Sikkh±paccakkh±navibhaªgavaººan±

Sikkha½ appaccakkh±ya dubbalya½ an±vikatv±ti sikkhañca appaµikkhipitv± dubbalabh±vañca appak±setv±. Yasm± ca dubbalye ±vikatepi sikkh± appaccakkh±t±va hoti, sikkh±ya pana paccakkh±t±ya dubbalya½ ±vikatameva hoti. Tasm± “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti imin± padena na koci visesattho labbhati. Yath± pana “dirattatiratta½ sahaseyya½ kappeyy±”ti vutte dirattavacanena na koci visesattho labbhati, kevala½ lokavoh±ravasena byañjanasiliµµhat±ya mukh±r³¼hat±ya eta½ vutta½. Evamidampi voh±ravasena byañjanasiliµµhat±ya mukh±r³¼hat±ya vuttanti veditabba½.
Yasm± v± bhagav± s±ttha½ sabyañjana½ dhamma½ deseti, tasm± “sikkha½ appaccakkh±y±”ti imin± attha½ samp±detv± “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti imin± byañjana½ samp±deti. Pariv±rakapadavirahitañhi ekameva atthapada½ vuccam±na½ pariv±ravirahito r±j± viya, vatth±laªk±ravirahito viya ca puriso na sobhati; pariv±rakena pana atth±nulomena sah±yapadena saddhi½ ta½ sobhat²ti.
Yasm± v± sikkh±paccakkh±nassa ekacca½ dubbaly±vikamma½ attho hoti, tasm± ta½ sandh±ya “sikkha½ appaccakkh±y±”tipadassa attha½ vivaranto “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti ±ha.
Tattha siy± yasm± na sabba½ dubbaly±vikamma½ sikkh±paccakkh±na½, tasm± “dubbalya½ an±vikatv±”ti paµhama½ vatv± tassa atthaniyamanattha½ “sikkha½ appaccakkh±y±”ti vattabbanti, tañca na; kasm±? Atth±nukkam±bh±vato. “Sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti hi vuttatt± ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno, ta½ appaccakkh±y±ti vuccam±no anukkameneva attho vutto hoti, na aññath±. Tasm± idameva paµhama½ vuttanti.
Apica anupaµip±µiy±pi ettha attho veditabbo. Katha½? “Sikkh±s±j²vasam±panno”ti ettha ya½ sikkha½ sam±panno ta½ appaccakkh±ya yañca s±j²va½ sam±panno tattha dubbalya½ an±vikatv±ti.
Id±ni sikkh±paccakkh±nadubbaly±vikamm±na½ vises±visesa½ sikkh±paccakkh±nalakkhaºañca dassento “atthi bhikkhave”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha atthi bhikkhaveti-±d²ni dve m±tik±pad±ni; t±ni vibhajanto “kathañca bhikkhave”ti-±dim±ha. Tatr±ya½ anutt±napadavaººan±– kathanti kena ±k±rena. Dubbaly±vikammañc±ti dubbalyassa ±vikammañca. Idh±ti imasmi½ s±sane. Ukkaºµhitoti anabhiratiy± imasmi½ s±sane kicchaj²vikappatto. Atha v± ajja y±mi, sve y±mi, ito y±mi, ettha y±m²ti uddha½ kaºµha½ katv± viharam±no, vikkhitto anekaggoti vutta½ hoti. Anabhiratoti s±sane abhirativirahito.
S±maññ± cavituk±moti samaºabh±vato apagantuk±mo. Bhikkhubh±vanti bhikkhubh±vena. Karaºatthe upayogavacana½. “Kaºµhe ±sattena aµµ²yeyy±”ti-±d²su (p±r±. 162) pana yath±lakkhaºa½ karaºavacaneneva vutta½. Aµµ²yam±noti aµµa½ p²¼ita½ dukkhita½ viya att±na½ ±caram±no; tena v± bhikkhubh±vena aµµo kariyam±no p²¼iyam±noti attho. Har±yam±noti lajjam±no. Jiguccham±noti asuci½ viya ta½ jigucchanto. Gihibh±va½ patthayam±noti-±d²ni utt±natth±niyeva. Ya½n³n±ha½ buddha½ paccakkheyyanti ettha ya½n³n±ti parivitakkadassane nip±to. Ida½ vutta½ hoti– “sac±ha½ buddha½ paccakkheyya½, s±dhu vata me siy±”ti. Vadati viññ±pet²ti imamattha½ etehi v± aññehi v± byañjanehi vac²bheda½ katv± vadati ceva, yassa ca vadati, ta½ viññ±peti j±n±peti. Evamp²ti uparimatthasampiº¹anatto pik±ro. Evampi dubbaly±vikammañceva hoti sikkh± ca appaccakkh±t±, aññath±pi.
Id±ni ta½ aññath±pi dubbaly±vikamma½ sikkh±ya ca appaccakkh±na½ dassento “atha v± pan±”ti-±dim±ha. Ta½ sabba½ atthato utt±nameva. Padato panettha ±dito paµµh±ya “buddha½ paccakkheyya½, dhamma½, saªgha½, sikkha½, vinaya½, p±timokkha½, uddesa½, upajjh±ya½, ±cariya½, saddhivih±rika½, antev±sika½, sam±nupajjh±yaka½, sam±n±cariyaka½, sabrahmac±ri½ paccakkheyyan”ti im±ni cuddasa pad±ni paccakkh±n±k±rena vutt±ni.
Gih² assanti-±d²ni “gih², up±sako, ±r±miko, s±maºero, titthiyo, titthiyas±vako, assamaºo, asakyaputtiyo assan”ti im±ni aµµha pad±ni “assan”ti imin± bh±vavikapp±k±rena vutt±ni. Eva½ “ya½n³n±han”ti imin± paµisa½yutt±ni dv±v²sati pad±ni.
46. Yath± ca et±ni, eva½ “yadi pan±ha½, ap±ha½, hand±ha½, hoti me”ti imesu ekamekena paµisa½yutt±ni dv±v²sat²ti sabb±neva satañca dasa ca pad±ni honti.
47. Tato para½ saritabbavatthudassananayena pavatt±ni “m±tara½ sar±m²”ti-±d²ni sattarasa pad±ni. Tattha khettanti s±likhett±di½. Vatthunti tiºapaººas±kaphal±phalasamuµµh±naµµh±na½. Sippanti kumbhak±rapesak±rasipp±dika½.
48. Tato para½ sakiñcanasapalibodhabh±vadassanavasena pavatt±ni “m±t± me atthi, s± may± posetabb±”ti-±d²ni nava pad±ni.
49. Tato para½ sanissayasappatiµµhabh±vadassanavasena pavatt±ni “m±t± me atthi, s± ma½ posessat²”ti-±d²ni so¼asa pad±ni.
50. Tato para½ ekabhatta-ekaseyyabrahmacariy±na½ dukkarabh±vadassanavasena pavatt±ni “dukkaran”ti-±d²ni aµµha pad±ni.
Tattha dukkaranti ekabhatt±d²na½ karaºe dukkarata½ dasseti. Na sukaranti sukarabh±va½ paµikkhipati. Eva½ duccara½ na sucaranti ettha. Na ussah±m²ti tattha uss±h±bh±va½ asakkuºeyyata½ dasseti. Na visah±m²ti asayhata½ dasseti. Na ram±m²ti ratiy± abh±va½ dasseti. N±bhiram±m²ti abhiratiy± abh±va½ dasseti. Eva½ im±ni ca paññ±sa, purim±ni ca dasuttarasatanti saµµhisata½ pad±ni dubbaly±vikammav±re vutt±n²ti veditabb±ni.
51. Sikkh±paccakkh±nav±repi “kathañca bhikkhave”ti ±di sabba½ atthato utt±nameva. Padato panetth±pi “buddha½ paccakkh±mi, dhamma½, saªgha½, sikkha½, vinaya½, p±timokkha½, uddesa½, upajjh±ya½, ±cariya½, saddhivih±rika½, antev±sika½, sam±nupajjh±yaka½, sam±n±cariyaka½, sabrahmac±ri½ paccakkh±m²”ti im±ni cuddasa pad±ni sikkh±paccakkh±navacanasambandhena pavatt±ni. Sabbapadesu ca “vadati viññ±pet²”ti vacanassa ayamattho– vac²bheda½ katv± vadati, yassa ca vadati ta½ teneva vac²bhedena “aya½ s±sana½ jahituk±mo s±sanato muccituk±mo bhikkhubh±va½ cajituk±mo ima½ v±kyabheda½ karot²”ti viññ±peti s±veti j±n±peti.
Sace pan±ya½ “buddha½ paccakkh±m²”ti vattuk±mo padapacc±bhaµµha½ katv± “paccakkh±mi buddhan”ti v± vadeyya. Milakkhabh±s±su v± aññatarabh±s±ya tamattha½ vadeyya. “Buddha½ paccakkh±m²”ti vattuk±mo uppaµip±µiy± “dhamma½ paccakkh±m²”ti v± “sabrahmac±ri½ paccakkh±m²”ti v± vadeyya, seyyath±pi uttarimanussadhammavibhaªge “paµhama½ jh±na½ sam±pajj±m²”ti vattuk±mo “dutiya½ jh±nan”ti vadati, sace yassa vadati so “aya½ bhikkhubh±va½ cajituk±mo etamattha½ vadat²”ti ettakamattampi j±n±ti, viraddha½ n±ma natthi; khettameva otiººa½, paccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Sakkatt± v± brahmatt± v± cutasatto viya cutova hoti s±san±.
Sace pana “buddha½ paccakkhin”ti v±, “buddha½ paccakkhiss±m²”ti v±, “buddha½ paccakkheyyan”ti v±ti at²t±n±gataparikappavacanehi vadati, d³ta½ v± pahiº±ti, s±sana½ v± peseti, akkhara½ v± chindati, hatthamudd±ya v± tamattha½ ±roceti, appaccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Uttarimanussadhamm±rocana½ pana hatthamudd±yapi s²sa½ eti. Sikkh±paccakkh±na½ manussaj±tikasattassa santike cittasampayutta½ vac²bheda½ karontasseva s²sa½ eti. Vac²bheda½ katv± viññ±pentopi ca yadi “ayameva j±n±t³”ti eka½ niyametv± ±roceti, tañca soyeva j±n±ti, paccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Atha so na j±n±ti, añño sam²pe µhito j±n±ti, appaccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Atha dvinna½ µhitaµµh±ne dvinnampi niyametv± “etesa½ ±rocem²”ti vadati, tesu ekasmi½ j±nantepi dv²su j±nantesupi paccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Eva½ sambahulesupi veditabba½.
Sace pana anabhiratiy± p²¼ito sabh±ge bhikkh³ parisaªkam±no “yo koci j±n±t³”ti uccasadda½ karonto “buddha½ paccakkh±m²”ti vadati, tañca avid³re µhito navakammiko v± añño v± samayaññ³ puriso sutv± “ukkaºµhito aya½ samaºo gihibh±va½ pattheti, s±sanato cuto”ti j±n±ti, paccakkh±t±va hoti sikkh±. Taªkhaºaññeva pana apubba½ acarima½ dujj±na½, sace ±vajjanasamaye j±n±ti; yath± pakatiy± loke manuss± vacana½ sutv± j±nanti, paccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Atha aparabh±ge “ki½ imin± vuttan”ti kaªkhanto cirena j±n±ti, appaccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Idañhi sikkh±paccakkh±nañca upari abh³t±rocanaduµµhullav±c±-attak±maduµµhadosabh³t±-rocanasikkh±pad±ni ca ekaparicched±ni. ¾vajjanasamaye ñ±te eva s²sa½ enti, “ki½ aya½ bhaºat²”ti kaªkhat± cirena ñ±te s²sa½ na enti. Yath± c±ya½ “buddha½ paccakkh±m²”ti pade vinicchaye vutto; eva½ sabbapadesu veditabbo.
Yasm± ca yad± sikkh± paccakkh±t± hoti, tad± “ya½n³n±ha½ buddha½ paccakkheyyan”ti-±d²ni avadat±pi dubbalya½ ±vikatameva hoti; tasm± sabbesa½ pad±na½ avas±ne vutta½– “evampi, bhikkhave, dubbaly±vikammañceva hoti sikkh± ca paccakkh±t±”ti.
Tato para½ gih²ti ma½ dh±reh²ti ettha sacepi “gih² bhaviss±m²”ti v± “gih² hom²”ti v± “gih² j±tomh²”ti v± “gihimh²”ti v± vadati, appaccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Sace pana “ajja paµµh±ya gih²ti ma½ dh±reh²”ti v± “j±n±h²”ti v± “sañj±n±h²”ti v± “manasi karoh²”ti v± vadati, ariyakena v± vadati milakkhakena v±; evametasmi½ atthe vutte yassa vadati, sace so j±n±ti, paccakkh±t± hoti sikkh±. Esa nayo sesesupi “up±sako”ti-±d²su sattasu padesu. Eva½ im±ni ca aµµha, purim±ni ca cuddas±ti dv±v²sati pad±ni honti.
52. Ito para½ purim±neva cuddasa pad±ni “ala½ me, kinnu me, na mamattho, sumutt±han”ti imehi cat³hi yojetv± vutt±ni chappaññ±sa honti. Tattha alanti hotu, pariyattanti attho. Ki½nu meti ki½ mayha½ kicca½, ki½ karaº²ya½, ki½ s±dhetabbanti attho. Na mamatthoti natthi mama attho. Sumutt±hanti sumutto aha½. Sesamettha vuttanayameva. Eva½ im±ni ca chappaññ±sa purim±ni ca dv±v²sat²ti aµµhasattati pad±ni sar³peneva vutt±ni.
53. Yasm± pana tesa½ vevacanehipi sikkh±paccakkh±na½ hoti, tasm± “y±ni v± panaññ±nip²”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha y±ni v± panaññ±nip²ti p±¼iya½ “buddhan”ti-±d²ni ±gatapad±ni µhapetv± y±ni aññ±ni atthi. Buddhavevacan±ni v±ti buddhassa v± pariy±yan±m±ni…pe… asakyaputtiyassa v±. Tattha vaººapaµµh±ne ±gata½ n±masahassa½ up±lig±th±su (ma. ni. 2.76) n±masata½ aññ±ni ca guºato labbham±n±ni n±m±ni “buddhavevacan±n²”ti veditabb±ni. Sabb±nipi dhammassa n±m±ni dhammavevacan±n²ti veditabb±ni. Esa nayo sabbattha.
Aya½ panettha yojan±– buddha½ paccakkh±m²ti na vevavacanena paccakkh±na½ yath±rutameva. “Samm±sambuddha½ paccakkh±mi, anantabuddhi½, anomabuddhi½, bodhipaññ±ºa½, dh²ra½, vigatamoha½, pabhinnakh²la½, vijitavijaya½ paccakkh±m²”ti evam±dibuddhavevacanena sikkh±paccakkh±na½.