Ettha ca “r³p³papattiy± magga½ bh±veti, mett±sahagatena cetas± eka½ disa½ pharitv± viharat²”ti-±din± (dha. sa. 160 ±dayo) nayena vu¹¹himantopi dhamm± vutt±. “R³p±rammaºa½ v± sadd±rammaºa½ v±”ti-±din± nayena ±rammaº±d²hi lakkhaº²yatt± salakkhaº±pi. “Sekkh± dhamm±, asekkh± dhamm±, lokuttar± dhamm±”ti-±din± nayena p³jit±pi p³j±rah±ti adhipp±yo. “Phasso hoti vedan± hot²”ti-±din± nayena sabh±vaparicchinnatt± paricchinn±pi. “Mahaggat± dhamm±, appam±º± dhamm±, anuttar± dhamm±”ti-±din± nayena adhik±pi dhamm± vutt±. Tenetametassa vacanatthakosallattha½ vutta½–
“Ya½ ettha vu¹¹himanto, salakkhaº± p³jit± paricchinn±;
vutt±dhik± ca dhamm±, abhidhammo tena akkh±to”ti.
Ya½ panettha avisiµµha½, ta½–
Piµaka½ piµakatthavid³, pariyattibbh±janatthato ±hu;
tena samodh±netv±, tayopi vinay±dayo ñeyy±.
Pariyattipi hi “m± piµakasampad±nen±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 3.66) piµakanti vuccati. “Atha puriso ±gaccheyya kud±lapiµaka½ ±d±y±”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.228; a. ni. 3.70) ya½ kiñci bh±janampi. Tasm± piµaka½ piµakatthavid³, pariyattibbh±janatthato ±hu.
Id±ni tena samodh±netv± tayopi vinay±dayo ñeyy±ti. Tena eva½ duvidhatthena piµakasaddena saha sam±sa½ katv± vinayo ca so piµakañca pariyattibh±vato tassa tassa atthassa bh±janato c±ti vinayapiµaka½, yath±vutteneva nayena suttantañca ta½ piµakañc±ti suttantapiµaka½, abhidhammo ca so piµakañc±ti abhidhammapiµakanti evamete tayopi vinay±dayo ñeyy±.
Eva½ ñatv± ca punapi tesveva piµakesu n±nappak±rakosallattha½–
Desan±s±sanakath±, bheda½ tesu yath±raha½;
sikkh±pah±nagambh²ra, bh±vañca parid²paye.
Pariyattibheda½ sampatti½, vipatti½ c±pi ya½ yahi½;
p±puº±ti yath± bhikkhu, tampi sabba½ vibh±vaye.
Tatr±ya½ parid²pan± vibh±van± ca, et±ni hi t²ºi piµak±ni yath±kkama½ ±º± voh±ra paramatthadesan± yath±par±dha-yath±nuloma-yath±dhammas±san±ni, sa½var±sa½varadiµµhiviniveµhan±mar³paparicchedakath±ti ca vuccanti.
Ettha hi vinayapiµaka½ ±º±rahena bhagavat± ±º±b±hullato desitatt± ±º±desan±, suttantapiµaka½ voh±rakusalena bhagavat± voh±rab±hullato desitatt± voh±radesan±, abhidhammapiµaka½ paramatthakusalena bhagavat± paramatthab±hullato desitatt± paramatthadesan±ti vuccati.
Tath± paµhama½ ye te pacur±par±dh± satt± te yath±par±dha½ ettha s±sit±ti yath±par±dhas±sana½, dutiya½ anekajjh±say±nusayacariy±dhimuttik± satt± yath±nuloma½ ettha s±sit±ti yath±nulomas±sana½, tatiya½ dhammapuñjamatte “aha½ mam±”ti saññino satt± yath±dhamma½ ettha s±sit±ti yath±dhammas±sananti vuccati.
Tath± paµhama½ ajjh±c±rapaµipakkhabh³to sa½var±sa½varo ettha kathitoti sa½var±sa½varakath±, dutiya½ dv±saµµhidiµµhipaµipakkhabh³t± diµµhiviniveµhan± ettha kathit±ti diµµhiviniveµhanakath±, tatiya½ r±g±dipaµipakkhabh³to n±mar³paparicchedo ettha kathitoti n±mar³paparicchedakath±ti vuccati.
T²supi ca cetesu tisso sikkh±, t²ºi pah±n±ni, catubbidho ca gambh²rabh±vo veditabbo Tath± hi– vinayapiµake visesena adhis²lasikkh± vutt±, suttantapiµake adhicittasikkh±, abhidhammapiµake adhipaññ±sikkh±.
Vinayapiµake ca v²tikkamappah±na½ kiles±na½, v²tikkamapaµipakkhatt± s²lassa. Suttantapiµake pariyuµµh±nappah±na½, pariyuµµh±napaµipakkhatt± sam±dhissa. Abhidhammapiµake anusayappah±na½ anusayapaµipakkhatt± paññ±ya.
Paµhame ca tadaªgappah±na½ kiles±na½, itaresu vikkhambhanasamucchedappah±n±ni. Paµhame ca duccaritasa½kilesassa pah±na½, itaresu taºh±diµµhisa½kiles±na½.
Ekamekasmiñcettha catubbidhopi dhammatthadesan±paµivedhagambh²rabh±vo veditabbo. Tattha dhammoti p±¼i. Atthoti tass±yevattho. Desan±ti tass± manas±vavatth±pit±ya p±¼iy± desan±. Paµivedhoti p±¼iy± p±¼i-atthassa ca yath±bh³t±vabodho. T²supi cetesu ete dhammatthadesan±paµivedh± yasm± sas±d²hi viya mah±samuddo mandabuddh²hi dukkhog±h± alabbhaneyyapatiµµh± ca, tasm± gambh²r±. Eva½ ekamekasmi½ ettha catubbidhopi gambh²rabh±vo veditabbo.
Aparo nayo– dhammoti hetu. Vutta½ heta½– “hetumhi ñ±ºa½ dhammapaµisambhid±”ti. Atthoti hetuphala½. Vutta½ heta½– “hetuphale ñ±ºa½ atthapaµisambhid±”ti. Desan±ti paññatti, yath±dhamma½ dhamm±bhil±poti adhipp±yo. Paµivedhoti abhisamayo, so ca lokiyalokuttaro visayato asammohato ca atth±nur³pa½ dhammesu, dhamm±nur³pa½ atthesu, paññattipath±nur³pa½ paññatt²su avabodho.
Id±ni yasm± etesu piµakesu ya½ ya½ dhammaj±ta½ v± atthaj±ta½ v±, y± c±ya½ yath± yath± ñ±petabbo attho sot³na½ ñ±ºassa abhimukho hoti, tath± tath± tadatthajotik± desan±, yo cettha avipar²t±vabodhasaªkh±to paµivedho sabbameta½ anupacitakusalasambh±rehi duppaññehi sas±d²hi viya mah±samuddo dukkhog±ha½ alabbhaneyyapatiµµhañca, tasm± gambh²ra½. Evampi ekamekasmi½ ettha catubbidhopi gambh²rabh±vo veditabbo.
Ett±vat± ca–
“Desan±-s±sanakath± bheda½ tesu yath±raha½;
sikkh±pah±nagambh²rabh±vañca parid²paye”ti.
Aya½ g±th± vuttatth± hoti.
“Pariyattibheda½ sampatti½, vipattiñc±pi ya½ yahi½;
p±puº±ti yath± bhikkhu, tampi sabba½ vibh±vaye”ti.
Ettha pana t²su piµakesu tividho pariyattibhedo daµµhabbo. Tisso hi pariyattiyo– alagadd³pam±, nissaraºatth±, bhaº¹±g±rikapariyatt²ti.
Tattha y± duggahit± up±rambh±dihetu pariy±puµ±, aya½ alagadd³pam±. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “seyyath±pi, bhikkhave, puriso alagaddatthiko alagaddagaves² alagaddapariyesana½ caram±no, so passeyya mahanta½ alagadda½. Tamena½ bhoge v± naªguµµhe v± gaºheyya. Tassa so alagaddo paµiparivattitv± hatthe v± b±h±ya v± aññatarasmi½ v± aªgapaccaªge ¹a½seyya. So tatonid±na½ maraºa½ v± nigaccheyya, maraºamatta½ v± dukkha½. Ta½ kissa hetu? Duggahitatt±, bhikkhave, alagaddassa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacce moghapuris± dhamma½ pariy±puºanti sutta½…pe… vedalla½. Te ta½ dhamma½ pariy±puºitv± tesa½ dhamm±na½ paññ±ya attha½ na upaparikkhanti. Tesa½ te dhamm± paññ±ya attha½ anupaparikkhata½ na nijjh±na½ khamanti. Te up±rambh±nisa½s± ceva dhamma½ pariy±puºanti itiv±dappamokkh±nisa½s± ca. Yassa catth±ya dhamma½ pariy±puºanti, tañcassa attha½ n±nubhonti. Tesa½ te dhamm± duggahit± d²gharatta½ ahit±ya dukkh±ya sa½vattanti. Ta½ kissa hetu? Duggahitatt±, bhikkhave, dhamm±nan”ti (ma. ni. 1.238).
Y± pana suggahit± s²lakkhandh±dip±rip³ri½yeva ±kaªkham±nena pariy±puµ± na up±rambh±di hetu, aya½ nissaraºatth±. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “tesa½ te dhamm± suggahit± d²gharatta½ hit±ya sukh±ya sa½vattanti. Ta½ kissa hetu? Suggahitatt±, bhikkhave, dhamm±nan”ti (ma. ni. 1.239).
Ya½ pana pariññ±takkhandho pah²nakileso bh±vitamaggo paµividdh±kuppo sacchikatanirodho kh²º±savo kevala½ paveº²p±lanatth±ya va½s±nurakkhaºatth±ya pariy±puº±ti, aya½ bhaº¹±g±rikapa-ayatt²ti.
Vinaye pana suppaµipanno bhikkhu s²lasampatti½ niss±ya tisso vijj± p±puº±ti, t±sa½yeva ca tattha pabhedavacanato. Sutte suppaµipanno sam±dhisampada½ niss±ya cha abhiññ± p±puº±ti, t±sa½yeva ca tattha pabhedavacanato. Abhidhamme suppaµipanno paññ±sampada½ niss±ya catasso paµisambhid± p±puº±ti, t±sañca tattheva pabhedavacanato. Evametesu suppaµipanno yath±kkamena ima½ vijj±ttayacha¼abhiññ±catupaµisambhid±bheda½ sampatti½ p±puº±ti.
Vinaye pana duppaµipanno anuññ±tasukhasamphassa-attharaºap±vuraº±diphassas±maññato paµikkhittesu up±dinnaphass±d²su anavajjasaññ² hoti. Vuttampi heta½– “tath±ha½ bhagavat± dhamma½ desita½ ±j±n±mi, yath± yeme antar±yik± dhamm± vutt± bhagavat±, te paµisevato n±la½ antar±y±y±”ti (p±ci. 417; ma. ni. 1.234) tato duss²labh±va½ p±puº±ti. Sutte duppaµipanno “catt±rome, bhikkhave, puggal± santo sa½vijjam±n±”ti-±d²su (a. ni. 4.5) adhipp±ya½ aj±nanto duggahita½ gaºh±ti. Ya½ sandh±ya vutta½– “attan± duggahitena amhe ceva abbh±cikkhati, att±nañca khanati, bahuñca apuñña½ pasavat²”ti (p±ci. 417; ma. ni. 1.236) tato micch±diµµhita½ p±puº±ti. Abhidhamme duppaµipanno dhammacinta½ atidh±vanto acinteyy±nipi cinteti, tato cittakkhepa½ p±puº±ti. Vutta½ heta½– “catt±rim±ni, bhikkhave, acinteyy±ni na cintetabb±ni, y±ni cintento umm±dassa vigh±tassa bh±g² ass±”ti (a. ni. 4.77). Evametesu duppaµipanno yath±kkamena ima½ duss²labh±vamicch±diµµhit± cittakkhepabheda½ vipatti½ p±puº±t²ti.
Ett±vat± ca–
“Pariyattibheda½ sampatti½, vipatti½ c±pi ya½ yahi½;
p±puº±ti yath± bhikkhu, tampi sabba½ vibh±vaye”ti.
Ayampi g±th± vuttatth± hoti. Eva½ n±nappak±rato piµak±ni ñatv± tesa½ vaseneta½ buddhavacana½ tividhanti ñ±tabba½.
Katha½ nik±yavasena pañcavidha½? Sabbameva ceta½ d²ghanik±yo, majjhimanik±yo, sa½yuttanik±yo, aªguttaranik±yo, khuddakanik±yoti pañcappabheda½ hoti. Tattha katamo d²ghanik±yo? Tivaggasaªgah±ni brahmaj±l±d²ni catutti½sa sutt±ni.
Catutti½seva suttant±, tivaggo yassa saªgaho;
esa d²ghanik±yoti, paµhamo anulomiko.
Kasm± panesa d²ghanik±yoti vuccati? D²ghappam±º±na½ sutt±na½ sam³hato niv±sato ca, sam³haniv±s± hi nik±yoti vuccanti. “N±ha½, bhikkhave, añña½ ekanik±yampi samanupass±mi eva½ citta½; yathayida½, bhikkhave, tiracch±nagat± p±º±; poºikanik±yo, cikkhallikanik±yo”ti (sa½. ni. 3.100) evam±d²ni cettha s±dhak±ni s±sanato ca lokato ca. Eva½ ses±nampi nik±yabh±ve vacanattho veditabbo.
Katamo majjhimanik±yo? Majjhimappam±º±ni pañcadasavaggasaªgah±ni m³lapariy±yasutt±d²ni diya¹¹hasata½ dve ca sutt±ni.
Diya¹¹hasata½ suttant±, dve ca sutt±ni yattha so;
nik±yo majjhimo pañca-dasavaggapariggaho.
Katamo sa½yuttanik±yo? Devat±sa½yutt±divasena µhit±ni oghataraº±d²ni satta suttasahass±ni satta ca suttasat±ni dv±saµµhi ca sutt±ni.
Satta suttasahass±ni, satta suttasat±ni ca;
dv±saµµhi ceva suttant±, eso sa½yuttasaªgaho.
Katamo aªguttaranik±yo? Ekeka-aªg±tirekavasena µhit±ni cittapariy±d±n±d²ni nava suttasahass±ni pañca suttasat±ni sattapaññ±sañca sutt±ni.
Nava suttasahass±ni, pañca suttasat±ni ca;
sattapaññ±sa sutt±ni, saªkhy± aªguttare aya½.
Katamo khuddakanik±yo? Sakala½ vinayapiµaka½ abhidhammapiµaka½ khuddakap±µh±dayo ca pubbe nidassit± pannarasabhed± µhapetv± catt±ro nik±ye avasesa½ buddhavacananti.
Ýhapetv± caturopete, nik±ye d²gha-±dike;
tadañña½ buddhavacana½, nik±yo khuddako matoti.
Eva½ nik±yavasena pañcavidha½.
Katha½ aªgavasena navavidha½? Sabbameva hida½ sutta½, geyya½, veyy±karaºa½, g±th±, ud±na½, itivuttaka½, j±taka½, abbhutadhamma½, vedallanti navappabheda½ hoti. Tattha ubhatovibhaªganiddesakhandhakapariv±r± suttanip±te maªgalasutta-ratanasutta-n±lakasutta-tuvaµµakasutt±ni aññampi ca suttan±maka½ tath±gatavacana½ suttanti veditabba½. Sabbampi sag±thaka½ sutta½ geyyanti veditabba½. Visesena sa½yuttake sakalopi sag±th±vaggo, sakala½ abhidhammapiµaka½, nigg±thaka½ sutta½, yañca aññampi aµµhahi aªgehi asaªgahita½ buddhavacana½ ta½ veyy±karaºanti veditabba½. Dhammapada½, therag±th±, ther²g±th±, suttanip±te nosuttan±mik± suddhikag±th± ca g±th±ti veditabb±. Somanassañ±ºamayikag±th±paµisa½yutt± dv±s²ti suttant± ud±nanti veditabba½. “Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±”ti-±dinayappavatt± dasuttarasatasuttant± itivuttakanti veditabba½. Apaººakaj±tak±d²ni paññ±s±dhik±ni pañca j±takasat±ni j±takanti veditabba½. “Catt±rome, bhikkhave, acchariy± abbhut± dhamm± ±nande”ti (d². ni. 2.209) -±dinayappavatt± sabbepi acchariya-abbhutadhammapaµisa½yutt± suttant± abbhutadhammanti veditabba½. C³¼avedalla-mah±vedalla-samm±diµµhi-sakkapañha-saªkh±rabh±janiya-mah±puººamasutt±dayo sabbepi vedañca tuµµhiñca laddh± laddh± pucchitasuttant± vedallanti veditabba½. Eva½ aªgavasena navavidha½.
Katha½ dhammakkhandhavasena catur±s²tisahassavidha½? Sabbameva ceta½ buddhavacana½–
“Dv±s²ti buddhato gaºhi½, dve sahass±ni bhikkhuto;
catur±s²ti sahass±ni, ye me dhamm± pavattino”ti. (Therag±. 1027).
Eva½ parid²pitadhammakkhandhavasena catur±s²tisahassappabheda½ hoti. Tattha ek±nusandhika½ sutta½ eko dhammakkhandho. Ya½ anek±nusandhika½ tattha anusandhivasena dhammakkhandhagaºan±. G±th±bandhesu pañh±pucchana½ eko dhammakkhandho, vissajjana½ eko. Abhidhamme ekameka½ tika-duka-bh±jana½, ekamekañca cittav±rabh±jana½, eko dhammakkhandho. Vinaye atthi vatthu, atthi m±tik±, atthi padabh±jan²ya½, atthi antar±patti, atthi ±patti, atthi an±patti, atthi paricchedo; tattha ekameko koµµh±so, ekameko dhammakkhandhoti veditabbo. Eva½ dhammakkhandhavasena catur±s²tisahassavidha½.
Evameta½ abhedato rasavasena ekavidha½, bhedato dhammavinay±divasena duvidh±dibheda½ buddhavacana½ saªg±yantena mah±kassapappamukhena vas²gaºena “aya½ dhammo, aya½ vinayo; ida½ paµhamabuddhavacana½, ida½ majjhimabuddhavacana½, ida½ pacchimabuddhavacana½; ida½ vinayapiµaka½, ida½ suttantapiµaka½, ida½ abhidhammapiµaka½; aya½ d²ghanik±yo…pe… aya½ khuddakanik±yo; im±ni sutt±d²ni navaªg±ni, im±ni catur±s²tidhammakkhandhasahass±n²”ti ima½ pabheda½ vavatthapetv±va saªg²ta½. Na kevalañca ettakameva, aññampi udd±nasaªgaha-vaggasaªgahapeyy±lasaªgaha-ekakanip±ta-dukanip±t±dinip±tasaªgaha-sa½yuttasaªgaha-paºº±sasaªgah±di-anekavidha½ t²su piµakesu sandissam±na½ saªgahappabheda½ vavatthapetv±-eva sattahi m±sehi saªg²ta½. Saªg²tipariyos±ne cassa– “ida½ mah±kassapattherena dasabalassa s±sana½ pañcavassasahassaparim±ºa½ k±la½ pavattanasamattha½ katan”ti sañj±tappamod± s±dhuk±ra½ viya dadam±n± aya½ mah±pathav² udakapariyanta½ katv± anekappak±ra½ kampi saªkampi sampakampi sampavedhi, anek±ni ca acchariy±ni p±turahesunti aya½ paµhamamah±saªg²tin±ma. Y± loke–
Satehi pañcahi kat±, tena pañcasat±ti ca;
thereheva katatt± ca, therik±ti pavuccat²ti.
Imiss± pana paµhamamah±saªg²tiy± pavattam±n±ya vinaya½ pucchantena ±yasmat± mah±kassapena “paµhama½, ±vuso up±li, p±r±jika½ kattha paññattan”ti evam±divacanapariyos±ne “vatthumpi pucchi, nid±nampi pucchi, puggalampi pucch²”ti ettha nid±ne pucchite ta½ nid±na½ ±dito pabhuti vitth±retv± yena ca paññatta½, yasm± ca paññatta½, sabbameta½ kathetuk±mena ±yasmat± up±littherena vutta½ “tena samayena buddho bhagav± verañj±ya½ viharat²”ti sabba½ vattabba½. Evamida½ ±yasmat± up±littherena vutta½, tañca pana “paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le vuttan”ti veditabba½. Ett±vat± ca “ida½ vacana½ kena vutta½, kad± vuttan”ti etesa½ pad±na½ attho pak±sito hoti.
Id±ni kasm± vuttanti ettha vuccate, yasm± ayam±yasmat± mah±kassapattherena nid±na½ puµµho tasm±nena ta½ nid±na½ ±dito pabhuti vitth±retu½ vuttanti. Evamida½ ±yasmat± up±littherena paµhamamah±saªg²tik±le vadanten±pi imin± k±raºena vuttanti veditabba½. Ett±vat± ca vutta½ yena yad± yasm±ti imesa½ m±tik±pad±na½ attho pak±sito hoti.
Id±ni dh±rita½ yena c±bhata½, yatthappatiµµhita½ cetameta½ vatv± vidhi½ tatoti etesa½ atthappak±sanattha½ ida½ vuccati. Ta½ paneta½ “tena samayena buddho bhagav± verañj±ya½ viharat²”ti evam±divacanapaµimaº¹itanid±na½ vinayapiµaka½ kena dh±rita½, ken±bhata½, kattha patiµµhitanti? Vuccate– ±dito t±va ida½ bhagavato sammukh± ±yasmat± up±littherena dh±rita½, tassa sammukhato aparinibbute tath±gate cha¼abhiññ±dibhedehi anekehi bhikkhusahassehi parinibbute tath±gate mah±kassapappamukhehi dhammasaªg±hakattherehi. Ken±bhatanti? Jambud²pe t±va up±littheram±di½ katv± ±cariyaparampar±ya y±va tatiyasaªg²ti t±va ±bhata½. Tatr±ya½ ±cariyaparampar±
Up±li d±sako ceva, soºako siggavo tath±;
tisso moggaliputto ca, pañcete vijit±vino.
Parampar±ya vinaya½, d²pe jambusirivhaye;
acchijjam±nam±nesu½, tatiyo y±va saªgaho.

¾yasm± hi up±li ima½ vinayava½sa½ vinayatanti½ vinayapaveºi½ bhagavato

Sammukh± uggahetv± bah³na½ bhikkh³na½ hadaye patiµµh±pesi. Tassa h±yasmato santike vinayava½sa½ uggahetv± vinaye pakataññuta½ pattesu puggalesu puthujjana-sot±panna-sakad±g±mi-an±g±mino gaºanapatha½ v²tivatt±, kh²º±sav±na½ sahassameka½ ahosi. D±sakattheropi tasseva saddhivih±riko ahosi, so up±littherassa sammukh± uggahetv± tatheva vinaya½ v±cesi. Tass±pi ±yasmato santike uggahetv± vinaye pakataññuta½ patt± puthujjan±dayo gaºanapatha½ v²tivatt±, kh²º±sav±na½ sahassameva ahosi. Soºakattheropi d±sakattherassa saddhivih±riko ahosi, sopi attano upajjh±yassa d±sakattherassa sammukh± uggahetv± tatheva vinaya½ v±cesi. Tass±pi ±yasmato santike uggahetv± vinaye pakataññuta½ patt± puthujjan±dayo gaºanapatha½ v²tivatt±, kh²º±sav±na½ sahassameva ahosi. Siggavattheropi soºakattherassa saddhivih±riko ahosi, sopi attano upajjh±yassa soºakattherassa santike vinaya½ uggahetv± arahantasahassassa dhuragg±ho ahosi. Tassa pan±yasmato santike uggahetv± vinaye pakataññuta½ patt± puthujjana-sot±pannasakad±g±mi-an±g±minopi kh²º±sav±pi ettak±ni sat±n²ti v± ettak±ni sahass±n²ti v± aparicchinn± ahesu½. Tad± kira jambud²pe atimah±bhikkhusamud±yo ahosi. Moggaliputtatissattherassa pana ±nubh±vo tatiyasaªg²tiya½ p±kaµo bhavissati. Evamida½ vinayapiµaka½ jambud²pe t±va im±ya ±cariyaparampar±ya y±va tatiyasaªg²ti t±va ±bhatanti veditabba½.

Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath± niµµhit±.