4. Nissaggiyakaº¹a½

1. C²varavaggo

1. Paµhamakathinasikkh±padavaººan±

Ti½sa nissaggiy± dhamm±, ye vutt± samit±vin±;
tesa½ d±ni kariss±mi, apubbapadavaººana½.
459. Tena samayena buddho bhagav± ves±liya½ viharati gotamake cetiye. Tena kho pana samayena bhagavat± bhikkh³na½ tic²vara½ anuññ±ta½ hot²ti ettha tic²varanti antarav±sako uttar±saªgo saªgh±µ²ti ida½ c²varattaya½ paribhuñjitu½ anuññ±ta½ hoti. Yattha paneta½ anuññ±ta½, yad± ca anuññ±ta½, yena ca k±raºena anuññ±ta½, ta½ sabba½ c²varakkhandhake j²vakavatthusmi½ (mah±va. 326 ±dayo) ±gatameva. Aññeneva tic²varena g±ma½ pavisant²ti yena vih±re acchanti nh±nañca otaranti, tato aññena, eva½ divase divase nava c²var±ni dh±renti.
460. Uppanna½ hot²ti anupaññattiy± dv±ra½ dadam±na½ paµil±bhavasena uppanna½ hoti, no nipphattivasena.
¾yasmato s±riputtassa d±tuk±mo hot²ti ±yasm± kira ±nando bhagavanta½ µhapetv± añño evar³po guºavisiµµho puggalo natth²ti guºabahum±nena ±yasmanta½ s±riputta½ atimam±yati. So sad±pi man±pa½ c²vara½ labhitv± rajitv± kappabindu½ datv± therasseva deti, purebhatte paº²ta½ y±gukhajjaka½ v± piº¹ap±ta½ v± labhitv±pi therasseva deti, pacch±bhatte madhuph±ºit±d²ni labhitv±pi therasseva deti, upaµµh±kakulehi d±rake nikkh±metv± pabb±jetv±pi therassa santike upajjha½ g±h±petv± saya½ anus±vanakamma½ karoti. ¾yasm±pi s±riputto “pitu kattabbakicca½ n±ma jeµµhaputtassa bh±ro, ta½ may± bhagavato kattabba½ kicca½ ±nando karoti, aha½ ±nanda½ niss±ya appossukko viharitu½ labh±m²”ti ±yasmanta½ ±nanda½ ativiya mam±yati, sopi man±pa½ c²vara½ labhitv± ±nandattherasseva det²ti sabba½ purimasadisameva Eva½ guºabahum±nena mam±yanto tad± uppannampi ta½ c²vara½ ±yasmato s±riputtassa d±tuk±mo hot²ti veditabbo.
Navama½ v± bhagav± divasa½ dasama½ v±ti ettha pana sace bhaveyya “katha½ thero j±n±t²”ti? Bah³hi k±raºehi j±n±ti. S±riputtatthero kira janapadac±rika½ pakkamanto ±nandatthera½ ±pucchitv±va pakkamati “aha½ ettakena n±ma k±lena ±gacchiss±mi, etthantare bhagavanta½ m± pamajj²”ti. Sace sammukh± na ±pucchati, bhikkh³ pesetv±pi ±pucchitv±va gacchati. Sace aññattha vassa½ vasati, ye paµhamatara½ bhikkh³ ±gacchanti, te eva½ pahiºati “mama vacanena bhagavato ca p±de siras± vandatha, ±nandassa ca ±rogya½ vatv± ma½ ‘asukadivase n±ma ±gamissat²’ti vadath±”ti sad± ca yath±paricchinnadivaseyeva eti. Apic±yasm± ±nando anum±nenapi j±n±ti “ettake divase bhagavat± viyoga½ sahanto adhiv±sento ±yasm± s±riputto vasi, ito d±ni paµµh±ya asuka½ n±ma divasa½ na atikkamissati addh± ±gamissat²”ti. Yesa½ yesañhi paññ± mahat² tesa½ tesa½ bhagavati pemañca g±ravo ca mah± hot²ti imin± nayen±pi j±n±ti. Eva½ bah³hi k±raºehi j±n±ti. Ten±ha– “navama½ v± bhagav± divasa½ dasama½ v±”ti. Eva½ vutte yasm± ida½ sikkh±pada½ paººattivajja½, na lokavajja½; tasm± ±yasmat± ±nandena vuttasadisameva pariccheda½ karonto “atha kho bhagav±…pe… dh±retun”ti. Sace pana therena addham±so v± m±so v± uddiµµho abhavissa, sopi bhagavat± anuññ±to assa.
462-3. Niµµhitac²varasminti yena kenaci niµµh±nena niµµhite c²varasmi½. Yasm± pana ta½ c²vara½ karaºenapi niµµhita½ hoti, nassan±d²hipi tasm±ssa padabh±jane atthamattameva dassetu½ bhikkhuno c²vara½ kata½ v± hot²ti-±di vutta½. Tattha katanti s³cikammapariyos±nena kata½, s³cikammapariyos±na½ n±ma ya½kiñci s³ciy± kattabba½ p±sapaµµagaºµhikapaµµapariyos±na½ katv± s³ciy± paµis±mana½. Naµµhanti cor±d²hi haµa½, etampi hi karaºapalibodhassa niµµhitatt± niµµhitanti vuccati. Vinaµµhanti upacik±d²hi kh±yita½. Da¹¹hanti aggin± da¹¹ha½. C²var±s± v± upacchinn±ti “asukasmi½ n±ma kule c²vara½ labhiss±m²”ti y± c²var±s± uppann± hoti, s± v± upacchinn±, etesampi hi karaºapalibodhasseva niµµhitatt± niµµhitabh±vo veditabbo.
Ubbhatasmi½ kathineti kathine ca ubbhatasmi½. Etena dutiyassa palibodhassa abh±va½ dasseti. Ta½ pana kathina½ yasm± aµµhasu v± m±tik±su ek±ya antarubbh±rena v± uddhar²yati, tenassa niddese “aµµhanna½ m±tik±nan”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha “aµµhim±, bhikkhave, m±tik± kathinassa ubbh±r±ya– pakkamanantik±, niµµh±nantik±, sanniµµh±nantik±, n±sanantik±, savanantik±, ±s±vacchedik±, s²m±tikkantik±, sahubbh±r±”ti eva½ aµµha m±tik±yo kathinakkhandhake ±gat±. Antarubbh±ropi “suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho; yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, saªgho kathina½ uddhareyya, es± ñatti. Suº±tu me, bhante, saªgho; saªgho kathina½ uddharati, yass±yasmato khamati, kathinassa ubbh±ro, so tuºhassa; yassa nakkhamati, so bh±seyya. Ubbhata½ saªghena kathina½, khamati saªghassa, tasm± tuºh², evameta½ dh±ray±m²”ti (p±ci. 926) eva½ bhikkhun²vibhaªge ±gato. Tattha ya½ vattabba½ ta½ ±gataµµh±neyeva vaººayiss±ma. Idha pana vuccam±ne p±¼i ±haritabb± hoti, atthopi vattabbo. Vuttopi ca na suviññeyyo hoti, aµµh±ne vuttatt±ya.
Das±haparamanti dasa ah±ni paramo paricchedo ass±ti das±haparamo, ta½ das±haparama½ k±la½ dh±retabbanti attho. Padabh±jane pana atthamattameva dassetu½ “das±haparamat± dh±retabban”ti vutta½. Idañhi vutta½ hoti “das±haparaman”ti ettha y± das±haparamat± das±haparamabh±vo, aya½ ettako k±lo y±va n±tikkamati t±va dh±retabbanti.
Adhiµµhitavikappitesu apariy±pannatt± atireka½ c²varanti atirekac²vara½. Tenevassa padabh±jane vutta½ “anadhiµµhita½ avikappitan”ti.
Channa½ c²var±na½ aññataranti khoma½, kapp±sika½, koseyya½, kambala½, s±ºa½, bhaªganti imesa½ channa½ c²var±na½ aññatara½. Etena c²varassa j±ti½ dassetv± id±ni pam±ºa½ dassetu½ “vikappanupaga½ pacchiman”ti ±ha. Tassa pam±ºa½ d²ghato dve vidatthiyo, tiriya½ vidatthi. Tatr±ya½ p±¼i– “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, ±y±mena aµµhaªgula½ sugataªgulena caturaªgulavitthata½ pacchima½ c²vara½ vikappetun”ti (mah±va. 358).
Ta½ atikk±mayato nissaggiya½ p±cittiyanti ta½ yath±vuttaj±tippam±ºa½ c²vara½ das±haparama½ k±la½ atikk±mayato, etthantare yath± atirekac²vara½ na hoti tath± akubbato nissaggiya½ p±cittiya½, tañca c²vara½ nissaggiya½ hoti, p±cittiy±patti cassa hot²ti attho. Atha v± nissajjana½ nissaggiya½, pubbabh±ge kattabbassa vinayakammasseta½ n±ma½. Nissaggiyamassa atth²ti nissaggiyamicceva. Kinta½? P±cittiya½. Ta½ atikk±mayato sanissaggiyavinayakamma½ p±cittiya½ hot²ti ayamettha attho. Padabh±jane pana paµhama½ t±va atthavikappa½ dassetu½ “ta½ atikk±mayato nissaggiya½ hot²”ti m±tika½ µhapetv± “ek±dase aruºuggamane nissaggiya½ hoti, nissajjitabban”ti vutta½. Puna yassa ca nissajjitabba½, yath± ca nissajjitabba½, ta½ dassetu½ “saªghassa v±”ti-±di vutta½. Tattha ek±dase aruºuggamaneti ettha ya½ divasa½ c²vara½ uppanna½ tassa yo aruºo, so uppannadivasanissito, tasm± c²varupp±dadivasa-ena saddhi½ ek±dase aruºuggamane nissaggiya½ hot²ti veditabba½. Sacepi bah³ni ekajjha½ bandhitv± v± veµhetv± v± µhapit±ni ek±va ±patti. Abaddh±veµhitesu vatthugaºan±ya ±pattiyo.
Nissajjitv± ±patti desetabb±ti katha½ desetabb±? Yath± khandhake vutta½, kathañca tattha vutta½? Eva½ vutta½– “tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhun± saªgha½ upasaªkamitv± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± vu¹¹h±na½ bhikkh³na½ p±de vanditv± ukkuµika½ nis²ditv± añjali½ paggahetv± evamassa vacan²yo– ‘aha½, bhante, itthann±ma½ ±patti½ ±panno, ta½ paµidesem²”’ti (c³¼ava. 239). Idha pana sace eka½ c²vara½ hoti “eka½ nissaggiya½ p±cittiyan”ti vattabba½. Sace dve, “dve”ti vattabba½. Sace bah³ni “sambahul±n²”ti vattabba½. Nissajjanepi sace eka½ yath±p±¼imeva “ida½ me, bhante, c²varan”ti vattabba½. Sace dve v± bah³ni v±, “im±ni me, bhante, c²var±ni das±h±tikkant±ni nissaggiy±ni, im±n±ha½ saªghassa nissajj±m²”ti vattabba½. P±¼i½ vattu½ asakkontena aññath±pi vattabba½.
Byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena ±patti paµiggahetabb±ti khandhake vuttanayeneva paµiggahetabb±. Evañhi tattha vutta½– “byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena saªgho ñ±petabbo–
‘Suº±tu me bhante saªgho, aya½ itthann±mo bhikkhu ±patti½ sarati vivarati utt±ni½ karoti deseti, yadi saªghassa pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno ±patti½ paµiggaºheyyan’ti.
Tena vattabbo ‘passas²’ti? ‘¾ma, pass±m²’ti. ¾yati½ sa½vareyy±s²”ti (c³¼ava. 239). Dv²su pana sambahul±su v± purimanayeneva vacanabhedo ñ±tabbo.
C²varad±nepi “saªgho ima½ c²vara½ im±ni c²var±n²”ti vatthuvasena vacanabhedo veditabbo. Gaºassa ca puggalassa ca nissajjanepi eseva nayo.
¾pattidesan±paµiggahaºesu panettha aya½ p±¼i– “tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhun± sambahule bhikkh³ upasaªkamitv± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ katv± vu¹¹h±na½ bhikkh³na½ p±de vanditv± ukkuµika½ nis²ditv± añjali½ paggahetv± evamassu vacan²y±– ‘aha½, bhante, itthann±ma½ ±patti½ ±panno ta½ paµidesem²’ti. Byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena te bhikkh³ ñ±petabb±–
‘Suºantu me ±yasmant±, aya½ itthann±mo bhikkhu ±patti½ sarati vivarati utt±ni½ karoti deseti. Yad±yasmant±na½ pattakalla½, aha½ itthann±massa bhikkhuno ±patti½ paµiggaºheyyan’ti.
Tena vattabbo ‘passas²’ti? ‘¾ma, pass±m²’ti. ‘¾yati½ sa½vareyy±s²’ti.
Tena bhikkhun± eka½ bhikkhu½ upasaªkamitv± eka½sa½ uttar±saªga½ karitv± ukkuµika½ nis²ditv± añjali½ paggahetv± evamassa vacan²yo– ‘aha½, ±vuso, itthann±ma½ ±patti½ ±panno ta½ paµidesem²’ti. Tena vattabbo ‘passas²’ti, ±ma pass±m²ti ±yati½ sa½vareyy±s²”ti (c³¼ava. 239). Tattha purimanayeneva ±pattiy± n±maggahaºa½ vacanabhedo ca veditabbo.
Yath± ca gaºassa nissajjane eva½ dvinna½ nissajjanepi p±¼i veditabb±. Yadi hi viseso bhaveyya, yatheva “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, tiººanna½ p±risuddhi-uposatha½ k±tu½, evañca pana, bhikkhave, k±tabbo. Byattena bhikkhun± paµibalena te bhikkh³ ñ±petabb±”ti-±din± nayena “tiººanna½ p±risuddhi-uposatha½ k±tun”ti vatv± puna “anuj±n±mi, bhikkhave, dvinna½ p±risuddhi-uposatha½ k±tu½, evañca pana, bhikkhave, k±tabbo. Therena bhikkhun± eka½sa½ uttar±saªgan”ti-±din± (mah±va. 168) nayena visu½yeva dvinna½ p±risuddhi-uposatho vutto, evamidh±pi visu½ p±¼i½ vadeyya, yasm± pana natthi, tasm± avatv± gatoti, gaºassa vutt± p±¼iyevettha p±¼i.
¾pattipaµiggahaºe pana aya½ viseso, yath± gaºassa nissajjitv± ±pattiy± desiyam±n±ya ±pattipaµigg±hako bhikkhu ñatti½ µhapeti, eva½ aµµhapetv± dv²su aññatarena yath± ekapuggalo paµiggaºh±ti, eva½ ±patti paµiggahetabb±. Dvinnañhi ñattiµµhapan± n±ma natthi, yadi siy± dvinna½ p±risuddhi-uposatha½ visu½ na vadeyya.