Paµhamamah±saªg²tikath±

Paµhamamah±saªg²ti n±ma ces± kiñc±pi pañcasatikasaªg²tikkhandhake vutt±, nid±nakosallattha½ pana idh±pi imin± nayena veditabb±. Dhammacakkappavattanañhi ±di½ katv± y±va subhaddaparibb±jakavinayan± katabuddhakicce kusin±r±ya½ upavattane mall±na½ s±lavane yamakas±l±namantare vis±khapuººamadivase pacc³sasamaye anup±dises±ya nibb±nadh±tuy± parinibbute bhagavati lokan±the, bhagavato parinibb±ne sannipatit±na½ sattanna½ bhikkhusatasahass±na½ saªghatthero ±yasm± mah±kassapo satt±haparinibbute bhagavati, subhaddena vu¹¹hapabbajitena “ala½, ±vuso, m± socittha, m± paridevittha, sumutt± maya½ tena mah±samaºena; upaddut± ca homa– ‘ida½ vo kappati, ida½ vo na kappat²’ti! Id±ni pana maya½ ya½ icchiss±ma ta½ kariss±ma, ya½ na icchiss±ma na ta½ kariss±m±”ti (c³¼ava. 437; d². ni. 2.232) vuttavacanamanussaranto “µh±na½ kho paneta½ vijjati ya½ p±pabhikkh³ at²tasatthuka½ p±vacananti maññam±n± pakkha½ labhitv± nacirasseva saddhamma½ antaradh±peyyu½, y±va ca dhammavinayo tiµµhati t±va anat²tasatthukameva p±vacana½ hoti. Vuttañheta½ bhagavat±–
‘Yo vo, ±nanda, may± dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto so vo mamaccayena satth±’ti (d². ni. 2.216).
“Ya½n³n±ha½ dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyya½, yathayida½ s±sana½ addhaniya½ assa ciraµµhitika½.
Ya½ c±ha½ bhagavat±–
‘Dh±ressasi pana me tva½, kassapa, s±º±ni pa½suk³l±ni nibbasan±n²’ti vatv± c²vare s±dh±raºaparibhogena ceva,
‘Aha½, bhikkhave, y±vade ±kaªkh±mi vivicceva k±mehi…pe… paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja vihar±mi; kassapopi, bhikkhave, y±vade ±kaªkhati vivicceva k±mehi…pe… paµhama½ jh±na½ upasampajja viharat²’ti–
Evam±din± nayena nav±nupubbavih±racha¼abhiññ±ppabhede uttarimanussadhamme attan± samasamaµµhapanena ca anuggahito, tassa kimañña½ ±ºaºya½ bhavissati; nanu ma½ bhagav± r±j± viya sakakavaca-issariy±nuppad±nena attano kulava½sappatiµµh±paka½ putta½ ‘saddhammava½sappatiµµh±pako me aya½ bhavissat²’ti mantv± imin± as±dh±raºena anuggahena anuggahes²”ti cintayanto dhammavinayasaªg±yanattha½ bhikkh³na½ uss±ha½ janesi. Yath±ha–
“Atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo bhikkh³ ±mantesi– ‘ekamid±ha½, ±vuso, samaya½ p±v±ya kusin±ra½ addh±namaggappaµipanno mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhi½ pañcamattehi bhikkhusateh²”ti (d². ni. 2.231) sabba½ subhaddakaº¹a½ vitth±rato veditabba½.
Tato para½ ±ha–
“Handa maya½, ±vuso, dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyy±ma. Pure adhammo dippati, dhammo paµib±hiyyati; avinayo dippati, vinayo paµib±hiyyati. Pure adhammav±dino balavanto honti, dhammav±dino dubbal± honti; avinayav±dino balavanto honti, vinayav±dino dubbal± hont²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Bhikkh³ ±ha½su– “tena hi, bhante, thero bhikkh³ uccinat³”ti. Thero sakalanavaªgasatthus±sanapariyattidhare puthujjana-sot±panna-sakad±g±mi-an±g±mi-sukkhavipassakakh²º±savabhikkh³ anekasate anekasahasse ca vajjetv± tipiµakasabbapariyattippabhedadhare paµisambhid±ppatte mah±nubh±ve yebhuyyena bhagavat± etadagga½ ±ropite tevijj±dibhede kh²º±savabhikkh³yeva ek³napañcasate pariggahesi. Ye sandh±ya ida½ vutta½– “atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo eken³n±pañca-arahantasat±ni uccin²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Kissa pana thero eken³namak±s²ti? ¾yasmato ±nandattherassa ok±sakaraºattha½. Tena h±yasmat± sah±pi vin±pi na sakk± dhammasaªg²ti k±tu½, so h±yasm± sekkho sakaraº²yo, tasm± sah±pi na sakk±; yasm± panassa kiñci dasabaladesita½ suttageyy±dika½ bhagavato asammukh± paµiggahita½ n±ma natthi, tasm± vin±pi na sakk±. Yadi eva½ sekkhopi sam±no dhammasaªg²tiy± bahuk±ratt± therena uccinitabbo assa. Atha kasm± na uccinitoti Par³pav±davivajjanato. Thero hi ±yasmante ±nande ativiya vissattho ahosi, tath± hi na½ sirasmi½ palitesu j±tesupi “na v±ya½ kum±rako mattamaññ±s²”ti (sa½. ni. 2.154) kum±rakav±dena ovadati. Sakyakulappasuto c±ya½ ±yasm± tath±gatassa bh±t± c³¼apituputto. Tatra hi bhikkh³ chand±gamana½ viya maññam±n± “bah³ asekkhapaµisambhid±ppatte bhikkh³ µhapetv± ±nanda½ sekkhapaµisambhid±ppatta½ thero uccin²”ti upavadeyyu½, ta½ par³pav±da½ parivajjento “±nanda½ vin± saªg²ti na sakk± k±tu½, bhikkh³na½yeva anumatiy± gahess±m²”ti na uccini.
Atha sayameva bhikkh³ ±nandassatth±ya thera½ y±ci½su. Yath±ha–
“Bhikkh³ ±yasmanta½ mah±kassapa½ etadavocu½– ‘aya½, bhante, ±yasm± ±nando kiñc±pi sekkho abhabbo chand± dos± moh± bhay± agati½ gantu½, bahu c±nena bhagavato santike dhammo ca vinayo ca pariyatto; tena hi, bhante, thero ±yasmantampi ±nanda½ uccinat³’ti. Atha kho ±yasm± mah±kassapo ±yasmantampi ±nanda½ uccin²”ti (c³¼ava. 437).
Eva½ bhikkh³na½ anumatiy± uccinitena ten±yasmat± saddhi½ pañca therasat±ni ahesu½.
Atha kho ther±na½ bhikkh³na½ etadahosi– “kattha nu kho maya½ dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyy±m±”ti. Atha kho ther±na½ bhikkh³na½ etadahosi– “r±jagaha½ kho mah±gocara½ pah³tasen±sana½, ya½n³na maya½ r±jagahe vassa½ vasant± dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yeyy±ma, na aññe bhikkh³ r±jagahe vassa½ upagaccheyyun”ti. Kasm± pana nesa½ etadahosi? Ida½ amh±ka½ th±varakamma½, koci visabh±gapuggalo saªghamajjha½ pavisitv± ukkoµeyy±ti. Ath±yasm± mah±kassapo ñattidutiyena kammena s±vesi, ta½ saªg²tikkhandhake vuttanayeneva ñ±tabba½.
Atha tath±gatassa parinibb±nato sattasu s±dhuk²¼anadivasesu sattasu ca dh±tup³j±divasesu v²tivattesu “a¹¹ham±so atikkanto, id±ni gimh±na½ diya¹¹ho m±so seso, upakaµµh± vass³pan±yik±”ti mantv± mah±kassapatthero “r±jagaha½, ±vuso, gacch±m±”ti upa¹¹ha½ bhikkhusaªgha½ gahetv± eka½ magga½ gato. Anuruddhattheropi upa¹¹ha½ gahetv± eka½ magga½ gato. ¾nandatthero pana bhagavato pattac²vara½ gahetv± bhikkhusaªghaparivuto s±vatthi½ gantv± r±jagaha½ gantuk±mo yena s±vatthi tena c±rika½ pakk±mi. ¾nandattherena gatagataµµh±ne mah±paridevo ahosi “bhante ±nanda, kuhi½ satth±ra½ µhapetv± ±gatos²”ti Anupubbena pana s±vatthi½ anuppatte there bhagavato parinibb±nadivase viya mah±paridevo ahosi.
Tatra suda½ ±yasm± ±nando aniccat±dipaµisa½yutt±ya dhammiy± kath±ya ta½ mah±jana½ saññ±petv± jetavana½ pavisitv± dasabalena vasitagandhakuµiy± dv±ra½ vivaritv± mañcap²µha½ n²haritv± papphoµetv± gandhakuµi½ sammajjitv± mil±tam±l±kacavara½ cha¹¹etv± mañcap²µha½ atiharitv± puna yath±µh±ne µhapetv± bhagavato µhitak±le karaº²ya½ vatta½ sabbamak±si. Atha thero bhagavato parinibb±nato pabhuti µh±nanisajjabahulatt± ussannadh±tuka½ k±ya½ samass±setu½ dutiyadivase kh²ravirecana½ pivitv± vih±reyeva nis²di. Ya½ sandh±ya subhena m±ºavena pahita½ m±ºavaka½ etadavoca–
“Ak±lo kho, m±ºavaka, atthi me ajja bhesajjamatt± p²t±, appeva n±ma svepi upasaªkameyy±m±”ti (d². ni. 1.447).
Dutiyadivase cetakattherena pacch±samaºena gantv± subhena m±ºavena puµµho d²ghanik±ye subhasutta½n±ma dasama½ suttamabh±si.
Atha thero jetavanavih±re khaº¹aphullappaµisaªkharaºa½ k±r±petv± upakaµµh±ya vass³pan±yik±ya r±jagaha½ gato. Tath± mah±kassapatthero anuruddhatthero ca sabba½ bhikkhusaªgha½ gahetv± r±jagahameva gato.
Tena kho pana samayena r±jagahe aµµh±rasa mah±vih±r± honti. Te sabbepi cha¹¹itapatita-ukl±p± ahesu½. Bhagavato hi parinibb±ne sabbe bhikkh³ attano attano pattac²vara½ gahetv± vih±re ca pariveºe ca cha¹¹etv± agama½su. Tattha ther± bhagavato vacanap³janattha½ titthiyav±daparimocanatthañca “paµhama½ m±sa½ khaº¹aphullappaµisaªkharaºa½ karom±”ti cintesu½. Titthiy± hi eva½ vadeyyu½– “samaºassa gotamassa s±vak± satthari µhiteyeva vih±re paµijaggi½su, parinibbute cha¹¹esun”ti. Tesa½ v±daparimocanatthañca cintesunti vutta½ hoti. Vuttampi heta½–
“Atha kho ther±na½ bhikkh³na½ etadahosi– ‘bhagavat± kho, ±vuso, khaº¹aphullappaµisaªkharaºa½ vaººita½. Handa maya½, ±vuso, paµhama½ m±sa½ khaº¹aphullappaµisaªkharaºa½ karoma, majjhima½ m±sa½ sannipatitv± dhammañca vinayañca saªg±yiss±m±”ti (c³¼ava. 438).
Te dutiyadivase gantv± r±jadv±re aµµha½su. Aj±tasattu r±j± ±gantv± vanditv± “ki½, bhante, ±gatatth±”ti attan± kattabbakicca½ paµipucchi. Ther± aµµh±rasa mah±vih±rapaµisaªkharaºatth±ya hatthakamma½ paµivedesu½. “S±dhu, bhante”ti r±j± hatthakammak±rake manusse ad±si. Ther± paµhama½ m±sa½ sabbavih±re paµisaªkhar±petv± rañño ±rocesu½– “niµµhita½, mah±r±ja, vih±rapaµisaªkharaºa½. Id±ni dhammavinayasaªgaha½ karom±”ti. “S±dhu, bhante, vissatth± karotha. Mayha½ ±º±cakka½, tumh±ka½ dhammacakka½ hotu. ¾º±petha, bhante, ki½ karom²”ti? “Saªgaha½ karont±na½ bhikkh³na½ sannisajjaµµh±na½, mah±r±j±”ti. “Kattha karomi, bhante”ti? “Vebh±rapabbatapasse sattapaººiguh±dv±re k±tu½ yutta½, mah±r±j±”ti. “S±dhu, bhante”ti kho r±j± aj±tasattu vissakammun± nimmitasadisa½ suvibhattabhittitthambhasop±na½ n±n±vidham±l±kammalata-±kammavicitta½ abhibhavantamiva r±jabhavanavibh³ti½ avahasantamiva devavim±nasiri½ siriy± niketamiva ekanip±tatitthamiva ca devamanussanayanavihaªg±na½ lokar±maºeyyakamiva sampiº¹ita½ daµµhabbas±ramaº¹a½ maº¹apa½ k±r±petv± vividhakusumad±ma-olambaka-viniggalantac±ruvit±na½ ratanavicittamaºikoµµimatalamiva ca na½ n±n±pupph³pah±ravicittasupariniµµhitabh³mikamma½ brahmavim±nasadisa½ alaªkaritv± tasmi½ mah±maº¹ape pañcasat±na½ bhikkh³na½ anaggh±ni pañca kappiyapaccattharaºasat±ni paññ±petv± dakkhiºabh±ga½ niss±ya uttar±bhimukha½ ther±sana½ maº¹apamajjhe puratth±bhimukha½ buddhassa bhagavato ±san±raha½ dhamm±sana½ paññ±petv± dantakhacita½ b²janiñcettha µhapetv± bhikkhusaªghassa ±roc±pesi– “niµµhita½, bhante, mama kiccan”ti.
Tasmi½ kho pana samaye ekacce bhikkh³ ±yasmanta½ ±nanda½ sandh±ya evam±ha½su– “imasmi½ bhikkhusaªghe eko bhikkhu vissagandha½ v±yanto vicarat²”ti. Thero ta½ sutv± “imasmi½ bhikkhusaªghe añño vissagandha½ v±yanto vicaraºakabhikkhu n±ma natthi, addh± ete ma½ sandh±ya vadant²”ti sa½vega½ ±pajji. Ekacce bhikkh³ ±yasmanta½ ±nanda½ ±ha½su– “sve, ±vuso, sannip±to tvañca sekkho sakaraº²yo, tena te na yutta½ sannip±ta½ gantu½, appamatto hoh²”ti.
Atha kho ±yasm± ±nando– “sve sannip±to, na kho pana meta½ patir³pa½ yv±ha½ sekkho sam±no sannip±ta½ gaccheyyan”ti bahudeva ratti½ k±yagat±yasatiy± v²tin±metv± rattiy± pacc³sasamaya½ caªkam± orohitv± vih±ra½ pavisitv± “nipajjiss±m²”ti k±ya½ ±vajjesi. Dve p±d± bh³mito mutt±, appattañca s²sa½ bimbohana½, etasmi½ antare anup±d±ya ±savehi citta½ vimucci. Ayañhi ±yasm± caªkamena bahi v²tin±metv± visesa½ nibbattetu½ asakkonto cintesi– “nanu ma½ bhagav± etadavoca– ‘katapuññosi tva½, ±nanda, padh±namanuyuñja; khippa½ hohisi an±savo’ti (d². ni. 2.207). Buddh±nañca kath±doso n±ma natthi. Mama acc±raddha½ v²riya½ tena me citta½ uddhacc±ya sa½vattati. Hand±ha½ v²riyasamatha½ yojem²”ti caªkam± orohitv± p±dadhovanaµµh±ne µhatv± p±de dhovitv± vih±ra½ pavisitv± mañcake nis²ditv± “thoka½ vissamiss±m²”ti k±ya½ mañcake upan±mesi. Dve p±d± bh³mito mutt±, s²sañca bimbohana½ asampatta½. Etasmi½ antare anup±d±ya ±savehi citta½ vimutta½, catu-iriy±pathavirahita½ therassa arahatta½ ahosi. Tena imasmi½ s±sane anipanno anisinno aµµhito acaªkamanto “ko bhikkhu arahatta½ patto”ti vutte “±nandatthero”ti vattu½ vaµµati.