10. PaµhamasaŖghabhedasikkh±padavaŗŗan±

409. Tena samayena buddho bhagav±ti saŖghabhedasikkh±pada½. Tattha atha kho devadattoti-±d²su yo ca devadatto, yath± ca pabbajito, yena ca k±raŗena kok±lik±dayo upasaŖkamitv± “etha maya½ ±vuso samaŗassa gotamassa saŖghabheda½ kariss±ma cakkabhedan”ti ±ha. Ta½ sabba½ saŖghabhedakkhandhake (c³¼ava. 343) ±gatameva. Pańcavatthuy±can± pana kińc±pi tattheva ±gamissati. Atha kho idh±pi ±gatatt± yadettha vattabba½, ta½ vatv±va gamiss±ma.
S±dhu bhanteti ±y±can±. Bhikkh³ y±vaj²va½ ±rańńik± ass³ti ±rańńikadhutaŖga½ sam±d±ya sabbepi bhikkh³ y±va j²vanti t±va ±rańńik± hontu arańńeyeva vasantu. Yo g±manta½ osareyya vajja½ na½ phuseyy±ti yo ekabhikkhupi arańńa½ pah±ya niv±satth±ya g±manta½ osareyya, vajja½ ta½ phuseyya na½ bhikkhu½ doso phusatu, ±pattiy± na½ bhagav± k±ret³”ti adhipp±yena vadati. Esa nayo sesavatth³supi.
410. Jana½ sańń±pess±m±ti jana½ amh±ka½ appicchat±dibh±va½ j±n±pess±ma, atha v± paritosess±ma pas±dess±m±ti vutta½ hoti.
Im±ni pana pańca vatth³ni y±cato devadattassa vacana½ sutv±va ańń±si bhagav± “saŖghabhedatthiko hutv± aya½ y±cat²”ti. Yasm± pana t±ni anuj±niyam±n±ni bah³na½ kulaputt±na½ maggantar±y±ya sa½vattanti, tasm± bhagav± “ala½ devadatt±”ti paµikkhipitv± “yo icchati ±rańńiko hot³”ti-±dim±ha.
Ettha pana bhagavato adhipp±ya½ viditv± kulaputtena attano patir³pa½ veditabba½. Ayańhettha bhagavato adhipp±yo– “eko bhikkhu mahajjh±sayo hoti mahuss±ho, sakkoti g±mantasen±sana½ paµikkhipitv± arańńe viharanto dukkhassanta½ k±tu½. Eko dubbalo hoti appath±mo arańńe na sakkoti, g±manteyeva sakkoti. Eko mahabbalo samappavattadh±tuko adhiv±sanakhantisampanno iµµh±niµµhesu samacitto arańńepi g±mantepi sakkotiyeva. Eko neva g±mante na arańńe sakkoti padaparamo hoti.
Tatra yv±ya½ mahajjh±sayo hoti mahuss±ho, sakkoti g±mantasen±sana½ paµikkhipitv± arańńe viharanto dukkhassanta½ k±tu½, so arańńeyeva vasatu, idamassa patir³pa½. Saddhivih±rik±dayopi cassa anusikkham±n± arańńe vih±tabbameva mańńissanti.
Yo pana dubbalo hoti appath±mo g±manteyeva sakkoti dukkhassanta½ k±tu½, na arańńe so g±manteyeva vasatu, yv±ya½ mahabbalo samappavattadh±tuko adhiv±sanakhantisampanno iµµh±niµµhesu samacitto arańńepi g±mantepi sakkotiyeva, ayampi g±mantasen±sana½ pah±ya arańńe viharatu, idamassa patir³pa½ saddhivih±rik±pi hissa anusikkham±n± arańńe vih±tabba½ mańńissanti.
Yo pan±ya½ neva g±mante na arańńe sakkoti padaparamo hoti. Ayampi arańńeyeva vasatu. Aya½ hissa dhutaŖgasevan± kammaµµh±nabh±van± ca ±yati½ maggaphal±na½ upanissayo bhavissati. Saddhivih±rik±dayo cassa anusikkham±n± arańńe vih±tabba½ mańńissant²ti.
Eva½ yv±ya½ dubbalo hoti appath±mo g±manteyeva viharanto sakkoti dukkhassanta½ k±tu½ na arańńe, ima½ puggala½ sandh±ya bhagav± “yo icchati g±mante viharat³”ti ±ha. Imin± ca puggalena ańńesampi dv±ra½ dinna½.
Yadi pana bhagav± devadattassa v±da½ sampaµiccheyya, yv±ya½ puggalo pakatiy± dubbalo hoti appath±mo, yopi daharak±le arańńav±sa½ abhisambhuŗitv± jiŗŗak±le v± v±tapitt±d²hi samuppannadh±tukkhobhak±le v± n±bhisambhuŗ±ti, g±manteyeva pana viharanto sakkoti dukkhassanta½ k±tu½, tesa½ ariyamaggupacchedo bhaveyya, arahattaphal±dhigamo na bhaveyya, uddhamma½ ubbinaya½ viloma½ aniyy±nika½ satthu s±sana½ bhaveyya, satth± ca tesa½ asabbańń³ assa “sakav±da½ cha¹¹etv± devadattav±de patiµµhito”ti g±rayho ca bhaveyya. Tasm± bhagav± evar³pe puggale saŖgaŗhanto devadattassa v±da½ paµikkhipi. Etenev³p±yena piŗ¹ap±tikavatthusmimpi pa½suk³likavatthusmimpi aµµha m±se rukkham³likavatthusmimpi vinicchayo veditabbo. Catt±ro pana m±se rukkham³lasen±sana½ paµikkhittameva.
Macchama½savatthusmi½ tikoµiparisuddhanti t²hi koµ²hi parisuddha½, diµµh±d²hi aparisuddh²hi virahitanti attho. Tenev±ha– “adiµµha½, asuta½, aparisaŖkitan”ti. Tattha “adiµµha½” n±ma bhikkh³na½ atth±ya migamacche vadhitv± gayham±na½ adiµµha½. “Asuta½” n±ma bhikkh³na½ atth±ya migamacche vadhitv± gahitanti asuta½. “AparisaŖkita½” pana diµµhaparisaŖkita½ sutaparisaŖkita½ tadubhayavimuttaparisaŖkitańca ńatv± tabbipakkhato j±nitabba½. Katha½? Idha bhikkh³ passanti manusse j±lav±gur±dihatthe g±mato va nikkhamante arańńe v± vicarante, dutiyadivase ca nesa½ ta½ g±ma½ piŗ¹±ya paviµµh±na½ samacchama½sa½ piŗ¹ap±ta½ abhiharanti. Te tena diµµhena parisaŖkanti “bhikkh³na½ nukho atth±ya katan”ti ida½ diµµhaparisaŖkita½, n±ma eta½ gahetu½ na vaµµati. Ya½ eva½ aparisaŖkita½ ta½ vaµµati. Sace pana te manuss± “kasm± bhante na gaŗhath±”ti pucchitv± tamattha½ sutv± “nayida½ bhante bhikkh³na½ atth±ya kata½, amhehi attano atth±ya v± r±jayutt±d²na½ atth±ya v± katan”ti vadanti kappati.
Naheva kho bhikkh³ passanti; apica suŗanti, manuss± kira j±lav±gur±dihatth± g±mato v± nikkhamanti, arańńe v± vicarant²”ti. Dutiyadivase ca nesa½ ta½ g±ma½ piŗ¹±ya paviµµh±na½ “bhikkh³na½ nukho atth±ya katan”ti ida½ “sutaparisaŖkita½” n±ma. Eta½ gahetu½ na vaµµati, ya½ eva½ aparisaŖkita½ ta½ vaµµati. Sace pana te manuss± “kasm±, bhante, na gaŗhath±”ti pucchitv± tamattha½ sutv± “nayida½, bhante, bhikkh³na½ atth±ya kata½, amhehi attano atth±ya v± r±jayutt±d²na½ atth±ya v± katan”ti vadanti kappati.
Naheva kho pana bhikkh³ passanti, na suŗanti; apica kho tesa½ g±ma½ piŗ¹±ya paviµµh±na½ patta½ gahetv± samacchama½sa½ piŗ¹ap±ta½ abhisaŖkharitv± abhiharanti, te parisaŖkanti “bhikkh³na½ nukho atth±ya katan”ti ida½ “tadubhayavimuttaparisaŖkita½” n±ma. Eta½ gahetu½ na vaµµati. Ya½ eva½ aparisaŖkita½ ta½ vaµµati. Sace pana te manuss± “kasm±, bhante, na gaŗhath±”ti pucchitv± tamattha½ sutv± “nayida½, bhante, bhikkh³na½ atth±ya kata½ amhehi attano atth±ya v± r±jayutt±d²na½ atth±ya v± kata½ pavattama½sa½ v± kappiyameva labhitv± bhikkh³na½ atth±ya samp±ditan”ti vadanti kappati. Mat±na½ petakiccatth±ya maŖgal±d²na½ v± atth±ya katepi eseva nayo. Ya½ yańhi bhikkh³na½yeva atth±ya akata½, yattha ca nibbematiko hoti, ta½ sabba½ kappati.
Sace pana ekasmi½ vih±re bhikkh³ uddissa kata½ hoti, te ca attano atth±ya katabh±va½ na j±nanti, ańńe j±nanti. Ye j±nanti, tesa½ na vaµµati itaresa½ vaµµati. Ańńe na j±nanti, teyeva j±nanti, tesa½yeva na vaµµati, ańńesa½ vaµµati. Tepi amh±ka½ atth±ya katanti j±nanti, ańńepi etesa½ atth±ya katanti j±nanti, sabbesampi na vaµµati, sabbe na j±nanti, sabbesampi vaµµati. Pańcasu hi sahadhammikesu yassa v± tassa v± atth±ya uddissa kata½, sabbesa½ na kappati.
Sace pana koci eka½ bhikkhu½ uddissa p±ŗa½ vadhitv± tassa patta½ p³retv± deti, so ca attano atth±ya katabh±va½ j±na½yeva gahetv± ańńassa bhikkhuno deti, so tassa saddh±ya paribhuńjati, kassa ±patt²ti? Dvinnampi an±patti. Yańhi uddissa kata½ tassa abhuttat±ya an±patti, itarassa aj±nanat±ya. Kappiyama½sassa hi paµiggahaŗe ±patti natthi. Uddissa katańca aj±nitv± bhuttassa pacch± ńatv± ±pattidesan±kicca½ n±ma natthi, akappiyama½sa½ pana aj±nitv± bhuttena pacch± ńatv±pi ±patti desetabb±, uddissa katańhi ńatv± bhuńjatova ±patti. Akappiyama½sa½ aj±nitv± bhuńjantass±pi ±pattiyeva. Tasm± ±pattibh²rukena r³pa½ sallakkhentenapi pucchitv±va ma½sa½ paµiggahetabba½. Paribhogak±le pucchitv± paribhuńjiss±m²ti v± gahetv± pucchitv±va paribhuńjitabba½. Kasm±? Duvińńeyyatt±. Acchama½sa½ hi s³karama½sasadisa½ hoti, d²pima½s±d²nipi migama½s±disadis±ni, tasm± pucchitv± gahaŗameva vattanti vadanti.
Haµµho udaggoti tuµµho ceva unnatak±yacitto ca hutv±. So kira “na bhagav± im±ni pańca vatth³ni anuj±n±ti, id±ni sakkhiss±mi saŖghabheda½ k±tun”ti kok±likassa iŖgit±k±ra½ dassetv± yath± visa½ v± kh±ditv± rajjuy± v± ubbandhitv± sattha½ v± ±haritv± marituk±mo puriso vis±d²su ańńatara½ labhitv± tappaccay± ±sannampi maraŗadukkha½ aj±nanto haµµho udaggo hoti; evameva saŖghabhedapaccay± ±sannampi av²cimhi nibbattitv± paµisa½vedan²ya½ dukkha½ aj±nanto “laddho d±ni me saŖghabhedassa up±yo”ti haµµho udaggo sapariso uµµh±y±san± teneva haµµhabh±vena bhagavanta½ abhiv±detv± padakkhiŗa½ katv± pakk±mi.
Te maya½ imehi pańcahi vatth³hi sam±d±ya vatt±m±ti ettha pana “im±ni pańca vatth³n²”ti vattabbepi te maya½ imehi pańcahi vatth³hi jana½ sańń±pess±m±ti abhiŗha½ parivitakkavasena vibhattivipall±sa½ asallakkhetv± abhiŗha½ parivitakk±nur³pameva “te maya½ imehi pańcahi vatth³h²”ti ±ha, yath± ta½ vikkhittacitto.
Dhut± sallekhavuttinoti y± paµipad± kilese dhun±ti, t±ya samann±gatatt± dhut±. Y± ca kilese sallikhati, s± etesa½ vutt²ti sallekhavuttino.
B±hulikoti c²var±d²na½ paccay±na½ bahulabh±vo b±hulla½, ta½ b±hullamassa atthi, tasmi½ v± b±hulle niyutto µhitoti b±huliko. B±hull±ya cetet²ti b±hulatt±ya ceteti kappeti pakappeti. Kathańhi n±ma mayhańca s±vak±nańca c²var±d²na½ paccay±na½ bahulabh±vo bhaveyy±ti eva½ ussukkam±pannoti adhipp±yo. Cakkabhed±y±ti ±ŗ±bhed±ya.
Dhammi½ katha½ katv±ti khandhake vuttanayena “ala½, devadatta, m± te rucci saŖghabhedo. Garuko kho, devadatta, saŖghabhedo. Yo kho, devadatta, samagga½ saŖgha½ bhindati, kappaµµhika½ kibbisa½ pasavati, kappa½ nirayamhi paccati, yo ca kho, devadatta, bhinna½ saŖgha½ samagga½ karoti, brahma½ puńńa½ pasavati, kappa½ saggamhi modat²”ti (c³¼ava. 343) evam±dika½ anekappak±ra½ devadattassa ca bhikkh³nańca tadanucchavika½ tadanulomika½ dhammi½ katha½ katv±.
411. Samaggass±ti sahitassa cittena ca sar²rena ca aviyuttass±ti attho. Padabh±janepi hi ayameva attho dassito. Sam±nasa½v±sakoti hi vadat± cittena aviyogo dassito hoti. Sam±nas²m±ya½ µhitoti vadat± sar²rena. Katha½? Sam±nasa½v±sako hi laddhin±n±sa½v±sakena v± kamman±n±sa½v±sakena v± virahito samacittat±ya cittena aviyutto hoti. Sam±nas²m±ya½ µhito k±yas±maggid±nato sar²rena aviyutto.
Bhedanasa½vattanika½ v± adhikaraŗanti bhedanassa saŖghabhedassa atth±ya sa½vattanika½ k±raŗa½. Imasmińhi ok±se “k±mahetu k±manid±na½ k±m±dhikaraŗan”ti-±d²su (ma. ni. 1.168) viya k±raŗa½ adhikaraŗanti adhippeta½. Tańca yasm± aµµh±rasavidha½ hoti, tasm± padabh±jane “aµµh±rasa bhedakaravatth³n²”ti vutta½. T±ni pana “idh³p±li, bhikkhu adhamma½ dhammoti d²pet²”ti-±din± (c³¼ava. 352) nayena khandhake ±gat±ni, tasm± tatreva nesa½ attha½ vaŗŗayiss±ma. Yopi c±ya½ im±ni vatth³ni niss±ya aparehipi kammena, uddesena, voh±rena, anus±van±ya, sal±kagg±hen±ti pańcahi k±raŗehi saŖghabhedo hoti, tampi ±gataµµh±neyeva pak±sayiss±ma. SaŖkhepato pana bhedanasa½vattanika½ v± adhikaraŗa½ sam±d±y±ti ettha saŖghabhedassa atth±ya sa½vattanika½ saŖghabhedanipphattisamattha½ k±raŗa½ gahetv±ti evamattho veditabbo. Paggayh±ti paggahita½ abbhussita½ p±kaµa½ katv±. Tiµµheyy±ti yath±sam±dinna½ yath±paggahitameva ca katv± accheyya Yasm± pana eva½ paggaŗhat± tiµµhat± ca ta½ d²pitańceva appaµinissaµµhańca hoti, tasm± padabh±jane “d²peyy±”ti ca “nappaµinissajjeyy±”ti ca vutta½.
Bhikkh³hi evamassa vacan²yoti ańńehi lajj²hi bhikkh³hi eva½ vattabbo bhaveyya. Padabh±jane cassa ye passant²ti ye sammukh± paggayha tiµµhanta½ passanti. Ye suŗant²ti yepi “asukasmi½ n±ma vih±re bhikkh³ bhedanasa½vattanika½ adhikaraŗa½ sam±d±ya paggayha tiµµhant²”ti suŗanti.
Samet±yasm± saŖghen±ti ±yasm± saŖghena saddhi½ sametu sam±gacchatu ekaladdhiko hot³ti attho. Ki½ k±raŗ±? Samaggo hi saŖgho sammodam±no avivadam±no ekuddeso ph±su viharat²ti.
Tattha sammodam±noti ańńamańńa½ sampattiy± saµµhu modam±no. Avivadam±noti “aya½ dhammo, n±ya½ dhammo”ti eva½ na vivadam±no. Eko uddeso ass±ti ekuddeso, ekato pavattap±timokkhuddeso, na visunti attho. Ph±su viharat²ti sukha½ viharati.
Icceta½ kusalanti eta½ paµinissajjana½ kusala½ khema½ sotthibh±vo tassa bhikkhuno. No ce paµinissajjati ±patti dukkaµass±ti tikkhattu½ vuttassa appaµinissajjato dukkaµa½. Sutv± na vadanti ±patti dukkaµass±ti ye sutv± na vadanti, tesampi dukkaµa½. K²vad³re sutv± avadant±na½ dukkaµa½? Ekavih±re t±va vattabba½ natthi. Aµµhakath±ya½ pana vutta½ “samant± addhayojane bhikkh³na½ bh±ro. D³ta½ v± paŗŗa½ v± pesetv± vadatopi ±pattimokkho natthi. Sayameva gantv± ‘garuko kho, ±vuso, saŖghabhedo m± saŖghabhed±ya, parakkam²’ti niv±retabbo”ti. Pahontena pana d³rampi gantabba½ agil±n±nańhi d³repi bh±royeva.
Id±ni “evańca so bhikkhu bhikkh³hi vuccam±no”ti-±d²su atthamattameva dassetu½ “so bhikkhu saŖghamajjhampi ±ka¹¹hitv± vattabbo”ti-±dim±ha. Tattha saŖghamajjhampi ±ka¹¹hitv±ti sace purimanayena vuccam±no na paµinissajjati hatthesu ca p±desu ca gahetv±pi saŖghamajjha½ ±ka¹¹hitv± punapi “m± ±yasm±”ti-±din± nayena tikkhattu½ vattabbo.
Y±vatatiya½ samanubh±sitabboti y±va tatiya½ samanubh±sana½ t±va samanubh±sitabbo. T²hi samanubh±sanakammav±c±hi kamma½ k±tabbanti vutta½ hoti. Padabh±jane panassa atthameva gahetv± samanubh±sanavidhi½ dassetu½ “so bhikkhu samanubh±sitabbo. Evańca pana, bhikkhave, samanubh±sitabbo”ti-±di vutta½.
414. Tattha ńattiy± dukkaµa½ dv²hi kammav±c±hi thullaccay± paµippassambhant²ti yańca ńattipariyos±ne dukkaµa½ ±panno, ye ca dv²hi kammav±c±hi thullaccaye, t± tissopi ±pattiyo “yassa nakkhamati so bh±seyy±”ti eva½ yya-k±rappattamatt±ya tatiyakammav±c±ya paµippassambhanti saŖgh±disesoyeva tiµµhati. Ki½ pana ±pann±pattiyo paµippassambhanti an±pann±ti? Mah±sumatthero t±va vadati “yo avas±ne paµinissajjissati, so t± ±pattiyo na ±pajjati, tasm± an±pann± paµippassambhant²”ti. Mah±padumatthero pana liŖgaparivattena as±dh±raŗ±pattiyo viya ±pann± paµippassambhanti, an±pann±na½ ki½ paµippassaddhiy±”ti ±ha.
415. Dhammakamme dhammakammasańń²ti tańce samanubh±sanakamma½ dhammakamma½ hoti, tasmi½ dhammakammasańń²ti attho. Esa nayo sabbattha. Idha sańń± na rakkhati, kammassa dhammikatt± eva appaµinissajjanto ±pajjati.
416. Asamanubh±santass±ti asamanubh±siyam±nassa appaµinissajjantass±pi saŖgh±disesena an±patti.
Paµinissajjantass±ti ńattito pubbe v± ńattikkhaŗe v± ńattipariyos±ne v± paµham±ya v± anus±van±ya dutiy±ya v± tatiy±ya v± y±va yya-k±ra½ na samp±puŗ±ti, t±va paµinissajjantassa saŖgh±disesena an±patti.
¾dikammikass±ti. Ettha pana “devadatto samaggassa saŖghassa bhed±ya parakkami, tasmi½ vatthusmin”ti pariv±re (pari. 17) ±gatatt± devadatto ±dikammiko. So ca kho saŖghabhed±ya parakkamanasseva, na appaµinissajjanassa. Na hi tassa ta½ kamma½ kata½. Kathamida½ j±nitabbanti ce? Suttato. Yath± hi “ariµµho bhikkhu gaddhab±dhipubbo y±vatatiya½ samanubh±san±ya na paµinissajji, tasmi½ vatthusmin”ti pariv±re (pari. 121) ±gatatt± ariµµhassa kamma½ katanti pańń±yati, na tath± devadattassa. Ath±pissa katena bhavitabbanti koci attano rucimattena vadeyya, tath±pi appaµinissajjane ±dikammikassa an±patti n±ma natthi. Na hi pańńatta½ sikkh±pada½ v²tikkamantassa ańńatra uddissa anuńń±tato an±patti n±ma dissati. Yampi ariµµhasikkh±padassa an±pattiya½ “±dikammikass±”ti potthakesu likhita½, ta½ pam±dalikhita½. Pam±dalikhitabh±vo cassa “paµhama½ ariµµho bhikkhu codetabbo, codetv± s±retabbo, s±retv± ±patti½ ropetabbo”ti (c³¼ava. 65) eva½ kammakkhandhake ±pattiropanavacanato veditabbo.
Iti bhed±ya parakkamane ±dikammikassa devadattassa yasm± ta½ kamma½ na kata½, tasm±ssa ±pattiyeva na j±t±. Sikkh±pada½ pana ta½ ±rabbha pańńattanti katv± “±dikammiko”ti vutto. Iti ±pattiy± abh±vatoyevassa an±patti vutt±. S± panes± kińc±pi asamanubh±santass±ti imin±va siddh±, yasm± pana asamanubh±santo n±ma yassa kevala½ samanubh±sana½ na karonti, so vuccati, na ±dikammiko. Ayańca devadatto ±dikammikoyeva, tasm± “±dikammikass±”ti vutta½. Etenup±yena µhapetv± ariµµhasikkh±pada½ sabbasamanubh±san±su vinicchayo veditabbo. Sesa½ sabbattha utt±nameva.
Samuµµh±n±d²su tivaŖgika½ ekasamuµµh±na½, samanubh±sanasamuµµh±na½ n±mameta½, k±yav±c±cittato samuµµh±ti. Paµinissajj±m²ti k±yavik±ra½ v± vac²bheda½ v± akarontasseva pana ±pajjanato akiriya½, sańń±vimokkha½, sacittaka½, lokavajja½, k±yakamma½, vac²kamma½, akusalacitta½, dukkhavedananti.

PaµhamasaŖghabhedasikkh±padavaŗŗan± niµµhit±.