Dubbhikkhakath±

16. Tena kho pana samayena verañj± dubbhikkh± hot²ti yasmi½ samaye verañjena br±hmaºena bhagav± verañja½ upaniss±ya vass±v±sa½ y±cito tena samayena verañj± dubbhikkh± hoti. Dubbhikkh±ti dullabhabhikkh±; s± pana dullabhabhikkhat± yattha manuss± assaddh± honti appasann±, tattha susassak±lepi atisamagghepi pubbaºº±paraººe hoti. Verañj±ya½ pana yasm± na tath± ahosi, apica kho dusassat±ya ch±takadosena ahosi tasm± tamattha½ dassento dv²hitik±ti-±dim±ha. Tattha dv²hitik±ti dvidh± pavatta-²hitik±. ¿hita½ n±ma iriy± dvidh± pavatt±– citta-iriy±, citta-²h±. “Ettha lacch±ma nu kho kiñci bhikkham±n± na lacch±m±”ti, “j²vitu½ v± sakkhiss±ma nu kho no”ti ayamettha adhipp±yo.
Atha v± dv²hitik±ti dujj²vik±, ²hita½ ²h± iriyana½ pavattana½ j²vitanti-±d²ni pad±ni ekatth±ni. Tasm± dukkhena ²hita½ ettha pavattat²ti dv²hitik±ti ayamettha padattho. Setaµµhik±ti setak±ni aµµh²ni etth±ti setaµµhik±. Divasampi y±citv± kiñci aladdh± mat±na½ kapaºamanuss±na½ ahicchattakavaººehi aµµh²hi tatra tatra parikiºº±ti vutta½ hoti. Setaµµik±tipi p±µho. Tassattho– set± aµµi etth±ti setaµµik±. Aµµ²ti ±turat± by±dhi rogo. Tattha ca sass±na½ gabbhaggahaºak±le setakarogena upahatameva pacchinnakh²ra½ aggahitataº¹ula½ paº¹arapaº¹ara½ s±lis²sa½ v± yavagodh³mas²sa½ v± nikkhamati, tasm± “setaµµik±”ti vuccati.
Vappak±le suµµhu abhisaªkharitv±pi vuttasassa½ tattha sal±k± eva sampajjat²ti sal±k±vutt±; sal±k±ya v± tattha j²vita½ pavattent²ti sal±k±vutt±. Ki½ vutta½ hoti? Tattha kira dhaññavikkayak±na½ santika½ kayakesu gatesu dubbalamanusse abhibhavitv± balavamanuss±va dhañña½ kiºitv± gacchanti. Dubbalamanuss± alabham±n± mah±sadda½ karonti. Dhaññavikkayak± “sabbesa½ saªgaha½ kariss±m±”ti dhaññakaraºaµµh±ne dhaññam±paka½ nis²d±petv± ekapasse vaººajjhakkha½ nis²d±pesu½. Dhaññatthik± vaººajjhakkhassa santika½ gacchanti. So ±gatapaµip±µiy± m³la½ gahetv± “itthann±massa ettaka½ d±tabban”ti sal±ka½ likhitv± deti, te ta½ gahetv± dhaññam±pakassa santika½ gantv± dinnapaµip±µiy± dhañña½ gaºhanti. Eva½ sal±k±ya tattha j²vita½ pavattent²ti sal±k±vutt±.
Na sukar± uñchena paggahena y±petunti paggahena yo uñcho, tena y±petu½ na sukar±. Patta½ gahetv± ya½ ariy± uñcha½ karonti, bhikkh±cariya½ caranti, tena uñchena y±petu½ na sukar±ti vutta½ hoti. Tad± kira tattha sattaµµhag±me piº¹±ya caritv± ekadivasampi y±panamatta½ na labhanti.
Tena kho pana samayena uttar±pathak± assav±ºij±…pe… assosi kho bhagav± udukkhalasaddanti– ten±ti yasmi½ samaye bhagav± verañja½ upaniss±ya vass±v±sa½ upagato tena samayena. Uttar±pathav±sik± uttar±pathato v± ±gatatt± eva½ laddhavoh±r± assav±ºij± uttar±pathe ass±na½ uµµh±naµµh±ne pañca assasat±ni gahetv± diguºa½ tiguºa½ l±bha½ patthayam±n± desantara½ gacchant± tehi attano vikk±yikabhaº¹abh³tehi pañcamattehi assasatehi verañja½ vass±v±sa½ upagat± honti. Kasm±? Na hi sakk± tasmi½ dese vassike catt±ro m±se addh±na½ paµipajjitu½. Upagacchant± ca bahinagare udakena anajjhottharaº²ye µh±ne attano ca v±s±g±r±ni ass±nañca mandira½ k±r±petv± vatiy± parikkhipi½su. T±ni tesa½ vasanaµµh±n±ni “assamaº¹alik±yo”ti paññ±yi½su. Ten±ha– “tehi assamaº¹alik±su bhikkh³na½ patthapatthapulaka½ paññatta½ hot²”ti. Patthapatthapulakanti ekamekassa bhikkhuno patthapatthapam±ºa½ pulaka½. Pattho n±ma n±¼imatta½ hoti, ekassa purisassa ala½ y±pan±ya. Vuttampi heta½– “patthodano n±lamaya½ duvinnan”ti (j±. 2.21.192). Pulaka½ n±ma nitthusa½ katv± ussedetv± gahitayavataº¹ul± vuccanti. Yadi hi sathus± honti, p±ºak± vijjhanti, addh±nakkham± na honti. Tasm± te v±ºij± addh±nakkhama½ katv± yavataº¹ulam±d±ya addh±na½ paµipajjanti “yattha ass±na½ kh±dan²ya½ tiºa½ dullabha½ bhavissati, tattheta½ assabhatta½ bhavissat²”ti.
Kasm± pana tehi ta½ bhikkh³na½ paññattanti? Vuccate– “na hi te dakkhiº±pathamanuss± viya assaddh± appasann±, te pana saddh± pasann± buddham±mak±, dhammam±mak±, saªgham±mak±; te pubbaºhasamaya½ kenacideva karaº²yena nagara½ pavisant± dve tayo divase addasa½su sattaµµha bhikkh³ sunivatthe sup±rute iriy±pathasampanne sakalampi nagara½ piº¹±ya caritv± kiñci alabham±ne. Disv±na nesa½ etadahosi– “ayy± ima½ nagara½ upaniss±ya vassa½ upagat±; ch±takañca vattati, na ca kiñci labhanti, ativiya kilamanti. Mayañcamha ±gantuk±, na sakkoma nesa½ devasika½ y±guñca bhattañca paµiy±detu½. Amh±ka½ pana ass± s±yañca p±to ca dvikkhattu½ bhatta½ labhanti. Ya½n³na maya½ ekamekassa assassa p±tar±sabhattato ekamekassa bhikkhuno patthapatthapulaka½ dadeyy±ma. Eva½ ayy± ca na kilamissanti ass± ca y±pessant²”ti. Te bhikkh³na½ santika½ gantv± etamattha½ ±rocetv± “bhante, tumhe patthapatthapulaka½ paµiggahetv± ya½ v± ta½ v± katv± paribhuñjath±”ti y±citv± devasika½ patthapatthapulaka½ paññapesu½. Tena vutta½– “tehi assamaº¹alik±su bhikkh³na½ patthapatthapulaka½ paññatta½ hot²”ti.
Paññattanti niccabhattasaªkhepena µhapita½. Id±ni bhikkh³ pubbaºhasamaya½ niv±setv±ti-±d²su pubbaºhasamayanti divasassa pubbabh±gasamaya½, pubbaºhasamayeti attho. Pubbaºhe v± samaya½ pubbaºhasamaya½, pubbaºhe eka½ khaºanti vutta½ hoti. Eva½ accantasa½yoge upayogavacana½ labbhati. Niv±setv±ti paridahitv±, vih±raniv±sanaparivattanavaseneta½ veditabba½. Na hi te tato pubbe anivatth± ahesu½. Pattac²varam±d±y±ti patta½ hatthehi c²vara½ k±yena ±diyitv± sampaµicch±detv±, dh±retv±ti attho. Yena v± tena v± hi pak±rena gaºhant± ±d±ya-icceva vuccanti, yath± “sam±d±yeva pakkamat²”ti (d². ni. 1.21). Piº¹a½ alabham±n±ti sakalampi verañja½ caritv± tiµµhatu piº¹o, antamaso “aticchath±”ti v±campi alabham±n±.
Patthapatthapulaka½ ±r±ma½ ±haritv±ti gatagataµµh±ne laddha½ ekameka½ patthapatthapulaka½ gahetv± ±r±ma½ netv±. Udukkhale koµµetv± koµµetv± paribhuñjant²ti ther±na½ koci kappiyak±rako natthi, yo nesa½ ta½ gahetv± y±gu½ v± bhatta½ v± paceyya. S±mampi pacana½ samaºas±ruppa½ na hoti na ca vaµµati. Te eva½ no sallahukavuttit± ca bhavissati, s±map±kaparimocanañc±ti aµµha aµµha jan± v± dasa dasa jan± v± ekato hutv± udukkhale koµµetv± koµµetv± saka½ saka½ paµiv²sa½ udakena temetv± paribhuñjanti. Eva½ paribhuñjitv± appossukk± samaºadhamma½ karonti Bhagavato pana te assav±ºij± patthapulakañca denti, tadupiyañca sappimadhusakkara½. Ta½ ±yasm± ±nando ±haritv± sil±ya½ pisati. Puññavat± paº¹itapurisena kata½ man±pameva hoti. Atha na½ pisitv± sappi-±d²hi samm± yojetv± bhagavato upan±mesi. Athettha devat± dibboja½ pakkhipanti. Ta½ bhagav± paribhuñjati. Paribhuñjitv± phalasam±pattiy± k±la½ atin±meti. Na tato paµµh±ya piº¹±ya carati.
Ki½ pan±nandatthero tad± bhagavato upaµµh±ko hot²ti? Hoti, no ca kho upaµµh±kaµµh±na½ laddh±. Bhagavato hi paµhamabodhiya½ v²sativassantare nibaddhupaµµh±ko n±ma natthi. Kad±ci n±gasam±latthero bhagavanta½ upaµµh±si, kad±ci n±gitatthero, kad±ci meghiyatthero, kad±ci upav±ºatthero, kad±ci s±gatatthero, kad±ci sunakkhatto licchaviputto. Te attano ruciy± upaµµhahitv± yad± icchanti tad± pakkamanti. ¾nandatthero tesu tesu upaµµhahantesu appossukko hoti, pakkantesu sayameva vattapaµipatti½ karoti. Bhagav±pi kiñc±pi me ñ±tiseµµho upaµµh±kaµµh±na½ na t±va labhati, atha kho evar³pesu µh±nesu ayameva patir³poti adhiv±sesi. Tena vutta½– “±yasm± pan±nando patthapulaka½ sil±ya½ pisitv± bhagavato upan±mesi, ta½ bhagav± paribhuñjat²”ti.
Nanu ca manuss± dubbhikkhak±le ativiya uss±haj±t± puññ±ni karonti, attan± abhuñjitv±pi bhikkh³na½ d±tabba½ maññanti. Te tad± kasm± kaµacchubhikkhampi na ada½su? Ayañca verañjo br±hmaºo mahat± uss±hena bhagavanta½ vass±v±sa½ y±ci, so kasm± bhagavato atthibh±vampi na j±n±t²ti? Vuccate– m±r±vaµµan±ya. Verañjañhi br±hmaºa½ bhagavato santik± pakkantamattameva sakalañca nagara½ samant± ca yojanamatta½ yattha sakk± purebhatta½ piº¹±ya caritv± pacc±gantu½, ta½ sabba½ m±ro ±vaµµetv± mohetv± sabbesa½ asallakkhaºabh±va½ katv± pakk±mi. Tasm± na koci antamaso s±m²cikammampi kattabba½ maññittha.
Ki½ pana bhagav±pi m±r±vaµµana½ aj±nitv±va tattha vassa½ upagatoti? No aj±nitv±. Atha kasm± camp±-s±vatthi-r±jagah±d²na½ aññatarasmi½ na upagatoti? Tiµµhantu camp±-s±vatthi-r±jagah±d²ni, sacepi bhagav± tasmi½ sa½vacchare uttarakuru½ v± tidasapura½ v± gantv± vassa½ upagaccheyya, tampi m±ro ±vaµµeyya. So kira ta½ sa½vacchara½ ativiya ±gh±tena pariyuµµhitacitto ahosi. Idha pana bhagav± ima½ atirekak±raºa½ addasa– “assav±ºij± bhikkh³na½ saªgaha½ karissant²”ti. Tasm± verañj±yameva vassa½ upagacchi.
Ki½ pana m±ro v±ºijake ±vaµµetu½ na sakkot²ti? No na sakkoti, te pana ±vaµµitapariyos±ne ±gami½su. Paµinivattitv± kasm± na ±vaµµet²ti? Avisahat±ya. Na hi so tath±gatassa abhihaµabhikkh±ya nibaddhad±nassa appitavattassa antar±ya½ k±tu½ visahati. Catunnañhi na sakk± antar±yo k±tu½. Katamesa½ catunna½? Tath±gatassa abhihaµabhikkh±saªkhepena v± nibaddhad±nassa appitavattasaªkhepena v± pariccatt±na½ catunna½ paccay±na½ na sakk± kenaci antar±yo k±tu½. Buddh±na½ j²vitassa na sakk± kenaci antar±yo k±tu½. As²tiy± anubyañjan±na½ by±mappabh±ya v± na sakk± kenaci antar±yo k±tu½. Candimas³riyadevabrahm±nampi hi pabh± tath±gatassa anubyañjanaby±mappabh±ppadesa½ patv± vihat±nubh±v± honti. Buddh±na½ sabbaññutaññ±ºassa na sakk± kenaci antar±yo k±tunti imesa½ catunna½ na sakk± kenaci antar±yo k±tu½. Tasm± m±rena akatantar±ya½ bhikkha½ bhagav± sas±vakasaªgho tad± paribhuñjat²ti veditabbo.
Eva½ paribhuñjanto ca ekadivasa½ assosi kho bhagav± udukkhalasaddanti bhagav± patthapatthapulaka½ koµµent±na½ bhikkh³na½ musalasaªghaµµajanita½ udukkhalasadda½ suºi. Tato para½ j±nant±pi tath±gat±ti evam±di ya½ parato “kinnu kho so, ±nanda, udukkhalasaddo”ti pucchi, tassa parih±radassanattha½ vutta½. Tatr±ya½ saªkhepavaººan±– tath±gat± n±ma j±nant±pi sace t±disa½ pucch±k±raºa½ hoti, pucchanti. Sace pana t±disa½ pucch±k±raºa½ natthi, j±nant±pi na pucchanti. Yasm± pana buddh±na½ aj±nana½ n±ma natthi, tasm± aj±nant±p²ti na vutta½. K±la½ viditv± pucchant²ti sace tass± pucch±ya so k±lo hoti, eva½ ta½ k±la½ viditv± pucchanti; sace na hoti evampi k±la½ viditv±va na pucchanti. Eva½ pucchant±pi ca atthasa½hita½ tath±gat± pucchanti, ya½ atthanissita½ k±raºanissita½, tadeva pucchanti, no anatthasa½hita½. Kasm±? Yasm± anatthasa½hite setugh±to tath±gat±na½. Setu vuccati maggo, maggeneva t±disassa vacanassa gh±to, samucchedoti vutta½ hoti.
Id±ni atthasa½hitanti ettha ya½ atthasannissita½ vacana½ tath±gat± pucchanti, ta½ dassento “dv²h±k±reh²”ti ±dim±ha. Tattha ±k±reh²ti k±raºehi. Dhamma½ v± desess±m±ti aµµhuppattiyutta½ sutta½ v± pubbacaritak±raºayutta½ j±taka½ v± kathayiss±ma. S±vak±na½ v± sikkh±pada½ paññapess±m±ti s±vak±na½ v± t±ya pucch±ya v²tikkama½ p±kaµa½ katv± garuka½ v± lahuka½ v± sikkh±pada½ paññapess±ma ±ºa½ µhapess±m±ti.
Atha kho bhagav±…pe… etamattha½ ±roces²ti ettha natthi kiñci vattabba½. Pubbe vuttameva hi bhikkh³na½ patthapatthapulakapaµil±bha½ sallahukavuttita½ s±map±kaparimocanañca ±rocento etamattha½ ±roces²ti vuccati. “S±dhu s±dhu, ±nand±”ti ida½ pana bhagav± ±yasmanta½ ±nanda½ sampaha½sento ±ha. S±dhuk±ra½ pana datv± dv²su ±k±resu eka½ gahetv± dhamma½ desento ±ha– “tumhehi, ±nanda, sappurisehi vijita½, pacchim± janat± s±lima½sodana½ atimaññissat²”ti. Tatr±yamadhipp±yo– tumhehi, ±nanda, sappurisehi eva½ dubbhikkhe dullabhapiº¹e im±ya sallahukavuttit±ya imin± ca sallekhena vijita½. Ki½ vijitanti? Dubbhikkha½ vijita½, lobho vijito, icch±c±ro vijito. Katha½? “Aya½ verañj± dubbhikkh±, samantato pana anantar± g±manigam± phalabh±ranamitasass± subhikkh± sulabhapiº¹±. Eva½ santepi bhagav± idheva amhe niggaºhitv± vasat²”ti ekabhikkhussapi cint± v± vigh±to v± natthi. Eva½ t±va dubbhikkha½ vijita½ abhibh³ta½ attano vase vattita½.
Katha½ lobho vijito? “Aya½ verañj± dubbhikkh±, samantato pana anantar± g±manigam± phalabh±ranamitasass± subhikkh± sulabhapiº¹± Handa maya½ tattha gantv± paribhuñjiss±m±”ti lobhavasena ekabhikkhun±pi ratticchedo v± “pacchimik±ya tattha vassa½ upagacch±m±”ti vassacchedo v± na kato. Eva½ lobho vijito.
Katha½ icch±c±ro vijito? Aya½ verañj± dubbhikkh±, ime ca manuss± amhe dve tayo m±se vasantepi na kismiñci maññanti. Ya½n³na maya½ guºav±ºijja½ katv± “asuko bhikkhu paµhamassa jh±nassa l±bh²…pe… asuko cha¼abhiññoti eva½ manuss±na½ aññamañña½ pak±setv± kucchi½ paµijaggitv± pacch± s²la½ adhiµµhaheyy±m±”ti ekabhikkhun±pi evar³p± icch± na upp±dit±. Eva½ icch±c±ro vijito abhibh³to attano vase vattitoti.
An±gate pana pacchim± janat± vih±re nisinn± appakasireneva labhitv±pi “ki½ ida½ uttaº¹ula½ atikilinna½ aloºa½ atiloºa½ anambila½ accambila½, ko imin± attho”ti ±din± nayena s±lima½sodana½ atimaññissati, oññ±ta½ avaññ±ta½ karissati. Atha v± janapado n±ma na sabbak±la½ dubbhikkho hoti. Ekad± dubbhikkho hoti, ekad± subhikkho hoti. Sv±ya½ yad± subhikkho bhavissati, tad± tumh±ka½ sappuris±na½ im±ya paµipattiy± pasann± manuss± bhikkh³na½ y±gukhajjak±dippabhedena anekappak±ra½ s±livikati½ ma½sodanañca d±tabba½ maññissanti. Ta½ tumhe niss±ya uppanna½ sakk±ra½ tumh±ka½ sabrahmac±r²saªkh±t± pacchim± janat± tumh±ka½ antare nis²ditv± anubhavam±n±va atimaññissati, tappaccaya½ m±nañca om±nañca karissati. Katha½? Kasm± ettaka½ pakka½, ki½ tumh±ka½ bh±jan±ni natthi, yattha attano santaka½ pakkhipitv± µhapeyy±th±ti.

Dubbhikkhakath± niµµhit±.