Bhikkhupadabh±jan²yavaººan±

Id±ni sikkh±padavibhaªgassa attha½ vaººayiss±ma. Ya½ vutta½ yo pan±ti yo y±disoti-±di. Ettha yo pan±ti vibhajitabbapada½; yo y±disoti-±d²ni tassa vibhajanapad±ni. Ettha ca yasm± pan±ti nip±tamatta½; yoti atthapada½; tañca aniyamena puggala½ d²peti, tasm± tassa attha½ dassento aniyamena puggalad²paka½ yo saddameva ±ha. Tasm± ettha evamattho veditabbo– yo pan±ti yo yokoc²ti vutta½ hoti. Yasm± pana yo yokoci n±ma, so avassa½ liªga-yutta-j±ti-n±ma-gotta-s²la-vih±ra-gocaravayesu eken±k±rena paññ±yati, tasm± ta½ tath± ñ±petu½ ta½ pabheda½ pak±sento “y±diso”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha y±disoti liªgavasena y±diso v± t±diso v± hotu; d²gho v± rasso v± k±¼o v± od±to v± maªguracchavi v± kiso v± th³lo v±ti attho. Yath±yuttoti yogavasena yena v± tena v± yutto hotu; navakammayutto v± uddesayutto v± v±sadhurayutto v±ti attho. Yath±jaccoti j±tivasena ya½jacco v± ta½jacco v± hotu; khattiyo v± br±hmaºo v± vesso v± suddo v±ti attho. Yath±n±moti n±mavasena yath±n±mo v± tath±n±mo v± hotu; buddharakkhito v± dhammarakkhito v± saªgharakkhito v±ti attho. Yath±gottoti gottavasena yath±gotto v± tath±gotto v± yena v± tena v± gottena hotu; kacc±yano v± v±siµµho v± kosiyo v±ti attho. Yath±s²loti s²lesu yath±s²lo v± tath±s²lo v± hotu; navakammas²lo v± uddesas²lo v± v±sadhuras²lo v±ti attho. Yath±vih±r²ti vih±resupi yath±vih±r² v± tath±vih±r² v± hotu; navakammavih±r² v± uddesavih±r² v± v±sadhuravih±r² v±ti attho. Yath±gocaroti gocaresupi yath±gocaro v± tath±gocaro v± hotu; navakammagocaro v± uddesagocaro v± v±sadhuragocaro v±ti attho. Thero v±ti ±d²su vayovu¹¹h±d²su yo v± so v± hotu; paripuººadasavassat±ya thero v± ³napañcavassat±ya navo v± atirekapañcavassat±ya majjhimo v±ti attho. Atha kho sabbova imasmi½ atthe eso vuccati “yo pan±”ti.
Bhikkhuniddese bhikkhat²ti bhikkhako; labhanto v± alabhanto v± ariy±ya y±can±ya y±cat²ti attho. Buddh±d²hi ajjhupagata½ bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagatatt± bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagato n±ma. Yo hi koci appa½ v± mahanta½ v± bhogakkhandha½ pah±ya ag±rasm± anag±riya½ pabbajito, so kasigorakkh±d²hi j²vikakappana½ hitv± liªgasampaµicchaneneva bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagatoti bhikkhu. Parapaµibaddhaj²vikatt± v± vih±ramajjhe k±jabhatta½ bhuñjam±nopi bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagatoti bhikkhu; piº¹iy±lopabhojana½ niss±ya pabbajj±ya uss±haj±tatt± v± bhikkh±cariya½ ajjhupagatoti bhikkhu. Agghaphassavaººabhedena bhinna½ paµa½ dh±ret²ti bhinnapaµadharo. Tattha satthakacchedanena agghabhedo veditabbo. Sahassagghanakopi hi paµo satthakena khaº¹±khaº¹ika½ chinno bhinnaggho hoti. Purimagghato upa¹¹hampi na agghati. Suttasa½sibbanena phassabhedo veditabbo. Sukhasamphassopi hi paµo suttehi sa½sibbito bhinnaphasso hoti. Kharasamphassata½ p±puº±ti. S³cimal±d²hi vaººabhedo veditabbo. Suparisuddhopi hi paµo s³cikammato paµµh±ya s³cimalena, hatthasedamalajallik±hi, avas±ne rajanakappakaraºehi ca bhinnavaººo hoti; pakativaººa½ vijahati. Eva½ t²h±k±rehi bhinnapaµadh±raºato bhinnapaµadharoti bhikkhu. Gihivatthavisabh±g±na½ v± k±s±v±na½ dh±raºamatteneva bhinnapaµadharoti bhikkhu.
Samaññ±y±ti paññattiy± voh±ren±ti attho. Samaññ±ya eva hi ekacco “bhikkh³”ti paññ±yati. Tath± hi nimantan±dimhi bhikkh³su gaºiyam±nesu s±maºerepi gahetv± “sata½ bhikkh³ sahassa½ bhikkh³”ti vadanti. Paµiññ±y±ti attano paµij±nanena paµiññ±yapi hi ekacco “bhikkh³”ti paññ±yati. Tassa “ko etth±ti? Aha½, ±vuso, bhikkh³”ti (a. ni. 10.96) evam±d²su sambhavo daµµhabbo Aya½ pana ±nandattherena vutt± dhammik± paµiññ±. Rattibh±ge pana duss²l±pi paµipatha½ ±gacchant± “ko etth±”ti vutte adhammik±ya paµiññ±ya abh³t±ya “maya½ bhikkh³”ti vadanti.
Ehi bhikkh³ti ehi bhikkhu n±ma bhagavato “ehi bhikkh³”ti vacanamattena bhikkhubh±va½ ehibhikkh³pasampada½ patto. Bhagav± hi ehibhikkhubh±v±ya upanissayasampanna½ puggala½ disv± rattapa½suk³lantarato suvaººavaººa½ dakkhiºahattha½ n²haritv± brahmaghosa½ nicch±rento “ehi, bhikkhu, cara brahmacariya½ samm± dukkhassa antakiriy±y±”ti vadati. Tassa saheva bhagavato vacanena gihiliªga½ antaradh±yati, pabbajj± ca upasampad± ca ruhati. Bhaº¹u k±s±yavasano hoti. Eka½ niv±setv± eka½ p±rupitv± eka½ a½se µhapetv± v±ma½sak³µe ±sattan²luppalavaººamattik±patto–
“Tic²varañca patto ca, v±si s³ci ca bandhana½;
pariss±vanena aµµhete, yuttayogassa bhikkhuno”ti.
Eva½ vuttehi aµµhahi parikkh±rehi sar²re paµimukkehiyeva saµµhivassikatthero viya iriy±pathasampanno buddh±cariyako buddhupajjh±yako samm±sambuddha½ vandam±noyeva tiµµhati. Bhagav± hi paµhamabodhiya½ ekasmi½ k±le ehibhikkh³pasampad±ya eva upasamp±deti. Eva½ upasampann±ni ca sahassupari ekacatt±l²suttar±ni t²ºi bhikkhusat±ni ahesu½; seyyathida½– pañca pañcavaggiyatther±, yaso kulaputto, tassa pariv±r± catupaºº±sa sah±yak±, ti½sa bhaddavaggiy±, sahassapur±ºajaµil±, saddhi½ dv²hi aggas±vakehi a¹¹hateyyasat± paribb±jak±, eko aªgulim±lattheroti. Vuttañheta½ aµµhakath±ya½
“T²ºi sata½ sahassañca, catt±l²sa½ pun±pare;
eko ca thero sappañño, sabbe te ehibhikkhuk±”ti.
Na kevalañca ete eva, aññepi bah³ santi. Seyyathida½– tisatapariv±ro selo br±hmaºo, sahassapariv±ro mah±kappino, dasasahass± kapilavatthuv±sino kulaputt±, so¼asasahass± p±r±yanikabr±hmaº±ti evam±dayo. Te pana vinayapiµake p±¼iya½ na niddiµµhatt± na vutt±. Ime tattha niddiµµhatt± vutt±ti.
“Sattav²sa sahass±ni, t²ºiyeva sat±ni ca;
etepi sabbe saªkh±t±, sabbe te ehibhikkhuk±”ti.
T²hi saraºagamanehi upasampannoti “buddha½ saraºa½ gacch±m²”ti-±din± nayena tikkhattu½ v±ca½ bhinditv± vuttehi t²hi saraºagamanehi upasampanno. Ayañhi upasampad± n±ma aµµhavidh±– ehibhikkh³pasampad±, saraºagaman³pasampad±, ov±dapaµiggahaº³pasampad±, pañhaby±karaº³pasampad±, garudhammapaµiggahaº³pasampad±, d³ten³pasampad±, aµµhav±cik³pasampad±, ñatticatutthakamm³pasampad±ti. Tattha ehibhikkh³pasampad±, saraºagaman³pasampad± ca vutt± eva.
Ov±dapaµiggahaº³pasampad± n±ma “tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½– ‘tibba½ me hirottappa½ paccupaµµhita½ bhavissati theresu navesu majjhimesu c±’ti. Evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½– ‘ya½ kiñci dhamma½ soss±mi kusal³pasa½hita½, sabba½ ta½ aµµhi½ katv± manasi katv± sabbacetas± samann±haritv± ohitasoto dhamma½ soss±m²’ti. Eva½ hi te, kassapa, sikkhitabba½. Tasm±tiha te, kassapa, eva½ sikkhitabba½ ‘s±tasahagat± ca me k±yagat±sati na vijahissat²’ti. Evañhi te, kassapa, sikkhitabban”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154) imin± ov±dapaµiggahaºena mah±kassapattherassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
Pañhaby±karaº³pasampad± n±ma sop±kassa anuññ±ta-upasampad±. Bhagav± kira pubb±r±me anucaªkamanta½ sop±kas±maºera½ “‘uddhum±takasaññ±’ti v±, sop±ka, ‘r³pasaññ±’ti v± ime dhamm± n±natth± n±n±byañjan± ud±hu ekatth±, byañjanameva n±nan”ti dasa asubhanissite pañhe pucchi. So te by±k±si. Bhagav± tassa s±dhuk±ra½ datv± “kativassosi tva½, sop±k±”ti pucchi. “Sattavassoha½, bhagav±”ti. “Sop±ka, tva½ mama sabbaññutaññ±ºena saddhi½ sa½sanditv± pañhe by±k±s²”ti ±raddhacitto upasampada½ anuj±ni. Aya½ pañhaby±karaº³pasampad±.
Garudhammapaµiggahaº³pasampad± n±ma mah±paj±patiy± aµµhagarudhammassa paµiggahaºena anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
D³ten³pasampad± n±ma a¹¹hak±siy± gaºik±ya anuññ±ta-upasampad±.
Aµµhav±cik³pasampad± n±ma bhikkhuniy± bhikkhunisaªghato ñatticatutthena bhikkhusaªghato ñatticatutthen±ti imehi dv²hi kammehi upasampad±.
Ñatticatutthakamm³pasampad± n±ma bhikkh³na½ etarahi upasampad±. Im±su aµµhasu upasampad±su “y± s±, bhikkhave, may± t²hi saraºagamanehi upasampad± anuññ±t±, ta½ ajjatagge paµikkhip±mi. Anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, ñatticatutthena kammena upasamp±detun”ti (mah±va. 69) eva½ anuññ±t±ya im±ya upasampad±ya upasampannoti vutta½ hoti.
Bhadroti ap±pako. Kaly±ºaputhujjan±dayo hi y±va arah±, t±va bhadrena s²lena sam±dhin± paññ±ya vimuttiy± vimuttiñ±ºadassanena ca samann±gatatt± “bhadro bhikkh³”ti saªkhya½ gacchanti. S±roti tehiyeva s²las±r±d²hi samann±gatatt± n²lasamann±gamena n²lo paµo viya “s±ro bhikkh³”ti veditabbo. Vigatakilesapheggubh±vato v± kh²º±savova “s±ro”ti veditabbo. Sekhoti puthujjanakaly±ºakena saddhi½ satta ariy± tisso sikkh± sikkhant²ti sekh±. Tesu yo koci “sekho bhikkh³”ti veditabbo. Na sikkhat²ti asekho. Sekkhadhamme atikkamma aggaphale µhito, tato uttari sikkhitabb±bh±vato kh²º±savo “asekho”ti vuccati. Samaggena saªghen±ti sabbantimena pariy±yena pañcavaggakaraº²ye kamme y±vatik± bhikkh³ kammappatt±, tesa½ ±gatatt± chand±rah±na½ chandassa ±haµatt±, sammukh²bh³t±nañca appaµikkosanato ekasmi½ kamme samaggabh±va½ upagatena. Ñatticatutthen±ti t²hi anuss±van±hi ek±ya ca ñattiy± k±tabbena. Kammen±ti dhammikena vinayakammena. Akuppen±ti vatthu-ñatti-anuss±vana-s²m±-parisasampattisampannatt± akopetabbata½ appaµikkositabbatañca upagatena. Ýh±n±rahen±ti k±raº±rahena satthus±san±rahena. Upasampanno n±ma uparibh±va½ sam±panno, pattoti attho. Bhikkhubh±vo hi uparibh±vo, tañcesa yath±vuttena kammena sam±pannatt± “upasampanno”ti vuccati. Ettha ca ñatticatutthakamma½ ekameva ±gata½. Imasmi½ pana µh±ne µhatv± catt±ri saªghakamm±ni n²haritv± vitth±rato kathetabb±n²ti sabba-aµµhakath±su vutta½. T±ni ca “apalokanakamma½ ñattikamma½ ñattidutiyakamma½ ñatticatutthakamman”ti paµip±µiy± µhapetv± vitth±rena khandhakato pariv±r±vas±ne kammavibhaªgato ca p±¼i½ ±haritv± kathit±ni. T±ni maya½ pariv±r±vas±ne kammavibhaªgeyeva vaººayiss±ma. Evañhi sati paµhamap±r±jikavaººan± ca na bh±riy± bhavissati; yath±µhit±ya ca p±¼iy± vaººan± suviññeyy± bhavissati. T±ni ca µh±n±ni asuññ±ni bhavissanti; tasm± anupadavaººanameva karoma.
Tatr±ti tesu “bhikkhako”ti-±din± nayena vuttesu bhikkh³su. Yv±ya½ bhikkh³ti yo aya½ bhikkhu. Samaggena saªghena…pe… upasampannoti aµµhasu upasampad±su ñatticatuttheneva kammena upasampanno. Aya½ imasmi½ atthe adhippeto bhikkh³ti aya½ imasmi½ “methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevitv± p±r±jiko hot²”ti atthe “bhikkh³”ti adhippeto. Itare pana “bhikkhako”ti ±dayo atthuddh±ravasena vutt±. Tesu ca “bhikkhako”ti ±dayo niruttivasena vutt±, “samaññ±ya bhikkhu, paµiññ±ya bhikkh³”ti ime dve abhil±pavasena vutt±, “ehi bhikkh³”ti buddhena upajjh±yena paµiladdha-upasampad±vasena vutto. Saraºagamanabhikkhu anuppann±ya kammav±c±ya upasampad±vasena vutto, “bhadro”ti-±dayo guºavasena vutt±ti veditabb±.

Bhikkhupadabh±jan²ya½ niµµhita½.