Verañjakaº¹avaººan±

1. Id±ni
“Ten±ti-±dip±µhassa, attha½ n±nappak±rato;
dassayanto kariss±mi, vinayassatthavaººanan”ti.
Vuttatt± tena samayena buddho bhagav±ti-±d²na½ atthavaººana½ kariss±mi. Seyyathida½– ten±ti aniyamaniddesavacana½. Tassa sar³pena avuttenapi aparabh±ge atthato siddhena yen±ti imin± vacanena paµiniddeso k±tabbo. Aparabh±ge hi vinayapaññattiy±canahetubh³to ±yasmato s±riputtassa parivitakko siddho. Tasm± yena samayena so parivitakko udap±di, tena samayena buddho bhagav± verañj±ya½ viharat²ti evamettha sambandho veditabbo. Ayañhi sabbasmimpi vinaye yutti, yadida½ yattha yattha “ten±”ti vuccati tattha tattha pubbe v± pacch± v± atthato siddhena “yen±”ti imin± vacanena paµiniddeso k±tabboti.
Tatrida½ mukhamattanidassana½– “tena hi, bhikkhave, bhikkh³na½ sikkh±pada½ paññapess±mi, yena sudinno methuna½ dhamma½ paµisevi; yasm± paµisevi, tasm± paññapess±m²”ti vutta½ hoti. Eva½ t±va pubbe atthato siddhena yen±ti imin± vacanena paµiniddeso yujjati. Tena samayena buddho bhagav± r±jagahe viharati, yena samayena dhaniyo kumbhak±raputto rañño d±r³ni adinna½ ±diy²ti eva½ pacch± atthato siddhena yen±ti imin± vacanena paµiniddeso yujjat²ti vutto ten±ti vacanassa attho. Samayen±ti ettha pana samayasaddo t±va–
Samav±ye khaºe k±le, sam³he hetu-diµµhisu;
paµil±bhe pah±ne ca, paµivedhe ca dissati.
Tath± hissa– “appeva n±ma svepi upasaªkameyy±ma k±lañca samayañca up±d±y±”ti (d². ni. 1.447) evam±d²su samav±yo attho. “Ekova kho, bhikkhave, khaºo ca samayo ca brahmacariyav±s±y±”ti (a. ni. 8.29) evam±d²su khaºo. “Uºhasamayo pari¼±hasamayo”ti (p±ci. 358) evam±d²su k±lo. “Mah±samayo pavanasmin”ti evam±d²su sam³ho. “Samayopi kho te, bhadd±li, appaµividdho ahosi– ‘bhagav± kho s±vatthiya½ viharati, bhagav±pi ma½ j±nissati– bhadd±li n±ma bhikkhu satthus±sane sikkh±ya aparip³rak±r²’ti ayampi kho te, bhadd±li, samayo appaµividdho ahos²”ti (ma. ni. 2.135) evam±d²su hetu. “Tena kho pana samayena uggaham±no paribb±jako samaºamuº¹ik±putto samayappav±dake tinduk±c²re ekas±lake mallik±ya ±r±me paµivasat²”ti (ma. ni. 2.260) evam±d²su diµµhi.
“Diµµhe dhamme ca yo attho, yo cattho sampar±yiko;
atth±bhisamay± dh²ro, paº¹itoti pavuccat²”ti. (Sa½. ni. 1.129).
Evam±d²su paµil±bho. “Samm± m±n±bhisamay± antamak±si dukkhass±”ti (ma. ni. 1.28) evam±d²su pah±na½. “Dukkhassa p²¼anaµµho saªkhataµµho sant±paµµho vipariº±maµµho abhisamayaµµho”ti (paµi. ma. 2.8) evam±d²su paµivedho attho. Idha panassa k±lo attho. Tasm± yena k±lena ±yasmato s±riputtassa vinayapaññattiy±canahetubh³to parivitakko udap±di, tena k±len±ti evamettha attho daµµhabbo.
Etth±ha– “atha kasm± yath± suttante ‘eka½ samayan’ti upayogavacanena niddeso kato, abhidhamme ca ‘yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacaran’ti bhummavacanena, tath± akatv± idha ‘tena samayen±’ti karaºavacanena niddeso kato”ti? Tattha tath±, idha ca aññath± atthasambhavato. Katha½? Suttante t±va accantasa½yogattho sambhavati. Yañhi samaya½ bhagav± brahmaj±l±d²ni suttant±ni desesi, accantameva ta½ samaya½ karuº±vih±rena vih±si; tasm± tadatthajotanattha½ tattha upayoganiddeso kato. Abhidhamme ca adhikaraºattho bh±venabh±valakkhaºattho ca sambhavati. Adhikaraºañhi k±lattho sam³hattho ca samayo, tattha vutt±na½ phass±didhamm±na½ khaºasamav±yahetusaªkh±tassa ca samayassa bh±vena tesa½ bh±vo lakkhiyati. Tasm± tadatthajotanattha½ tattha bhummavacanena niddeso kato. Idha pana hetu-attho karaºattho ca sambhavati. Yo hi so sikkh±padapaññattisamayo s±riputt±d²hipi dubbiññeyyo, tena samayena hetubh³tena karaºabh³tena ca sikkh±pad±ni paññ±payanto sikkh±padapaññattihetuñca apekkham±no bhagav± tattha tattha vih±si; tasm± tadatthajotanattha½ idha karaºavacanena niddeso katoti veditabbo. Hoti cettha–
“Upayogena bhummena, ta½ ta½ atthamapekkhiya;
aññatra samayo vutto, karaºeneva so idh±”ti.
Por±º± pana vaººayanti– ‘eka½ samayan’ti v± ‘yasmi½ samaye’ti v± ‘tena samayen±’ti v± abhil±pamattabhedo esa, sabbattha bhummameva attho”ti. Tasm± tesa½ laddhiy± “tena samayen±”ti vuttepi “tasmi½ samaye”ti attho veditabbo.
Buddho bhagav±ti imesa½ pad±na½ parato attha½ vaººayiss±ma. Verañj±ya½ viharat²ti ettha pana verañj±ti aññatarassa nagarasseta½ adhivacana½, tassa½ verañj±ya½; sam²patthe bhummavacana½. Viharat²ti avisesena iriy±pathadibbabrahma-ariyavih±resu aññataravih±rasamaªg²parid²panameta½, idha pana µh±nagamananisajj±sayanappabhedesu-a-iriy±pathesu aññatara-iriy±pathasam±yogaparid²pana½, tena µhitopi gacchantopi nisinnopi say±nopi bhagav± viharaticceva veditabbo. So hi eka½ iriy±pathab±dhana½ aññena iriy±pathena vicchinditv± aparipatanta½ attabh±va½ harati pavatteti, tasm± “viharat²”ti vuccati.
Na¼erupucimandam³leti ettha na¼eru n±ma yakkho, pucimandoti nimbarukkho, m³lanti sam²pa½. Ayañhi m³lasaddo “m³l±ni uddhareyya antamaso us²ran±¼imatt±nip²”ti (a. ni. 4.195) -±d²su m³lam³le dissati. “Lobho akusalam³lan”ti (d². ni. 3.305) -±d²su as±dh±raºahetumhi. “Y±va majjhanhike k±le ch±y± pharati, niv±te paºº±ni patanti, ett±vat± rukkham³lan”ti-±d²su sam²pe. Idha pana sam²pe adhippeto, tasm± na¼eruyakkhena adhiggahitassa pucimandassa sam²peti evamettha attho daµµhabbo. So kira pucimando ramaº²yo p±s±diko anekesa½ rukkh±na½ ±dhipacca½ viya kurum±no tassa nagarassa avid³re gaman±gamanasampanne µh±ne ahosi. Atha bhagav± verañja½ gantv± patir³pe µh±ne viharanto tassa rukkhassa sam²pe heµµh±bh±ge vih±si. Tena vutta½– “verañj±ya½ viharati na¼erupucimandam³le”ti.
Tattha siy± yadi t±va bhagav± verañj±ya½ viharati, “na¼erupucimandam³le”ti na vattabba½, atha tattha viharati, “verañj±yan”ti na vattabba½, na hi sakk± ubhayattha teneva samayena apubba½ acarima½ viharitunti? Na kho paneta½ eva½ daµµhabba½, nanu avocumha “sam²patthe bhummavacanan”ti. Tasm± yath± gaªg±yamun±d²na½ sam²pe goy³th±ni carant±ni “gaªg±ya caranti, yamun±ya carant²”ti vuccanti; evamidh±pi yadida½ verañj±ya sam²pe na¼erupucimandam³la½ tattha viharanto vuccati “verañj±ya½ viharati na¼erupucimandam³le”ti. Gocarag±manidassanattha½ hissa verañj±vacana½. Pabbajit±nur³paniv±sanaµµh±nanidassanattha½ na¼erupucimandam³lavacana½.
Tattha verañj±kittanena ±yasm± up±litthero bhagavato gahaµµh±nuggahakaraºa½ dasseti, na¼erupucimandam³lakittanena pabbajit±nuggahakaraºa½, tath± purimena paccayaggahaºato attakilamath±nuyogavivajjana½, pacchimena vatthuk±mappah±nato k±masukhallik±nuyogavivajjanup±yadassana½; purimena ca dhammadesan±bhiyoga½, pacchimena vivek±dhimutti½; purimena karuº±ya upagamana½ pacchimena paññ±ya apagamana½; purimena satt±na½ hitasukhanipph±dan±dhimuttata½, pacchimena parahitasukhakaraºe nirupalepana½; purimena dhammikasukh±paricc±ganimitta½ ph±suvih±ra½, pacchimena uttarimanussadhamm±nuyoganimitta½; purimena manuss±na½ upak±rabahulata½, pacchimena devat±na½; purimena loke j±tassa loke sa½va¹¹habh±va½, pacchimena lokena anupalittata½; purimena “ekapuggalo, bhikkhave, loke uppajjam±no uppajjati bahujanahit±ya bahujanasukh±ya lok±nukamp±ya atth±ya hit±ya sukh±ya devamanuss±na½. Katamo ekapuggalo? Tath±gato araha½ samm±sambuddho”ti (a. ni. 1.170) vacanato yadattha½ bhagav± uppanno tadatthaparinipph±dana½, pacchimena yattha uppanno tadanur³pavih±ra½. Bhagav± hi paµhama½ lumbin²vane, dutiya½ bodhimaº¹eti lokiyalokuttar±ya uppattiy± vaneyeva uppanno, tenassa vaneyeva vih±ra½ dasset²ti evam±din± nayenettha atthayojan± veditabb±.
Mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhinti ettha mahat±ti guºamahattenapi mahat±; saªkhy±mahattenapi, so hi bhikkhusaªgho guºehipi mah± ahosi, yasm± yo tattha pacchimako so sot±panno; saªkhy±yapi mah± pañcasatasaªkhyatt±. Bhikkh³na½ saªghena bhikkhusaªghena; diµµhis²las±maññasaªkh±tasaªgh±tena samaºagaºen±ti attho. Saddhinti ekato. Pañcamattehi bhikkhusateh²ti pañca matt± etesanti pañcamatt±ni. Matt±ti pam±ºa½ vuccati. Tasm± yath± “bhojane mattaññ³”ti vutte bhojane matta½ j±n±ti, pam±ºa½ j±n±t²ti attho hoti; evamidh±pi tesa½ bhikkhusat±na½ pañca matt± pañcappam±ºanti evamattho daµµhabbo. Bhikkh³na½ sat±ni bhikkhusat±ni, tehi pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Etena ya½ vutta½– “mahat± bhikkhusaªghena saddhin”ti, ettha tassa mahato bhikkhusaªghassa saªkhy±mahatta½ dassita½ hoti. Parato panassa “nirabbudo hi, s±riputta bhikkhusaªgho nir±d²navo apagatak±¼ako suddho s±re patiµµhito. Imesañhi, s±riputta, pañcanna½ bhikkhusat±na½ yo pacchimako so sot±panno”ti vacanena guºamahatta½ ±vibhavissati.
Assosi kho verañjo br±hmaºoti assos²ti suºi upalabhi, sotadv±rasampattavacananigghos±nus±rena aññ±si. Khoti padap³raºamatte avadh±raºatthe v± nip±to. Tattha avadh±raºatthena assosi eva, n±ssa koci savanantar±yo ahos²ti ayamattho veditabbo. Padap³raºena pana byañjanasiliµµhat±mattameva. Verañj±ya½ j±to, verañj±ya½ bhavo, verañj± v± assa niv±soti verañjo. M±t±pit³hi katan±mavasena pan±ya½ “udayo”ti vuccati. Brahma½ aºat²ti br±hmaºo, mante sajjh±yat²ti attho. Idameva hi j±tibr±hmaº±na½ niruttivacana½. Ariy± pana b±hitap±patt± “br±hmaº±”ti vuccanti.
Id±ni yamattha½ verañjo br±hmaºo assosi, ta½ pak±sento samaºo khalu bho gotamoti-±dim±ha. Tattha samitap±patt± samaºoti veditabbo. Vutta½ heta½– “b±hitap±poti br±hmaºo (dha. pa. 388), samitap±patt± samaºoti vuccat²”ti (dha. pa. 265). Bhagav± ca anuttarena ariyamaggena samitap±po, tenassa yath±bhuccaguº±dhigatameta½ n±ma½ yadida½ samaºoti. Khal³ti anussavanatthe nip±to. Bhoti br±hmaºaj±tik±na½ j±tisamud±gata½ ±lapanamatta½. Vuttampi heta½–
“Bhov±d² n±maso hoti, sace hoti sakiñcano”ti. (Dha. pa. 396; su. ni. 625). Gotamoti bhagavanta½ gottavasena parikitteti, tasm± “samaºo khalu bho gotamo”ti ettha samaºo kira bho gotamagottoti evamattho daµµhabbo. Sakyaputtoti ida½ pana bhagavato ucc±kulaparid²pana½. Sakyakul± pabbajitoti saddh±pabbajitabh±vaparid²pana½, kenaci p±rijuññena anabhibh³to aparikkh²ºa½yeva, ta½ kula½ pah±ya saddh±ya pabbajitoti vutta½ hoti. Tato para½ vuttatthameva. Ta½ kho pan±ti itthambh³t±khy±natthe upayogavacana½, tassa kho pana bhoto gotamass±ti attho. Kaly±ºoti kaly±ºaguºasamann±gato; seµµhoti vutta½ hoti. Kittisaddoti kitti eva, thutighoso v±.