dve sahass±ni bhikkhutoti eva½ catur±s²ti dhammakkhandhasahass±n²”ti evametthasambandha½ vadanti.
Ettha ca subhasutta½ (d². ni. 1.444 ±dayo) gopakamoggall±nasuttañca (ma. ni.3.79 ±dayo) parinibbute bhagavati ±nandattherena vuttatt± catur±s²tidhammakkhandhasahassesuantogadha½ hoti, na hot²ti? Tattha paµisambhid±gaºµhipade t±va ida½ vutta½ “saya½vuttadhammakkhandh±na½ bhikkhuto gahiteyeva saªgahetv± evam±h±ti daµµhabban”ti. Bhagavat±pana dinnanaye µhatv± bh±sitatt± saya½ vuttadhammakkhandh±nampi “buddhato gaºhin”ti etthasaªgaha½ katv± vuttanti evamettha vattu½ yuttatara½ viya dissati. Bhagavat±yeva hi dinnanayeµhatv± s±vak± dhamma½ desenti. Teneva hi tatiyasaªg²tiyañca moggaliputtatissattherenabh±sitampi kath±vatthuppakaraºa½ buddhabh±sita½ n±ma j±ta½, tatoyeva ca attan± bh±sitampisubhasutt±di saªg²ti½ ±ropentena ±yasmat± ±nandattherena “eva½ me sutan”ti vutta½.
Eva½ parid²pitadhammakkhandhavasen±ti gopakamoggall±nena br±hmaºena “tva½ bahussutotibuddhas±sane p±kaµo, kittak± dhamm± te satth±r± bh±sit±, tay± dh±rit±”ti pucchitetassa paµivacana½ dentena ±yasmat± ±nandattherena eva½ “dv±s²ti buddhatogaºhin”ti-±din± parid²pitadhammakkhandh±na½ vasena. Ek±nusandhika½ sutta½ satipaµµh±n±di.Satipaµµh±nasuttañhi “ek±yano aya½, bhikkhave, maggo satt±na½ visuddhiy±”ti-±din±(d². ni. 2.373) catt±ro satipaµµh±ne ±rabhitv± tesa½yeva vibh±gadassanavasena pavattatt±“ek±nusandhikan”ti vuccati. Anek±nusandhikanti n±n±nusandhika½ parinibb±nasutt±di.Parinibb±nasuttañhi n±n±µh±nesu n±n±dhammadesan±na½ vasena pavattatt± “anek±nusandhikan”tivuccati. G±th±bandhesu pañhapucchananti–
“Kati chinde kati jahe, kati cuttari bh±vaye;
kati saªg±tigo bhikkhu, ‘oghatiººo’ti vuccat²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.5)–

Evam±dinayappavatta½ pañhapucchana½ eko dhammakkhandhoti attho.

“Pañca chinde pañca jahe, pañca cuttari bh±vaye;
pañca saªg±tigo bhikkhu, ‘oghatiººo’ti vuccat²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.5)–

Evam±dinayappavatta½ visajjananti veditabba½. Tikadukabh±jana½ nikkhepakaº¹a-aµµhakath±kaº¹avasenaveditabba½. Tasm± “kusal± dhamm±, akusal± dhamm±, aby±kat± dhamm±, sukh±yavedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±, dukkh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt± dhamm±, adukkhamasukh±ya vedan±yasampayutt± dhamm±”ti evam±d²su tikesu kusalattikassa vibhajanavasena ya½ vutta½nikkhepakaº¹e (dha. sa. 985-987)–

“Katame dhamm± kusal±? T²ºi kusalam³l±ni alobho adoso amoho, ta½sampayuttovedan±kkhandho saññ±kkhandho saªkh±rakkhandho viññ±ºakkhandho, ta½samuµµh±na½ k±yakamma½vac²kamma½ manokamma½. Ime dhamm± kusal±.
“Katame dhamm± akusal±? T²ºi akusalam³l±ni lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh±ca kiles±, ta½sampayutto vedan±kkhandho…pe… manokamma½. Ime dhamm± akusal±.
“Katame dhamm± aby±kat±? Kusal±kusal±na½ dhamm±na½ vip±k± k±m±vacar± r³p±vacar±ar³p±vacar± apariy±pann± vedan±kkhandho …pe… viññ±ºakkhandho, yeca dhamm± kiriy± neva kusal± n±kusal± na ca kammavip±k± sabbañca r³pa½ asaªkhat±ca dh±tu. Ime dhamm± aby±kat±”ti–

Ayameko dhammakkhandho. Eva½ sesattik±nampi ekekassa tikassa vibhajana½ ekekodhammakkhandhoti veditabba½.

Tath± “het³ dhamm±”ti evam±dikesu dukesu ekekassa dukassa vibhajanavasena ya½vutta½–
“Katame dhamm± het³? Tayo kusal± het³, tayo akusal± het³, tayo aby±kat±het³”ti (dha. sa. 1059)–

¾di, tatth±pi ekekassa dukassa vibhajana½ ekeko dhammakkhandho. Puna aµµhakath±kaº¹e(dha. sa. 1384-1386)–

“Katame dhamm± kusal±? Cat³su bh³m²su kusala½. Ime dhamm± kusal±. Katamedhamm± akusal±? Dv±dasa akusalacittupp±d±. Ime dhamm± akusal±. Katame dhamm±aby±kat±? Cat³su bh³m²su vip±ko t²su bh³m²su kiriy±by±kata½ r³pañcanibb±nañca. Ime dhamm± aby±kat±”ti–

Evam±din± kusalattik±divibhajanavasena pavattesu tikabh±janesu ekekassa tikassabh±jana½ ekeko dhammakkhandho. Tath±–

“Katame dhamm± het³? Tayo kusal± het³, tayo akusal± het³, tayo aby±kat±het³”ti (dha. sa. 1441)–

¾dinayappavattesu dukabh±janesu ekameka½ dukabh±jana½ ekeko dhammakkhandhoti evametthatikadukabh±janavasena dhammakkhandhavibh±go veditabbo.

Ekamekañca cittav±rabh±jananti ettha pana–
“Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti somanassasahagata½ ñ±ºasampayutta½r³p±rammaºa½ v±…pe… tasmi½ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hot²”ti(dha. sa. 1)–

Evam±dinayappavatte cittupp±dakaº¹e ekameka½ cittav±rabh±jana½ ekekodhammakkhandhoti gahetabba½. Eko dhammakkhandhoti ettha “ekekatikadukabh±jana½ ekameka½cittav±rabh±janan”ti vuttatt± ekeko dhammakkhandhoti attho veditabbo. “Ekeko”tiavuttepi hi ayamattho atthato viññ±yam±nova hot²ti “eko dhammakkhandho”ti vutta½.Atthi vatth³ti-±d²su vatthu n±ma sudinnakaº¹±di M±tik±ti “yo panabhikkhu bhikkh³na½ sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti-±din± (p±r±. 44) tasmi½ tasmi½ ajjh±c±repaññattasikkh±pada½. Padabh±jan²yanti tassa tassa sikkh±padassa “yo pan±ti yo y±diso”ti-±dinayappavatta½(p±r±. 45) vibhajana½. Antar±patt²ti “paµil±ta½ ukkhipati, ±patti dukkaµass±”ti(p±ci. 355) evam±din± sikkh±padantaresu paññatt± ±patti. An±patt²ti “an±pattiaj±nantassa as±diyantassa ummattakassa khittacittassa vedan±µµassa ±dikammikass±”ti-±dinayappavattokacchedoti “das±h±tikkante atikkantasaññ²nissaggiya½ p±cittiya½, das±h±tikkante vematiko nissaggiya½ p±cittiya½,das±h±tikkante anatikkantasaññ² nissaggiya½ p±cittiyan”ti (p±r±. 468) evam±dinayappavattotikap±cittiyatikadukkaµ±dibhedo tikaparicchedo.

Id±ni evameta½ abhedato rasavasena ekavidhanti-±din± “aya½ dhammo, aya½ vinayo…pe…im±ni catur±s²ti dhammakkhandhasahass±n²”ti buddhavacana½ dhammavinay±dibhedena vavatthapetv±saªg±yantena mah±kassapapamukhena vas²gaºena anekacchariyap±tubh±vapaµimaº¹it±ya saªg²tiy±imassa piµakassa vinayabh±vo majjhimabuddhavacan±dibh±vo ca vavatth±pitoti dasseti. Na kevala½imamevimassa yath±vuttappabheda½ vavatthapetv± saªg²ta½, atha kho aññamp²ti dassento ±ha“na kevalañca imamev±”ti-±di. Tattha udd±nasaªgaho paµhamap±r±jik±d²su ±gat±na½vin²tavatthu-±d²na½ saªkhepato saªgahadassanavasena dhammasaªg±hakehi kathit±–
“Makkaµ² vajjiputt± ca, gih² naggo ca titthiy±;
d±rikuppalavaºº± ca, byañjanehipare duve”ti. (P±r±. 66)–

¾dik± g±th±yo. S²lakkhandhavaggam³lapariy±yavagg±divasena saªgaho vaggasaªgaho.Uttarimanussadhammapeyy±lan²lacakkapeyy±l±divavatth±panavasena peyy±lasaªgaho. Aªguttaranik±y±d²suekakanip±t±disaªgaho. Sa½yuttanik±ye devat±sa½yutt±divasena sa½yuttasaªgaho.Majjhimanik±y±d²su m³lapaºº±sak±divasena paºº±sakasaªgaho.

Assa buddhavacanassa saªg²tipariyos±ne s±dhuk±ra½ dadam±n± viy±ti sambandho. Saªkamp²tiuddha½ uddha½ gacchant² suµµhu kampi. Sampakamp²ti uddha½ adho ca gacchant² sampakampi.Sampavedh²ti cat³su dis±su gacchant² suµµhu pavedhi. Acchara½ paharitu½ yutt±niacchariy±ni, pupphavassacelukkhep±d²ni Y± paµhamamah±saªg²ti dhammasaªg±hakehimah±kassap±d²hi pañcahi satehi yena kat± saªg²t±, tena pañcasat±ni etiss± atth²ti“pañcasat±”ti ca, thereheva katatt± ther± mah±kassap±dayo etiss± atth²ti “therik±”tica loke vuccati, aya½ paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±m±ti sambandho.
Eva½ paµhamamah±saªg²ti½ dassetv± yadattha½ s± idha nidassit±, ta½ nigamanavasena dassento “imiss±”ti-±dim±ha.¾yasmat± up±littherena vuttanti “tena samayen±”ti-±di vakkham±na½ sabba½ nid±navacana½vutta½. Kimattha½ panettha dhammavinayasaªgahe kathiyam±ne nid±navacana½ vutta½, nanu cabhagavat± bh±sitavacanasseva saªgaho k±tabboti? Vuccate– desan±ya µhiti-asammosasaddha-eyyabh±vasamp±danattha½.K±ladesadesakaparis±padesehi upanibandhitv± µhapit± hi desan± ciraµµhitik± hoti asammosadhamm±saddheyy± ca, desak±lakattuhetunimittehi upanibandho viya voh±ravinicchayo. Tenevaca ±yasmat± mah±kassapena “paµhamap±r±jika½ ±vuso, up±li, kattha paññattan”ti-±din±des±dipucch±su kat±su t±sa½ visajjana½ karontena ±yasmat± up±littherena “tenasamayen±”ti-±din± paµhamap±r±jikassa nid±na½ bh±sita½.
Apica s±sanasampattipak±sanattha½ nid±navacana½. ѱºakaruº±pariggahitasabbakiriyassa hibhagavato natthi niratthak± paµipatti attahitatth± v±, tasm± paresa½yevatth±yapavattasabbakiriyassa samm±sambuddhassa sakalampi k±yavac²manokamma½ yath±pavatta½ vuccam±na½diµµhadhammikasampar±yikaparamatthehi yath±raha½ satt±na½ anus±sanaµµhena s±sana½, na kabbaracan±.Tayida½ satthuracita½ k±ladesadesakaparis±padesehi saddhi½ tattha tattha nid±navacanehi yath±raha½pak±s²yati.
Apica satthuno pam±ºabh±vappak±sanena s±sanassa pam±ºabh±vadassanattha½ nid±navacana½, tañcassapam±ºabh±vadassana½ “buddho bhagav±”ti imin± padadvayena vibh±vitanti veditabba½. Buddhotihi imin± tath±gatassa anaññas±dh±raºasuparisuddhañ±º±diguºavisesayogaparid²panena, bhagav±tica imin± r±gadosamoh±disabbakilesamaladuccarit±didosappah±nad²panena, tato eva ca sabbasattuttamabh±vad²panenaayamattho sabbath± pak±sito hot²ti idamettha nid±navacanappayojanassa mukhamattanidassana½.
Tatr±ya½ ±cariyaparampar±ti tasmi½ jambud²pe aya½ ±cariy±na½ parampar± paveº² paµip±µi.Up±li d±sakoti-±d²su up±litthero p±kaµoyeva, d±sakatther±dayo panaeva½ veditabb± Ves±liya½ kira eko d±sako n±ma br±hmaºam±ºavo tiººa½ antev±sikasat±na½jeµµhantev±siko hutv± ±cariyassa santike sippa½ uggaºhanto dv±dasavassikoyevatiººa½ ved±na½ p±rag³ ahosi. So ekadivasa½ antev±sikaparivuto dhammavinaya½saªg±yitv± v±lik±r±me nivasanta½ ±yasmanta½ up±litthera½ upasaªkamitv± attanovedesu sabb±ni gaºµhiµµh±n±ni thera½ pucchi. Theropi sabba½ by±karitv± sayampi eka½pañha½ pucchanto n±ma½ sandh±ya ima½ pañha½ pucchi “ekadhammo kho, m±ºava, sabbesu dhammesuanupatati, sabbepi, m±ºava, dhamm± ekadhammasmi½ osaranti, katamo nu kho so, m±ºavaka,dhammo”ti. Sopi kho m±ºavo pañhassa attha½ aj±nanto “kimida½ bho pabbajit±”ti±ha. Buddhamantoya½ m±ºav±ti. Sakk± pan±ya½ bho mayhampi d±tunti. Sakk±, m±ºava,amhehi gahitapabbajja½ gaºhantassa d±tunti. “S±dhu kho bho pabbajit±”ti m±ºavosampaµicchitv± attano m±tara½ pitara½ ±cariyañca anuj±n±petv± t²hi antev±sikasatehisaddhi½ therassa santike pabbajitv± paripuººav²sativasso upasampada½ labhitv±arahatta½ p±puºi. Thero ta½ dhura½ katv± kh²º±savasahassassa piµakattaya½ v±cesi.
Soºako pana d±sakattherassa saddhivih±riko. So kira k±s²su ekassa v±ºijakassaputto hutv± pañcadasavassuddesiko eka½ samaya½ m±t±pit³hi saddhi½ v±ºijj±ya giribbaja½gato. Tato pañcapaññ±sad±rakehi saddhi½ ve¼uvana½ gantv± tattha d±sakatthera½ saparisa½disv± ativiya pasanno pabbajja½ y±citv± therena m±t±pitaro anuj±n±petv± “pabbaj±h²”tivutto m±t±pitusantika½ gantv± tamattha½ ±rocetv± tesu anicchantesu chinnabhattohutv± m±t±pitaro anuj±n±petv± pañcapaññ±s±ya d±rakehi saddhi½ therassa santikepabbajitv± laddh³pasampado arahatta½ p±puºi. Ta½ thero sakala½ buddhavacana½ uggaºh±pesi.Sopi gaºap±mokkho hutv± bah³na½ dhammavinaya½ v±cesi.
Siggavatthero pana soºakattherassa saddhivih±riko ahosi. So kira p±µaliputtesiggavo n±ma amaccaputto hutv± tiººa½ ut³na½ anucchavikesu t²su p±s±desusampatti½ anubhavam±no ekadivasa½ attano sah±yena caº¹avajjin± seµµhiputtena saddhi½ sapariv±rokukkuµ±r±ma½ gantv± tattha soºakatthera½ nirodhasam±patti½ sam±pajjitv± nisinna½disv± vanditv± attan± saddhi½ an±lapanta½ ñatv± gantv± ta½ k±raºa½ bhikkhusaªgha½ pucchitv±bhikkh³hi “sam±patti½ sam±pann± n±lapant²”ti vutto “katha½, bhante, sam±pattitovuµµhahant²”ti puna pucchitv± tehi ca bhikkh³hi “satthuno ceva saªghassa ca pakkosan±yayath±paricchinnak±lato ±yusaªkhay± ca vuµµhahant²”ti vatv± tassa sapariv±rassa upanissaya½disv± saªghassa vacanena nirodh± vuµµh±pita½ soºakatthera½ disv± “kasm±, bhante, may±saddhi½ n±lapitth±”ti pucchitv± therena “bhuñjitabbaka½ kum±ra bhuñjimh±”ti vutte“sakk± nu kho, bhante, amhehipi ta½ bhojetun”ti pucchitv± “sakk±, kum±ra,amh±dise katv± bhojetun”ti vutte tamattha½ m±t±pit³na½ ±rocetv± tehi anuññ±toattano sah±yena caº¹avajjin± tehi ca pañcahi purisasatehi saddhi½ soºakattherassa santikepabbajitv± upasampanno ahosi. Tattha siggavo ca caº¹avajj² ca dve pajjh±yasseva santike dhammavinaya½ pariy±puºitv± aparabh±ge cha¼abhiññ± ahesu½.
Tissassa pana moggaliputtassa anupubbakath± parato ±vi bhavissati. Vijit±vinotivijitasabbakilesapaµipakkhatt± vijitavanto. Parampar±y±ti paµip±µiy±, anukkamen±tivutta½ hoti. Jambusirivhayeti jambusadisan±me, jambun±maketi vutta½ hoti.Mahantena hi jamburukkhena abhilakkhitatt± d²popi “jamb³”ti vuccati. Acchijjam±na½avinassam±na½ katv±.
Vinayava½santi-±d²hi t²hi vinayap±¼iyeva kathit± pariy±yavacanatt±. Pakataññutantiveyyattiya½, paµubh±vanti vutta½ hoti. Dhuragg±ho ahos²ti padh±nagg±h² ahosi,sabbesa½ p±mokkho hutv± gaºh²ti vutta½ hoti. Bhikkh³na½ samud±yo sam³ho bhikkhusamud±yo,samaºagaºoti attho.

Iti samantap±s±dik±ya vinayaµµhakath±ya s±ratthad²paniya½

Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±vaººan± samatt±.