Paµhamajjh±nakath±

Id±ni im±ya paµipad±ya adhigata½ paµhamajjh±na½ ±di½ katv± vijjattayapariyos±na½ visesa½ dassento “so kho ahan”ti ±dim±ha. Tattha vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti-±d²na½ kiñc±pi “tattha katame k±m±? Chando k±mo, r±go k±mo, chandar±go k±mo; saªkappo k±mo, r±go k±mo, saªkappar±go k±mo– ime vuccanti k±m±. Tattha katame akusal± dhamm±? K±macchando…pe… vicikicch±– ime vuccanti akusal± dhamm±. Iti imehi ca k±mehi imehi ca akusalehi dhammehi vivitto hoti pavivitto, tena vuccati– ‘vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²”’ti-±din± (vibha. 564) nayena vibhaªgeyeva attho vutto. Tath±pi aµµhakath±naya½ vin± na suµµhu p±kaµoti aµµhakath±nayeneva na½ pak±sayiss±ma.
Seyyathida½– vivicceva k±meh²ti k±mehi viviccitv± vin± hutv± apasakketv±. Yo pan±yamettha evak±ro, so niyamatthoti veditabbo. Yasm± ca niyamattho, tasm± tasmi½ paµhamajjh±na½ upasampajja viharaºasamaye avijjam±n±nampi k±m±na½ tassa paµhamajjh±nassa paµipakkhabh±va½ k±maparicc±geneva cassa adhigama½ d²peti. Katha½? “Vivicceva k±meh²”ti evañhi niyame kariyam±ne ida½ paññ±yati. N³nimassa jh±nassa k±m± paµipakkhabh³t±, yesu sati ida½ na pavattati, andhak±re sati pad²po viya, tesa½ paricc±geneva cassa adhigamo hoti, orimat²raparicc±gena p±rimat²rasseva, tasm± niyama½ karot²ti.
Tattha siy±– “kasm± panesa pubbapadeyeva vutto na uttarapade, ki½ akusalehi dhammehi avivicc±pi jh±na½ upasampajja vihareyy±”ti? Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½. Tannissaraºato hi pubbapade-eva esa vutto. K±madh±tusamatikkamanato hi k±mar±gapaµipakkhato ca ida½ jh±na½ k±m±nameva nissaraºa½. Yath±ha– “k±m±nameta½ nissaraºa½, yadida½ nekkhamman”ti (itivu. 72). Uttarapadepi pana yath± “idheva, bhikkhave, paµhamo samaºo, idha dutiyo samaºo”ti (ma. ni. 1.139) ettha evak±ro ±netv± vuccati, eva½ vattabbo. Na hi sakk± ito aññehipi n²varaºasaªkh±tehi akusalehi dhammehi avivicca jh±na½ upasampajja viharitu½ Tasm± “vivicceva k±mehi vivicceva akusalehi dhammeh²”ti eva½ padadvayepi esa daµµhabbo. Padadvayepi ca kiñc±pi “vivicc±”ti imin± s±dh±raºavacanena tadaªgavivek±dayo k±yavivek±dayo ca sabbepi vivek± saªgaha½ gacchanti. Tath±pi k±yaviveko, cittaviveko, vikkhambhanavivekoti tayo eva idha daµµhabb±. “K±meh²”ti imin± pana padena ye ca niddese “katame vatthuk±m± man±piy± r³p±”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 1; vibha. 964) nayena vatthuk±m± vutt±, ye ca tattheva vibhaªge ca “chando k±mo”ti-±din± (mah±ni. 1) nayena kilesak±m± vutt±, te sabbepi saªgahit± icceva daµµhabb±. Evañhi sati “vivicceva k±meh²”ti vatthuk±mehipi viviccev±ti attho yujjati. Tena k±yaviveko vutto hoti.
Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²ti kilesak±mehi sabb±kusalehi dhammehi v± vivicc±ti attho yujjati. Tena cittaviveko vutto hoti. Purimena cettha vatthuk±mehi vivekavacanatoyeva k±masukhaparicc±go, dutiyena kilesak±mehi vivekavacanato nekkhammasukhapariggaho vibh±vito hoti. Eva½ vatthuk±makilesak±mavivekavacanatoyeva ca etesa½ paµhamena sa½kilesavatthuppah±na½, dutiyena sa½kilesappah±na½; paµhamena lolabh±vassa hetuparicc±go, dutiyena b±labh±vassa; paµhamena ca payogasuddhi, dutiyena ±sayaposana½ vibh±vita½ hot²ti viññ±tabba½. Esa t±va nayo “k±meh²”ti ettha vuttak±mesu vatthuk±mapakkhe.
Kilesak±mapakkhe pana chandoti ca r±goti ca evam±d²hi anekabhedo k±macchandoyeva k±moti adhippeto. So ca akusalapariy±pannopi sam±no, “tattha katamo k±machando k±mo”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge jh±napaµipakkhato visu½ vutto. Kilesak±matt± v± purimapade vutto, akusalapariy±pannatt± dutiyapade. Anekabhedato cassa k±matoti avatv± k±meh²ti vutta½. Aññesampi ca dhamm±na½ akusalabh±ve vijjam±ne “tattha katame akusal± dhamm± k±macchando”ti-±din± nayena vibhaªge (vibha. 564) uparijh±naªgapaccan²kapaµipakkhabh±vadassanato n²varaº±neva vutt±ni. N²varaº±ni hi jh±naªgapaccan²k±ni, tesa½ jh±naªg±neva paµipakkh±ni, viddha½sak±n²ti vutta½ hoti. Tath± hi “sam±dhi k±macchandassa paµipakkho, p²ti by±p±dassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sukha½ uddhaccakukkuccassa, vic±ro vicikicch±y±”ti peµake vutta½.
Evamettha “vivicceva k±meh²”ti imin± k±macchandassa vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hoti. “Vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²”ti imin± pañcannampi n²varaº±na½. Aggahitaggahaºena pana paµhamena k±macchandassa, dutiyena sesan²varaº±na½. Tath± paµhamena t²su akusalam³lesu pañcak±maguºabhedavisayassa lobhassa, dutiyena ±gh±tavatthubhed±divisay±na½ dosamoh±na½. Ogh±d²su v± dhammesu paµhamena k±mogha-k±mayoga-k±m±sava-k±mup±d±na-abhijjh±k±yagantha-k±mar±ga-sa½yojan±na½, dutiyena avasesa-ogha-yog±sava-up±d±na-gantha-sa½yojan±na½. Paµhamena ca taºh±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca, dutiyena avijj±ya ta½sampayuttak±nañca. Apica paµhamena lobhasampayutta-aµµhacittupp±d±na½, dutiyena ses±na½ catunna½ akusalacittupp±d±na½ vikkhambhanaviveko vutto hot²ti veditabbo. Aya½ t±va “vivicceva k±mehi vivicca akusalehi dhammeh²”ti ettha atthappak±san±.
Ett±vat± ca paµhamassa jh±nassa pah±naªga½ dassetv± id±ni sampayogaªga½ dassento savitakka½ savic±ranti-±dim±ha. Tattha vitakkana½ vitakko, ³hananti vutta½ hoti. Sv±ya½ ±rammaºe cittassa abhiniropanalakkhaºo, ±hananapariy±hananaraso. Tath± hi “tena yog±vacaro ±rammaºa½ vitakk±hata½ vitakkapariy±hata½ karot²”ti vuccati. ¾rammaºe cittassa ±nayanapaccupaµµh±no. Vicaraºa½ vic±ro, anusañcaraºanti vutta½ hoti. Sv±ya½ ±rammaº±numajjanalakkhaºo, tattha sahaj±t±nuyojanaraso, cittassa anuppabandhanapaccupaµµh±no. Santepi ca nesa½ katthaci avippayoge o¼±rikaµµhena ghaºµ±bhigh±tasaddo viya cetaso paµham±bhinip±to vitakko, sukhumaµµhena anuravo viya anuppabandho vic±ro. Vipph±rav± cettha vitakko paripphandanabh±vo cittassa, ±k±se uppatituk±massa pakkhino pakkhavikkhepo viya padum±bhimukhap±to viya ca gandh±nubandhacetaso bhamarassa. Santavutti vic±ro n±tiparipphandanabh±vo cittassa, ±k±se uppatitassa pakkhino pakkhappas±raºa½ viya paribbhamana½ viya ca padum±bhimukhapatitassa bhamarassa padumassa uparibh±ge. So pana nesa½ viseso paµhama-dutiyajjh±nesu p±kaµo hoti. Iti imin± ca vitakkena imin± ca vic±rena saha vattati rukkho viya pupphena ca phalena c±ti ida½ jh±na½ “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti vuccati. Vibhaªge pana “imin± ca vitakkena imin± ca vic±rena upeto hoti samupeto”ti-±din± (vibha. 565) nayena puggal±dhiµµh±n± desan± kat±. Attho pana tatr±pi evameva daµµhabbo.
Vivekajanti ettha vivitti viveko, n²varaºavigamoti attho. Vivittoti v± viveko, n²varaºavivitto jh±nasampayuttadhammar±s²ti attho. Tasm± vivek±, tasmi½ v± viveke j±tanti vivekaja½. P²tisukhanti ettha pinayat²ti p²ti, s± sampiy±yanalakkhaº± k±yacittap²nanaras± pharaºaras± v±, odagyapaccupaµµh±n±. Sukhana½ sukha½, suµµhu v± kh±dati khanati ca k±yacitt±b±dhanti sukha½, ta½ s±talakkhaºa½, sampayuttak±na½ upabr³hanarasa½, anuggahapaccupaµµh±na½. Satipi ca nesa½ katthaci avippayoge iµµh±rammaºapaµil±bhatuµµhi p²ti, paµiladdharas±nubhavana½ sukha½. Yattha p²ti tattha sukha½, yattha sukha½ tattha na niyamato p²ti. Saªkh±rakkhandhasaªgahit± p²ti, vedan±kkhandhasaªgahita½ sukha½. Kant±rakhinnassa vanantodakadassanasavanesu viya p²ti, vanacch±yappavesana-udakaparibhogesu viya sukha½. Tasmi½ tasmi½ samaye p±kaµabh±vato ceta½ vuttanti veditabba½. Ayañca p²ti, idañca sukha½, assa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti ida½ jh±na½ “p²tisukhan”ti vuccati.
Atha v± p²ti ca sukhañca p²tisukha½, dhammavinay±dayo viya. Vivekaja½ p²tisukhamassa jh±nassa, asmi½ v± jh±ne atth²ti evampi vivekaja½p²tisukha½. Yatheva hi jh±na½, eva½ p²tisukha½ pettha vivekajameva hoti, tañcassa atth²ti tasm± ekapadeneva “vivekaja½ p²tisukhan”tipi vattu½ yujjati. Vibhaªge pana “ida½ sukha½ im±ya p²tiy± sahagatan”ti-±din± (vibha. 567) nayeneta½ vutta½. Attho pana tatr±pi evameva daµµhabbo.
Paµhamanti gaºan±nupubbat± paµhama½, ida½ paµhama½ sam±pajjat²tipi paµhama½. Paccan²kadhamme jh±pet²ti jh±na½, imin± yogino jh±yant²tipi jh±na½, paccan²kadhamme ¹ahanti gocara½ v± cintent²ti attho. Saya½ v± ta½ jh±yati upanijjh±yat²ti jh±na½, teneva upanijjh±yanalakkhaºanti vuccati. Tadeta½ ±rammaº³panijjh±na½ lakkhaº³panijjh±nanti duvidha½ hoti. Tattha ±rammaº³panijjh±nanti saha upac±rena aµµha sam±pattiyo vuccanti. Kasm±? Kasiº±di-±rammaº³panijjh±yanato. Lakkhaº³panijjh±nanti vipassan±maggaphal±ni vuccanti. Kasm±? Lakkhaº³panijjh±yanato. Ettha hi vipassan± aniccalakkhaº±d²ni upanijjh±yati, vipassan±ya upanijjh±yanakicca½ pana maggena sijjhat²ti maggo lakkhaº³panijjh±nanti vuccati. Phala½ pana nirodhassa tathalakkhaºa½ upanijjh±yat²ti lakkhaº³panijjh±nanti vuccati. Imasmi½ panatthe ±rammaº³panijjh±nameva jh±nanti adhippeta½.
Etth±ha– “katama½ pana ta½ jh±na½ n±ma, ya½ savitakka½ savic±ra½…pe… p²tisukhanti eva½ apadesa½ arahat²”ti? Vuccate– yath± sadhano saparijanoti-±d²su µhapetv± dhanañca parijanañca añño apades±raho hoti, eva½ µhapetv± vitakk±didhamme añña½ apades±raha½ natthi. Yath± pana sarath± sapatti sen±ti vutte senaªgesuyeva sen±sammuti, evamidha pañcasu aªgesuyeva jh±nasammuti veditabb±. Katamesu pañcasu? Vitakko, vic±ro, p²ti, sukha½, cittekaggat±ti etesu. Et±neva hissa “savitakka½ savic±ran”ti-±din± nayena aªgabh±vena vutt±ni. Avuttatt± ekaggat± aªga½ na hot²ti ce tañca na. Kasm±? Vuttatt± eva. S±pi hi vibhaªge “jh±nanti vitakko vic±ro p²ti sukha½ cittassekaggat±”ti eva½ vutt±yeva. Tasm± yath± savitakka½ savic±ranti, eva½ sacittekaggatanti idha avuttepi imin± vibhaªgavacanena cittekaggat±pi aªgamev±ti veditabb±. Yena hi adhipp±yena bhagavat± uddeso kato, so eva tena vibhaªgepi pak±sitoti.
Upasampajj±ti upagantv±, p±puºitv±ti vutta½ hoti. Upasamp±dayitv± v±, nipph±detv±ti vutta½ hoti. Vibhaªge pana “upasampajj±ti paµhamassa jh±nassa l±bho paµil±bho patti sampatti phusan± samphusan± sacchikiriy± upasampad±”ti vutta½. Tass±pi evamevattho veditabbo. Vih±sinti bodhimaº¹e nisajjasaªkh±tena iriy±pathavih±rena itivuttappak±rajh±nasamaªg² hutv± attabh±vassa iriya½ vutti½ p±lana½ yapana½ y±pana½ c±ra½ vih±ra½ abhinipph±desinti attho. Vuttañheta½ vibhaªge– “viharat²ti iriyati vattati p±leti yapeti y±peti carati viharati, tena vuccati viharat²”ti (vibha. 512).
Ki½ pana katv± bhagav± ima½ jh±na½ upasampajja vih±s²ti? Kammaµµh±na½ bh±vetv±. Katara½? ¾n±p±nassatikammaµµh±na½. Aññena tadatthikena ki½ k±tabbanti? Aññenapi eta½ v± kammaµµh±na½ pathav²kasiº±d²na½ v± aññatara½ bh±vetabba½. Tesa½ bh±van±nayo visuddhimagge (visuddhi. 1.55) vuttanayeneva veditabbo. Idha pana vuccam±ne atibh±riya½ vinayanid±na½ hoti, tasm± p±¼iy± atthappak±sanamattameva karom±ti.

Paµhamajjh±nakath± niµµhit±.